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Cosmetics, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
The Anti-Aging Potential of Extracts from Chaenomeles sinensis
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
The Chaenomeles sinensis fruit is used as an effective antitussive agent, analgesic, and diuretic in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been reported that C. sinensis fruit extracts have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there are very few reports about the effects of C. [...] Read more.
The Chaenomeles sinensis fruit is used as an effective antitussive agent, analgesic, and diuretic in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been reported that C. sinensis fruit extracts have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there are very few reports about the effects of C. sinensis extracts on skin. In this study, we investigated the effect of C. sinensis extracts on skin aging. The results of in vitro assays showed that whole fruit extracts of C. sinensis had superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and inhibited the activity of dermal extracellular matrix proteases: Elastase and collagenase. The inhibitory effect of the whole fruit (containing seeds) extract on elastase activity was higher than that of the sarcocarp (seeds removed) extract. Further, the sarcocarp extract showed a higher level of SOD-like activity and a greater inhibitory effect on collagenase activity than the whole fruit extract. In particular, among the three activities studied, the sarcocarp extract showed the most significant inhibitory effect on collagenase activity at low concentrations. The polyphenol-rich fraction obtained from the sarcocarp showed significant collagenase inhibition. Based on these results, we concluded that phenolic compounds from C. sinensis sarcocarp have the potential to protect against skin aging through anti-collagenase activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Noninvasive Skin Barrier Assessment: Multiparametric Approach and Pilot Study
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
The epidermal barrier function is disrupted in various inflammatory skin diseases. Accurate methods to measure skin barrier function are needed to assess the effect of therapeutic agents. Therefore, we developed a noninvasive multiparametric approach to measure four different parameters regarding the skin barrier. [...] Read more.
The epidermal barrier function is disrupted in various inflammatory skin diseases. Accurate methods to measure skin barrier function are needed to assess the effect of therapeutic agents. Therefore, we developed a noninvasive multiparametric approach to measure four different parameters regarding the skin barrier. In the current pilot study, we evaluate this method in 14 healthy volunteers. We assessed erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), water content, and epidermal thickness at both cheeks before and 30 min after application of Lanette and Vaseline-Lanette cream. For this, we used spectrophotometry, the Aquaflux device, the Epsilon device, and reflection confocal microscopy, respectively. Stratum corneum (SC) thickness was significantly increased after application of both creams (p < 0.05), and this increase was larger after Lanette cream compared to after Vaseline-Lanette cream (p = 0.035). Erythema, TEWL, and water content did not significantly change after cream application. Our multiparametric approach is promising and offers a feasible and practical way to quickly obtain multifaceted information about skin barrier function. Further exploration of this approach after prolonged use of cream and in conditions of disrupted skin barrier are recommended areas for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Barrier Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Review of Modern Techniques for the Assessment of Skin Hydration
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
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Abstract
Skin hydration is a complex process that influences the physical and mechanical properties of skin. Various technologies have emerged over the years to assess this parameter, with the current standard being electrical probe-based instruments. Nevertheless, their inability to provide detailed information has prompted [...] Read more.
Skin hydration is a complex process that influences the physical and mechanical properties of skin. Various technologies have emerged over the years to assess this parameter, with the current standard being electrical probe-based instruments. Nevertheless, their inability to provide detailed information has prompted the use of sophisticated spectroscopic and imaging methodologies, which are capable of in-depth skin analysis that includes structural and composition details. Modern imaging and spectroscopic techniques have transformed skin research in the dermatological and cosmetics disciplines, and are now commonly employed in conjunction with traditional methods for comprehensive assessment of both healthy and pathological skin. This article reviews current techniques employed in measuring skin hydration, and gives an account on their principle of operation and applications in skin-related research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Is There a Relationship between Transepidermal Water Loss and Microbial Biodiversity on the Skin?
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
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Abstract
As described in previous work, TEWL (transepidermal water loss) is used as an indicator of skin barrier function and health by scientists at top research institutions. However, it is known to be unreliable because many other factors determine its value, such as humidity, [...] Read more.
As described in previous work, TEWL (transepidermal water loss) is used as an indicator of skin barrier function and health by scientists at top research institutions. However, it is known to be unreliable because many other factors determine its value, such as humidity, temperature and moisture content of the skin. In this study, to help elucidate whether it is a good indicator of the health of skin, we used bivariate linear correlation analysis and the Pearson correlation coefficient to compare values of skin microbial biodiversity with TEWL. In 2017 in our previous work, microbial biodiversity was found to currently be the only reliable indicator of skin health. Diversity was also compared with moisture content and pH, along with TEWL vs. moisture. All data was taken from the use of human participants in our previous work in 2018. Results showed no linear correlation between microbial biodiversity and TEWL rates or any of the other variables. This suggests the need for researchers to make conclusions about TEWL rates and their meaning with regards to skin function and health, with caution. Future work should consider the possibility of non-linear relationships, use larger datasets and mitigate against the effect of non-normally distributed data. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
The Potential Application of Spring Sargassum glaucescens Extracts in the Moisture-Retention of Keratinocytes and Dermal Fibroblast Regeneration after UVA-Irradiation
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
Sargassum glaucescens is a marine brown alga with high antioxidant activity. To evaluate the potential application of Sargassum glaucescens extracts (SGE) in skincare, we performed in vitro assays in dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes. The antioxidant activity of SGE was confirmed by the [...] Read more.
Sargassum glaucescens is a marine brown alga with high antioxidant activity. To evaluate the potential application of Sargassum glaucescens extracts (SGE) in skincare, we performed in vitro assays in dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes. The antioxidant activity of SGE was confirmed by the suppression of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in dermal fibroblasts and in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. In the wound healing assay, application of 2 mg/ml SGE stimulated the wound closure of CCD-966SK fibroblasts by a 2.95-fold in comparison to the control. Furthermore, treatment with SGE of concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1 mg/ml promoted CCD-966SK cell regeneration after UVA irradiation. At the molecular level, 1 mg/ml SGE induced expressions of anti-oxidative genes SOD1 (Superoxide dismutase 1) and GPX1 (Glutathione peroxidase 1), and DNA repair regulatory genes XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1) and ERCC6 (Excision repair cross-complementation Group 6) in CCD-966SK cells after UVA irradiation. Therefore, SGE displayed beneficial effects on cell regeneration and the protection of dermal cells against UVA irradiation. In epidermal cells, SGE stimulated the cell proliferation of human primary epidermal keratinocytes. Application of 0.03125 mg/ml SGE induced the expressions of skin barrier-related genes TGM1 (Transglutaminase 1), KRT10 (Keratin 10) and KRT14 in keratinocytes. Meanwhile, SGE induced the gene expression of FLG (Filaggrin), which promoted the production of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) for maintaining the moisture and barrier functions of skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-aging Properties of Natural Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
Composite Wound Dressing Based on Chitin/Chitosan Nanofibers: Processing and Biomedical Applications
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
An electrospinning technique was used for the preparation of a bilayered wound dressing consisting of a layer of aliphatic copolyamide nanofibers and a layer of composite nanofibers from chitosan and chitin nanofibrils filler. Processed dressings were compared with aliphatic copolyamide nanofiber-based wound dressings [...] Read more.
An electrospinning technique was used for the preparation of a bilayered wound dressing consisting of a layer of aliphatic copolyamide nanofibers and a layer of composite nanofibers from chitosan and chitin nanofibrils filler. Processed dressings were compared with aliphatic copolyamide nanofiber-based wound dressings and control groups. Experimental studies (in vivo treatment of third-degree burns with this dressing) demonstrated that almost complete (up to 97.8%) epithelialization of the wound surface had been achieved within 28 days. Planimetric assessment demonstrated a significant acceleration of the wound healing process. Histological analysis of scar tissue indicated the presence of a significant number of microvessels and a low number of infiltrate cells. In the target group, there were no deaths or purulent complications, whereas in the control group these occurred in 25% and 59.7% of cases, respectively—and, in the copolyamide group, 0% and 11%, respectively. The obtained data show the high efficiency of application of the developed composite chitosan‒copolyamide wound dressings for the treatment of burn wounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy and Safety of an Oral Nutritional (Dietary) Supplement Containing Pinus pinaster Bark Extract and Grape Seed Extract in Combination with a High SPF Sunscreen in the Treatment of Mild-to-Moderate Melasma: A Prospective Clinical Study
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Background: Melasma is a common hyperpigmentation disorder, characterized by light-to-dark brown patches, usually distributed on sun-exposed areas of the body. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of an oral nutritional supplement containing Pinus pinaster and Grape seed [...] Read more.
Background: Melasma is a common hyperpigmentation disorder, characterized by light-to-dark brown patches, usually distributed on sun-exposed areas of the body. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of an oral nutritional supplement containing Pinus pinaster and Grape seed extract, vitamins and minerals, used concomitantly with a high SPF sunscreen in 30 women with mild-to-moderate facial melasma. Methods: Efficacy was assessed by measurement of the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI), instrumental analysis of the lesions (Mexameter®, VISIA®)) and Patient’s and Physician’s Global Assessment (PGA). Results: The MASI score decreased significantly compared with baseline at days 28, 56, and 84. Mexameter® analysis showed a significant decrease of ∆M (difference in the melanin index between melasma and adjacent area). VISIA® results also showed a reduction in the number and areas of UV pigmented spots and in the areas of melasma overtime. Both the Patient’s and Physician’s Global Assessment showed that the product led to an improvement of the lesions in terms of depigmentation and had positive cosmetic features without adverse events. Conclusion: The oral supplement subject of this study in combination with high SPF sunscreen was effective and well-tolerated for treatment of mild to moderate facial melasma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanogenesis and Melanin-Related Compounds: A Cosmetic Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Skin Retention of Sorbates from an After Sun Formulation for a Broad Photoprotection
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Overexposure to sunlight is widely accepted as the underlying cause of cutaneous melanoma. UV radiation induces the formation of DNA photoproducts that, if unrepaired, can induce carcinogenic mutations. Recent data indicate that sorbates can be useful to widen the protection against UV radiation [...] Read more.
Overexposure to sunlight is widely accepted as the underlying cause of cutaneous melanoma. UV radiation induces the formation of DNA photoproducts that, if unrepaired, can induce carcinogenic mutations. Recent data indicate that sorbates can be useful to widen the protection against UV radiation by acting as a triplet-state quencher in the melanocyte. The aim of the present work was to prepare an after sun formulation containing ethylsorbate or sorbic acid in order to take advantage of the triplet-state quenching activity of these molecules and protect the skin from UV-induced damages. Ethylsorbate and sorbic acid were characterized in terms of solubility and partition coefficient, and their transdermal permeation and skin accumulation were studied in vitro from simple solutions and in the presence of cyclodextrins (alpha and hydroxypropylbeta) as a complexing agent. The goal was to reduce as much as possible sorbates permeation while sustaining their skin levels. The obtained results indicated that the addition of alphacyclodextrins determined a 6-folds (ethylsorbate ) or 4-folds (sorbic acid) reduction of the transdermal permeation. Sorbic acid and alphacyclodextrin (1:1 molar ratio) were then formulated in an after sun vehicle using 1.5% hyaluronic acid (sodium salt) as a thickener and hydrating agent. The addition of hyaluronic acid gave rise to a formulation with good cosmetic properties and good sorbate (0.2–0.3 µmol/cm2) skin levels (stratum corneum + viable epidermis) and thus a potential protection against post-exposure UV damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topical Pharmaceutical Products and Cosmetics)
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Open AccessReview
Hair Care Cosmetics: From Traditional Shampoo to Solid Clay and Herbal Shampoo, A Review
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
Hair is an important part of the body appeal and its look is a health indicator. Accordingly, recent advances in hair science and hair care technologies have been reported in literature claiming innovations and strategies for hair treatments and cosmetic products. The treatment [...] Read more.
Hair is an important part of the body appeal and its look is a health indicator. Accordingly, recent advances in hair science and hair care technologies have been reported in literature claiming innovations and strategies for hair treatments and cosmetic products. The treatment of hair and scalp, primarily, involved the use of shampoo for an effective, but gentle cleansing; however, for years, the shampoo is considered not only as a cosmetic product having the purifying purpose, but it is also responsible for maintaining the health and the beauty of hair, imparting gloss and improving manageability. For meeting the needs of a multitasking formulation, following also the recent marketing-trend addressed to the "natural world", new challenges for cosmetic technology are aimed towards the research of natural ingredients, as well as new techniques for shampoo formulation. Regarding the recent development of solid shampoos, little information is available about their use, formulation and advantages. This review is largely focused on the description of solid shampoos, mainly based on the use of clays, herbs or flours as washing bases alternative to the traditional ones, consisting of a combination of synthetic surfactants, together with other usual ingredients expected in a shampoo formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of the Physicochemical Properties of Stabilized Oil-In-Water Emulsions Using Different Cationic Surfactant Blends for Potential Use in the Cosmetic Industry
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
One of the most complex problems in hair care formulations is the duality of the surfactants used. In this regard, such surfactants must be cationic so as to interact with the negatively charged cuticle surface of hair. However, these interdependencies typically lead to [...] Read more.
One of the most complex problems in hair care formulations is the duality of the surfactants used. In this regard, such surfactants must be cationic so as to interact with the negatively charged cuticle surface of hair. However, these interdependencies typically lead to non-ideal values for the required hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) in the oil phase. This study was designed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of several oil-in-water emulsion prototypes for the potential use in hair conditioners. Here, a base formulation was utilized, incorporating binary mixtures of cationic surfactants in different proportions. The cationic surfactants employed were hydroxyethyl-behenamidopropyl-diammonium chloride, behentrimonium methosulphate, cetrimonium chloride, and (iv) Polyquaterniumpolyquaternium-70. The surfactants were evaluated for their capability to decrease the surface tension in an aqueous solution through contact angle measurements between the oily phase and the aqueous phase. The required HLB of the oil phase was also determined. The emulsification process was developed using standard preparation methods. For three months, the prototypes with high viscosity were packed in containers and stored in a stability chamber at accelerated conditions (40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% RH). During this time, the size, size polydispersity, zeta potential, viscosity, rheological profile, and creaming index were all evaluated monthly. The results showed a slight change in the physical stability of the prototypes, where the droplet size increased moderately, however, did little to destabilize the formulations. This suggests that the mixtures of cationic surfactants used could be useful for technological developments in hair conditioning products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Alkenones, a Renewably Sourced, Biobased Wax as an SPF Booster for Organic Sunscreens
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Sun exposure can affect the skin in various ways leading to short- and long-term consequences. Waxes are often used to optimize the rheological behavior of products and provide an even sunscreen film on the skin, which can boost the sun protection factor (SPF) [...] Read more.
Sun exposure can affect the skin in various ways leading to short- and long-term consequences. Waxes are often used to optimize the rheological behavior of products and provide an even sunscreen film on the skin, which can boost the sun protection factor (SPF) of ultraviolet (UV) filters. In this study, a biobased wax, alkenones, sourced from commercially available and sustainable microalgae was evaluated as an SPF booster in sunscreens. Thirty-five sunscreens were formulated using three waxes and four organic liquid UV filters. Products were tested for pH, viscosity, spreadability, stability, as well as in vitro SPF and water resistance. Alkenones’ in vitro SPF boosting capacity was similar to beeswax and cetyl alcohol with three “reef-safe” UV filters. None of the waxes used provided significant water resistance, however, using film-former water resistance could be built into the products. A key finding is that alkenones increased the in vitro SPF without increasing apparent viscosity. All products had a skin-compatible pH and they all remained stable at 25 °C for 10 weeks. Overall, the alkenones’ performance was comparable to those of the comparator waxes. Our in vitro results indicate that alkenones offer a sustainable, biobased, non-animal derived choice as an SPF booster for organic sunscreens. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A New Carrier for Advanced Cosmeceuticals
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Cosmetic products are generally formulated as emulsions, ointments, solutions or powders containing active ingredients. According to EU legislation, a cosmetic product is “any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body with a [...] Read more.
Cosmetic products are generally formulated as emulsions, ointments, solutions or powders containing active ingredients. According to EU legislation, a cosmetic product is “any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning, perfuming them, changing their appearance, and/or correcting body odors and/or protecting them or keeping them in good conditions”. However, science advancement in both active carriers and ingredients has streamlined the process through which many cosmetic products by their delivery systems can induce modifications on the skin physiology. This is the reason why Reed and Kligman redefined these products as “cosmeceuticals”, which refers to the combination of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Until recently, the term of cosmeceuticals has not had legal significance. The so-called cosmeceuticals, in fact, may induce modifications on the skin physiology, modifying, for example, transepidermal water loss, keratinocytes cohesion and turnover, modulating the inflammatory cascade, and/or altering the surface microbiota by the activity of the preservatives content. For these reasons, they are claimed to have medical or drug-like benefits. Naturally, their effectiveness on minor skin disorders or mild skin abnormalities has to be shown by in vitro and in vivo studies. On the other hand, their formulations contain emulsifiers, preservatives, and other chemicals which, by their cumulative use, may provoke side effects, such as allergic and/or sensitization phenomena. Moreover, many ingredients and packaging for such products are not biodegradable. In this study, we would like to introduce an innovative category of cosmeceuticals made by biodegradable nonwoven tissues. These cosmeceutical tissues, produced through the use of natural fibers, may bind different active ingredients and therefore become effective as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, sun-protective, whitening, or anti-aging products, depending on the ingredient(s) used. Differently from the usual cosmetics, they do not contain preservatives, emulsifiers, colors, and other chemicals. They can be applied as dried tissue on wet skin, remaining in loco for around 30 min, slowly releasing the active ingredients entrapped into the fibers. It is interesting to underline that the tissue, acting as a carrier, has its own effectiveness via chitin and lignin polymers with an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. When hydrolyzed by the human microbiota enzymes, they give rise to ingredients used as cell nourishment or energy. This paper will review part of the scientific research results, supporting this new category of biodegradable cosmetic products known as facial mask sheets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inonotus obliquus Extract as An Inhibitor of α-MSH-Induced Melanogenesis in B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract
Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway that produces the pigment melanin in human skin. The catalyzation of the key enzyme tyrosinase is the first step in melanogenesis, and the downregulation of tyrosinase enzyme activity is the most reported method for inhibiting melanogenesis. Hyperpigmentation is [...] Read more.
Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway that produces the pigment melanin in human skin. The catalyzation of the key enzyme tyrosinase is the first step in melanogenesis, and the downregulation of tyrosinase enzyme activity is the most reported method for inhibiting melanogenesis. Hyperpigmentation is an important issue in the cosmetic industry, and there is great demand for melanogenesis inhibitors. In the present study, we demonstrated the anti-melanogenic effect of Inonotus obliquus in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and identified it as a new melanogenesis inhibitor. Comparing the B16F10 cells treated with the control and the Inonotus obliquus extract, we identified the melanin contents, mRNA and protein expression of tyrosinase, tyrosinase activity, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) activity using a constructed plasmid. Through these experiments, we confirmed that Inonotus obliquus extract inhibits melanin synthesis by downregulating the activity and expression of tyrosinase. Furthermore, we revealed that tyrosinase expression is regulated by Inonotus obliquus extract via the repression of Mitf transcriptional activity. Thus, in this study, we found that Inonotus obliquus extract has anti-melanogenic effects via the suppression of melanin synthesis. Taken together, we demonstrated that Inonotus obliquus extract is a good potential candidate for use as a natural source for the therapeutic treatment of hyperpigmentation and for applications in whitening cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanogenesis and Melanin-Related Compounds: A Cosmetic Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Design Methodology for the Development of a New Cosmetic Active Based on Prunus domestica L. Leaves Extract
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
When it comes to the development of new active ingredients for cosmetics, biodiversity is a rich source for inspiration that must be tapped in a sustainable manner to cause no social nor ecological damage. Agri-food by-products are therefore more and more considered as [...] Read more.
When it comes to the development of new active ingredients for cosmetics, biodiversity is a rich source for inspiration that must be tapped in a sustainable manner to cause no social nor ecological damage. Agri-food by-products are therefore more and more considered as available biomass that can be reused to extract their maximum value to produce new cosmetic ingredients before returning to the biosphere. The process to transform plant waste materials into powerful cosmetic actives is thoroughly described in the present paper via the example of the design of a liquid anti-aging ingredient based on a Prunus domestica L. extract obtained by maceration of plums’ dried leaves in propylene glycol. The subsequent development of an SPE (solid-phase extraction) methodology used to remove the propylene glycol to get access to the extracted molecules is thoroughly described as a means to follow the stability of the ingredient over time once formulated into a finished product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioactive Metabolites of the Stem Bark of Strychnos aff. darienensis and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant and UV Protection Activity in Human Skin Cell Cultures
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
The genus Strychnos (Loganiaceae) is well-known as a rich source of various bioactive metabolites. In continuation of our phytochemical studies on plants from Amazonia, we examined Strychnos aff. darienensis, collected in Peru. This species has been traditionally used in South America and [...] Read more.
The genus Strychnos (Loganiaceae) is well-known as a rich source of various bioactive metabolites. In continuation of our phytochemical studies on plants from Amazonia, we examined Strychnos aff. darienensis, collected in Peru. This species has been traditionally used in South America and is still presently used as a drug by the Yanesha tribe in Peru. Phytochemical investigation of this plant led to the isolation and structure elucidation by ΝuclearΜagnetic Resonance and High Resolution Mass Spectroscopy of 14 compounds that belong to the categories of phenolic acids [p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1) and vanillic acid (2)], flavonoids [luteolin, (3),3-O-methyl quercetin (4), strychnobiflavone (5), minaxin (6) and 3’,4’,7-trihydroxy-flavone (7)], lignans [syringaresinol-β-D-glucoside (8), balanophonin (9) and ficusal (10)] and alkaloids [venoterpine (11), 11-methoxyhenningsamine (12), diaboline (13) and 11-methoxy diaboline (14)]. The isolated flavonoids—a class known for its anti-aging activities—were further evaluated for their biological activities on normal human skin fibroblasts. Among them, only (6), and to a lesser extent (7), exhibited cytotoxicity at 100 µg/ml. All five flavonoids suppressed intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, either basal or following stimulation with hydrogen peroxide or both. Moreover, luteolin and strychnobiflavone protected skin fibroblasts against ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation-induced cell death. The isolated flavonoids could prove useful bioactive ingredients in the cosmetic industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-aging Properties of Natural Compounds)
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Open AccessReview
Role of PGE-2 and Other Inflammatory Mediators in Skin Aging and Their Inhibition by Topical Natural Anti-Inflammatories
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Human skin aging is due to two types of aging processes, “intrinsic” (chronological) aging and “extrinsic” (external factor mediated) aging. While inflammatory events, triggered mainly by sun exposure, but also by pollutants, smoking and stress, are the principle cause of rapid extrinsic aging, [...] Read more.
Human skin aging is due to two types of aging processes, “intrinsic” (chronological) aging and “extrinsic” (external factor mediated) aging. While inflammatory events, triggered mainly by sun exposure, but also by pollutants, smoking and stress, are the principle cause of rapid extrinsic aging, inflammation also plays a key role in intrinsic aging. Inflammatory events in the skin lead to a reduction in collagen gene activity but an increase in activity of the genes for matrix metalloproteinases. Inflammation also alters proliferation rates of cells in all skin layers, causes thinning of the epidermis, a flattening of the dermo-epidermal junction, an increase in irregular pigment production, and, finally, an increased incidence of skin cancer. While a large number of inflammatory mediators, including IL-1, TNF-alpha and PGE-2, are responsible for many of these damaging effects, this review will focus primarily on the role of PGE-2 in aging. Levels of this hormone-like mediator increase quickly when skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), causing changes in genes needed for normal skin structure and function. Further, PGE-2 levels in the skin gradually increase with age, regardless of whether or not the skin is protected from UVR, and this smoldering inflammation causes continuous damage to the dermal matrix. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, PGE-2 is strongly linked to skin cancer. This review will focus on: (1) the role of inflammation, and particularly the role of PGE-2, in accelerating skin aging, and (2) current research on natural compounds that inhibit PGE-2 production and how these can be developed into topical products to retard or even reverse the aging process, and to prevent skin cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Inflammation in Skin Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of Prototype Formulations for In Vitro Dermal Delivery of the Natural Antioxidant Ferulic Acid Based on Ethosomal Colloidal Systems
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
Ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring antioxidant, is currently used to prevent skin damage. However, FA is very unstable upon exposure to UV radiation and other factors, which decrease its shelf-life and effectiveness. Therefore, in this work, different prototypes of ethosomal FA vesicular [...] Read more.
Ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring antioxidant, is currently used to prevent skin damage. However, FA is very unstable upon exposure to UV radiation and other factors, which decrease its shelf-life and effectiveness. Therefore, in this work, different prototypes of ethosomal FA vesicular systems were designed and developed to provide protection against different environmental factors. A two-level fractional factorial design was employed using particle size, zeta potential (ZP), incorporation efficiency (EE), polydispersity index (PDI), and the existing relationship between length and width of vesicles or aspect ratio (AR) as response variables. The optimal formulation was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared analysis, UV-Vis absorption, in-vitro permeability, and thermal degradation studies. Depending on the processing conditions, the EE and particle size varied between 3 and 87% and 470 and 1208 nm, respectively. Membrane studies indicated that the free product released ~4.8% of the compound, whereas the encapsulated material released ~7.1%. Because of their enhanced permeability, ethosomes could be a promising alternative for the topical administration of antioxidants to reduce the oxidative damage caused by solar radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delivery Systems for Cosmetics)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in 2018
Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Contact Allergy to Fragrances: In Vitro Opportunities for Safety Assessment
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
The majority of cosmetic products contain fragrances to make products more pleasant to the consumer, as we all like goods that smell nice. Unfortunately, contact allergy to fragrance compounds is among the most frequent findings in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis. In [...] Read more.
The majority of cosmetic products contain fragrances to make products more pleasant to the consumer, as we all like goods that smell nice. Unfortunately, contact allergy to fragrance compounds is among the most frequent findings in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis. In order to revert this and to reduce contact allergy to cosmetics, it is imperative to improve safety assessment of cosmetic products for skin sensitization. In the era of animal ban for cosmetic ingredients, this represents a challenge. Luckily, in the last decades, substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the mechanism of chemical-induced contact allergy and several in vitro methods are available for hazard identification. The purpose of this manuscript is to explore the possibility of non-animal testing for quantitative risk assessment of fragrance-induced contact allergy, essential for cosmetic products, which cannot be tested on animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contact Allergy to Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Every-Day Cosmetics in Altering the Skin Microbiome: A Study Using Biodiversity
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
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Abstract
As described in previous work, the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics is postulated to be a cause of damage to the skin microbiome. The discovery that biodiversity on the human skin is currently the only reliable indicator of skin health, [...] Read more.
As described in previous work, the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics is postulated to be a cause of damage to the skin microbiome. The discovery that biodiversity on the human skin is currently the only reliable indicator of skin health, meant that for the first time, a mechanism to test for healthy skin was possible. Using this mechanism and in collaboration with The Medical University of Graz, who carried out the independent study, this work aimed to help answer whether modern day synthetic cosmetics are a main cause of long-term damage to the skin microbiome. Thirty-two human participants tested three different face washes for their effect on the skin’s microbial diversity, along with skin pH, moisture and TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss), washing twice-a-day for four weeks. The upper volar forearm of the volunteers was swabbed at the beginning, two weeks in and at the end of the four weeks. 16S rRNA sequencing was used. One leading ‘natural’ brand full of synthetic ingredients, a leading synthetic brand and a 100% natural face wash were used. Results give the first indications of a link between synthetic ingredients in a cosmetics product and its effect on skin microbiome biodiversity. It paves the way for future studies on the topic with a larger sample group, longer test period and standardised methodology to create a universal standard for testing the health of skin using benchmark diversity values. This can be used in the future to test the effectiveness of cosmetics or ingredients on skin health, leading to the restriction in cosmetics of products proven to harm the skin’s natural environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methylglyoxal, the Major Antibacterial Factor in Manuka Honey: An Alternative to Preserve Natural Cosmetics?
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
Microbial safety is an essential prerequisite of cosmetics, and preservatives are required to prevent product spoilage and damage to consumers’ health. Consumer concern about the safety of some cosmetic ingredients and the increasing demand for more natural beauty products has driven cosmetic industries [...] Read more.
Microbial safety is an essential prerequisite of cosmetics, and preservatives are required to prevent product spoilage and damage to consumers’ health. Consumer concern about the safety of some cosmetic ingredients and the increasing demand for more natural beauty products has driven cosmetic industries and formulators to find natural alternatives to replace synthetic preservatives currently used. In this study, methylglyoxal (MGO, the main factor responsible for the antimicrobial activity of manuka honey) was tested for antimicrobial activity against a panel of selected bacteria and mycetes by using conventional microbiological techniques (determination of M.I.C., time-kill assay), and its potential preservative in an O/W emulsion was investigated (challenge test). MGO showed a remarkable and fast antibacterial activity (M.I.C. values 0.150–0.310 mg/mL), while the inhibitory activity against fungi was less marked (M.I.C. values 1.25–10 mg/mL); chitosan has proven to be a synergist of antimicrobial effectiveness of MGO. Results of the challenge test showed that the addition of MGO to a cream formulation was efficient against microbial contamination. On the basis of our results, MGO appears to be a good candidate as a cosmetic preservative of natural origin; further studies are needed to confirm its applicability and its safety. Full article
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