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Resources, Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 17 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Ore grades have been declining globally over the last few decades. In this context, it is assumed [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Fusion of Remote Sensing and Applied Geophysics for Sinkholes Identification in Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco (the Causse of El Hajeb): Impact on the Protection of Water Resource
Resources 2020, 9(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040051 - 24 Apr 2020
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Abstract
The Causse of El Hajeb belongs to the Tabular Middle Atlas (TMA), in which thousands of karst landforms have been identified. Among them, collapse dolines and dissolution sinkholes have been highlighted as a source of environmental risks and geo-hazards. In particular, such sinkholes [...] Read more.
The Causse of El Hajeb belongs to the Tabular Middle Atlas (TMA), in which thousands of karst landforms have been identified. Among them, collapse dolines and dissolution sinkholes have been highlighted as a source of environmental risks and geo-hazards. In particular, such sinkholes have been linked to the degradation of water quality in water springs located in the junction of the TMA and Saïss basin. Furthermore, the developments of collapse dolines in agricultural and inhabited areas enhance the risk of life loss, injury, and property damage. Here, the lack of research on newly formed cavities has exacerbated the situation. The limited studies using remote sensing or geophysical methods to determine the degree of karstification and vulnerability of this environment fail to provide the spatial extent and depth location of individual karst cavities. In order to contribute to the effort of sinkhole risk reduction in TMA, we employed remote sensing and geophysical surveys to integrate electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) for subsurface characterization of four sinkholes identified in the Causse of El Hajeb. The results revealed the existence of sinkholes, both visible and non-accessible at the surface, in carbonate rocks. The sinkholes exhibited distinct morphologies, with depths reaching 35 m. Topography, geographic coordinates and land cover information extracted on remote sensing data demonstrated that these cavities were developed in depressions in which agricultural activities are regularly performed. The fusion of these methods benefits from remote sensing in geophysical surveys, particularly in acquisition, georeferencing, processing and interpretation of geophysical data. Furthermore, our proposed method allows identification of the protection perimeter required to minimize the risks posed by sinkholes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Digital Subterranean Models for Real-Time Open Cut Horizon Control
Resources 2020, 9(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040050 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 612
Abstract
A reliable coal seam sensing system is required to improve the productivity of selective mining in open-cut mining operations. A prototype system based upon commercial ground penetrating radar equipment, which measures coal thickness from the top of an exposed surface down to an [...] Read more.
A reliable coal seam sensing system is required to improve the productivity of selective mining in open-cut mining operations. A prototype system based upon commercial ground penetrating radar equipment, which measures coal thickness from the top of an exposed surface down to an underlying coal-interburden interface and generates digital subterranean models of the subsurface seam boundaries, was developed for this purpose. The models can be deployed to commercially available in-cab assistive guidance systems for bulldozers and other mining machinery in existing production processes, and can further contribute to the databases required for remote operation and control in a complete digital mine scenario. The system was evaluated at a production open cut coal mine in Queensland, Australia, with promising results. The benefits reported by operational personnel who evaluated the digital surface model in the mining environment provide strong motivation for ongoing technology development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mining Technology: The Digital Mine)
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Open AccessArticle
Grazing Management, Forage Production and Soil Carbon Dynamics
Resources 2020, 9(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040049 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Soil carbon pools remain a target for sequestering greenhouse gases, but appropriate land management options to achieve such sequestration remain uncertain. Livestock grazing can have profound positive or negative effects on soil carbon. Different models for assessing the influences of grazing are available, [...] Read more.
Soil carbon pools remain a target for sequestering greenhouse gases, but appropriate land management options to achieve such sequestration remain uncertain. Livestock grazing can have profound positive or negative effects on soil carbon. Different models for assessing the influences of grazing are available, but few explicitly account for different management options on soil organic carbon (SOC). Here, I link a previous simple SOC dynamic model (SNAP) to a recent model of episodic grazing and its effects on primary production. The resulting combined model, called SNAPGRAZE, assesses the potential effects of grazing management on SOC across a range of climates with only eight climate, soil, and management input variables. SNAPGRAZE predicts that, at high stocking densities relative to those sustainable under continuous grazing and at higher mean annual temperature and precipitation, short-duration, high stocking density (SDHSD) grazing schemes can enhance forage production and increase stocks of soil organic carbon. Model predictions for current SOC, given a known 50 year grazing history, agrees well with data from nine private ranches in the North American Great Plains. SNAPGRAZE may provide a framework for exploring the consequences of grazing management for forage production and soil carbon dynamics. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Towards Understanding Benefit Sharing between Extractive Industries and Indigenous/Local Communities in the Arctic
Resources 2020, 9(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040048 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 594
Abstract
The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a comprehensive view of the benefit sharing and compensation mechanisms for the Indigenous Peoples and local communities in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions due to industrial resource extraction. The papers cover the following topics: [...] Read more.
The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a comprehensive view of the benefit sharing and compensation mechanisms for the Indigenous Peoples and local communities in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions due to industrial resource extraction. The papers cover the following topics: (1) Benefit-sharing frameworks in the Arctic. (2) Corporate social responsibility standards and benefit sharing by extractive industries in the Arctic. (3) Benefit sharing and international and national legislation. (4) The practice of implementing legislation to support Indigenous and local interests. (5) The methodologies for assessing compensation to Indigenous communities from extractive industries. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Feeding the Future with the Past: Incorporating Local Ecological Knowledge in River Restoration
Resources 2020, 9(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040047 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Despite many years of experience in the river restoration field, which has become one of the most promising areas of water resources management, significant challenges and problems remain. These include the scope and scale of restoration measures, developing the reference model, assessment of [...] Read more.
Despite many years of experience in the river restoration field, which has become one of the most promising areas of water resources management, significant challenges and problems remain. These include the scope and scale of restoration measures, developing the reference model, assessment of restoration success, and the engagement of local stakeholders. Progress in addressing these challenges to river restoration could be achieved by changes in current approaches through the appreciation and integration of local communities and their local ecological knowledge (LEK). The results of discussion on ecological restoration indicate that ecological knowledge, which combines the interests of local communities and the environment, could be used in restoration projects. However, in the case of river restoration, this type of knowledge is systematically overlooked. In our paper, we discuss common river restoration problems and supportive elements that may be found in LEK. We conclude that the local stakeholders’ involvement and strong establishment of their position in the river restoration processes should be reconsidered. We believe that the application of LEK has large potential for improving water resources management and restoration of aquatic ecosystems and remains a key factor in a successful future of river restoration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hunting in Extremadura—Profiles of the Hunter on the Basis of His Movements
Resources 2020, 9(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040046 - 21 Apr 2020
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Hunters make a large number of trips during the hunting season all over the world due to the irregular distribution of hunting species. The proliferation of this kind of travel gives rise to the origin of a new kind of specific tourism, i.e., [...] Read more.
Hunters make a large number of trips during the hunting season all over the world due to the irregular distribution of hunting species. The proliferation of this kind of travel gives rise to the origin of a new kind of specific tourism, i.e., hunting tourism. Currently, the economic magnitude of this kind of travel has led to carrying out numerous studies on the subject. It has, however, been observed that most of them concentrate on the economic and environmental aspects of this activity and neglect a parameter as important as demand. Becoming familiar with the characteristics of the hunting traveller allows more appropriate management of this kind of tourism. It is for this reason that this study approaches the various profiles of hunting travellers residing in Extremadura and determines the most important characteristics of their movements. The main source of information for this research is the results obtained from distributing a questionnaire during a period of one year. These data have been processed by univariate and bivariate statistical techniques, which allow us to obtain groundbreaking results. These include, in particular, the considerable mobility of the hunter resident in Extremadura, who makes a large number of trips in order to hunt during the season, and the relationship between the number of days hunters travel, according to their income. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Remnant Coal Detection System
Resources 2020, 9(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040045 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 569
Abstract
This paper describes the development and successful implementation of a system designed to detect coal deposits remaining in coal train wagons after unloading (dumping). These undesirable coal deposits constitute both small residual amounts of “carryback”, but also larger “hang-ups” of significant volume that [...] Read more.
This paper describes the development and successful implementation of a system designed to detect coal deposits remaining in coal train wagons after unloading (dumping). These undesirable coal deposits constitute both small residual amounts of “carryback”, but also larger “hang-ups” of significant volume that have failed to discharge. The system was originally developed simply to detect and record volumes of carryback, as part of an effort to characterise the extent of the problem for the coal transport industry, but was then enhanced to provide real-time feedback of large hang-ups so that they could be discharged prior to the wagons exiting the dump station. The paper describes the hardware and processing systems used in the system, including the different strategies employed to ensure a reliable detection system. The system has now been installed and operated in a production environment at three dump stations across two different coal terminals, and a case study of the results from one of these dump stations is presented. Automating remnant coal detection at dump stations provides short interval control to minimise potential hazards and downtime, and historical data that may be integrated into existing data platforms and analysed for productivity, environmental, and safety planning insights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mining Technology: The Digital Mine)
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Open AccessArticle
Historical, Current, and Future Energy Demand from Global Copper Production and Its Impact on Climate Change
Resources 2020, 9(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040044 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 985
Abstract
Copper has always played an important role in human development. Demand for copper is going to rise, which makes its future supply a key issue for society. However, the oft-discussed declining ore grade and, therefore, the assumed enormous increase in energy demand and [...] Read more.
Copper has always played an important role in human development. Demand for copper is going to rise, which makes its future supply a key issue for society. However, the oft-discussed declining ore grade and, therefore, the assumed enormous increase in energy demand and global warming potential could lead to a supply constraint. To develop suitable strategies to ensure copper availability, it is important to better understand the relationship between energy and ore grade and also its development. Therefore, in this paper we describe the development of the cumulative energy demand of copper production over the last eight decades and give an outlook into the future using a holistic process-based modelling approach. We also discuss how technological progress has thus far been able to offset the decreasing ore grade. However, if geological factors are becoming less favorable, technological improvements such as renewable energies are vital to keep this trend going. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling of Vanished Historic Mining Landscape Features as a Part of Digital Cultural Heritage and Possibilities of Its Use in Mining Tourism (Case Study: Gelnica Town, Slovakia)
Resources 2020, 9(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040043 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 653
Abstract
The study provides a methodology for 3D model processing of historic mining landscape, and its features as mining digital cultural heritage with the possibility of using new visualization means in mining tourism. Historic mining landscapes around the towns of Gelnica (eastern Slovakia) had [...] Read more.
The study provides a methodology for 3D model processing of historic mining landscape, and its features as mining digital cultural heritage with the possibility of using new visualization means in mining tourism. Historic mining landscapes around the towns of Gelnica (eastern Slovakia) had been chosen for the case study. The underground mining spaces around Gelnica, which are currently inaccessible to clients of mining tourism, were processed using 3D modeling. Historically, correctly processed 3D models of mining spaces enable customers of mining tourism to virtually travel not only in space, but what is most important, in time as well. The up-to-date computer-generated virtual mining heritage in the form of 3D models can be viewed via the Internet from different perspectives and angles. The models created this way are currently the latest trend in developing mining tourism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Systems Engineering Approach to Slope Stability Monitoring in the Digital Mine
Resources 2020, 9(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040042 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Slope stability monitoring in open cut mining is increasingly based on the use of a variety of different sensors and associated analytics, each capable of providing part of the understanding required to manage complex geotechnical environments. Designing an integrated monitoring system that is [...] Read more.
Slope stability monitoring in open cut mining is increasingly based on the use of a variety of different sensors and associated analytics, each capable of providing part of the understanding required to manage complex geotechnical environments. Designing an integrated monitoring system that is both attainable and fit for purpose can therefore be particularly challenging. In this paper, a systems engineering approach based on a novel methodology is presented to design the slope monitoring system. The methodology uses the rock engineering systems (RES) approach to system decomposition for geotechnical engineering problems, to determine the critical rock mass behaviours requiring monitoring. It follows this with the application of the system theoretic process analysis (STPA) approach, to design the control system for the monitoring system and identify and mitigate sub-optimal configurations. We demonstrate that the approach is practical to implement and supports transparent and defensible decision making for designing and implementing slope monitor systems. We apply the method to the design of a monitoring system for an Australian coal mine and demonstrate how the approach can facilitate the identification and design of new sensing modalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mining Technology: The Digital Mine)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability in Maritime Sector: Waste Management Alternatives Evaluated in a Circular Carbon Economy Perspective
Resources 2020, 9(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040041 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Sustainability and waste management on board are key issues that need to be addressed by the maritime sector also in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). With the aim of evaluating waste management alternatives in a circular economy perspective, the study examines a [...] Read more.
Sustainability and waste management on board are key issues that need to be addressed by the maritime sector also in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). With the aim of evaluating waste management alternatives in a circular economy perspective, the study examines a combined system for the optimisation of ship waste management and assesses its possible use for energy purposes. Different systems are analysed in relation to their GHG emission reduction potential regardless of routes and ports of destination. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis was carried out on waste management alternatives in order to preliminary identify their potential in terms of GHG emissions reduction, cost, environmental sustainability, methodological coherence, feasibility and replicability. Following this analysis, two case studies of particular interest were identified: (1) the thermo-chemical treatment of waste oils and sludge to obtain fuel oils; (2) the installation of a waste-to-energy plant and subsequent energy recovery on board. UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) methodologies were applied to these two case studies to calculate GHG emission reduction resulting from their implementation. The obtained results are presented with the aim of supporting sustainable waste management strategies on board in a circular carbon economy perspective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Ecosystem Services for Marine Planning: A UK Case Study
Resources 2020, 9(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040040 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 765
Abstract
This study presents an ecosystem-services-mapping tool that calculates the monetary value of several ecosystem services (ES) provided from an area comprising both MPAs (Marine Protected Areas) and non-managed areas. Findings in the UK South West Marine Management Organisation (MMO) Plan Area show that [...] Read more.
This study presents an ecosystem-services-mapping tool that calculates the monetary value of several ecosystem services (ES) provided from an area comprising both MPAs (Marine Protected Areas) and non-managed areas. Findings in the UK South West Marine Management Organisation (MMO) Plan Area show that different MPAs yield high value estimates and that activities are grouped in certain areas, with the Severn Estuary and surrounding Site(s) of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) attracting the most recreational anglers, despite having lower water quality. This can be explained by increased nutrient levels, which enhance biological activity and yet do not cause oxygen depletion. The yearly value of the ecosystem service of carbon sequestration and storage in the area is estimated between £16 and £62 thousand. Proximity to large urban areas and shallow waters appear to be the most appealing factors for anglers, while proximity with France can be associated with the high fishing effort in the southwest of the study area. We show that the use of a tool integrating a willingness-to-pay function with high spatial resolution layers and associated monetary values can be used for short-term marine spatial planning and management. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mapping the Life Cycle Co-Creation Process of Nature-Based Solutions for Urban Climate Change Adaptation
Resources 2020, 9(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040039 - 12 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Developing urban and peri-urban ecosystem services with nature-based solutions (NBS) and participatory approaches can help achieve more resilient and sustainable environments for cities and urban areas in the face of climate change. The co-creation process is increasingly recognised as the way forward to [...] Read more.
Developing urban and peri-urban ecosystem services with nature-based solutions (NBS) and participatory approaches can help achieve more resilient and sustainable environments for cities and urban areas in the face of climate change. The co-creation process is increasingly recognised as the way forward to deal with environmental issues in cities, allowing the development of associated methods and tools that have been described and published for specific stages. It is argued that the co-creation process comprises various interlinked stages, corresponding stakeholders, and subsequent methods and tools that need to be mapped and integrated across all stages. In this study, a Life Cycle Co-Creation Process (LCCCP) for NBS is developed, building on continuous improvement cycles and Design Thinking methodologies, and for which the stages and substages, involved stakeholders and engagement methods and tools are mapped and defined. For stakeholders, the actors of an Urban Living Lab (ULL) are adapted to the LCCCP; for the engagement methods and tools, the goals of stakeholder engagement are used as a guide to select examples of co-creation methods and tools. The developed LCCCP comprises five stages, i.e., CoExplore, CoDesign, CoExperiment, CoImplement and CoManagement, creating a unique path that can be followed by practitioners for NBS co-creation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-based Solutions for Urban Global Change Adaptation)
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Open AccessEditorial
Underutilised Resources in Urban Environments
Resources 2020, 9(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040038 - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 742
Abstract
An important opportunity for more sustainable development pathways in an urbanising world is missed where resources remain underutilised, when they could be valorised in a sound and environmentally favourable mode. This Special Issue of the journal Resources was initiated to identify promising solutions [...] Read more.
An important opportunity for more sustainable development pathways in an urbanising world is missed where resources remain underutilised, when they could be valorised in a sound and environmentally favourable mode. This Special Issue of the journal Resources was initiated to identify promising solutions and specific challenges in the context of underutilised resources in urban environments. The compiled contributions address two main areas, namely the establishment of circular economy schemes based on valorising wastes that occur in urban areas and the exploitation of renewable energies. Circular economy and renewable resources hold key potential for making cities more sustainable, and the authors of this Special Issue, with their publications, enhance our understanding of how to unlock this potential. Effective regulatory frameworks and policymaking processes which balance the powers between stakeholders are required to successfully manage energy transition and the transition to more circular economies. The positive role of community engagement merits high attention. To recover valuable resources from household waste, a focus on technology and infrastructure is required but is not enough; motivational factors and knowledge of citizens are most essential elements. It also becomes evident that the need to more reliably quantify and better characterise recyclable material streams, especially where population numbers are further growing, remains. The publications compiled in this Special Issue are a rich source to identify promising solutions, challenges and research needed for the sound management of urban resource demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underutilised Resources in Urban Environments)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change on Drinking Water Ecosystem Services in Wami River Basin, Tanzania
Resources 2020, 9(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040037 - 02 Apr 2020
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Land-use/land-cover changes are considered the dominant form of anthropogenic pressure on the environment, causing changes in ecosystem service patterns and affecting water supply services. Using the spatial econometric technique, we analysed the impact of land-use/land-cover change on water ecosystem services for domestic use [...] Read more.
Land-use/land-cover changes are considered the dominant form of anthropogenic pressure on the environment, causing changes in ecosystem service patterns and affecting water supply services. Using the spatial econometric technique, we analysed the impact of land-use/land-cover change on water ecosystem services for domestic use upstream and downstream of the Wami River Basin. The results in terms of land-use/land-cover classes during the study period (2011–2016) indicate that cultivated land showed maximum positive changes in both sub-catchments, while bushland and woodland showed maximum negative changes upstream and downstream. The results showed that bushland, woodland, cultivated land, and grassland were significantly correlated with water point characteristics in both sub-catchments. For functionality characteristics, a significant effect was observed in bushland and grassland upstream and downstream, respectively, while sufficient water was found in woodland upstream and grassland downstream. Moreover, bushland was observed to have a significant number of water points with poor quality of water upstream, and a substantial number of water points with good quality of water were found in grassland downstream. We found that all measured land-use/land-cover changes and water point characteristic correlations were statistically significant; therefore, we concluded that land-use/land-cover change affects the water ecosystem in the basin. These results could facilitate decision-making and development of related policies and might support finding sustainable strategies for water ecosystem services for domestic use. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Measurable Effects of Metropolitan Gas Purchasing Group in the Light of Gas Market Functioning in Poland
Resources 2020, 9(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040036 - 26 Mar 2020
Viewed by 823
Abstract
As a result of the gas market liberalization, new business models are emerging and one that brings positive effects to market players is purchasing group functioning. This paper adopts the approach of gas market review and provides a synthesis of its functioning in [...] Read more.
As a result of the gas market liberalization, new business models are emerging and one that brings positive effects to market players is purchasing group functioning. This paper adopts the approach of gas market review and provides a synthesis of its functioning in Poland. The review focuses first on the frameworks of the process of gas market liberalization. Next, the author presents gas market structure and lists and comments on its components. Then, the main characteristics of the market are discussed. The author presents a case study of the Metropolitan Gas Purchasing Group—the largest gas purchasing group in Poland with the volume reaching almost 225 GWh of purchased gas. As a result, the author highlights the effects of this coopetitive strategy which reached a value of PLN 3,000,000. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protected Areas: Geotourist Attractiveness for Weekend Tourists Based on the Example of Gorczański National Park in Poland
Resources 2020, 9(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040035 - 25 Mar 2020
Viewed by 733
Abstract
The aim of the publication was to assess the geotourist attractiveness of protected areas in Poland among weekend tourists based on the example of Gorczański National Park. The park location near urbanized areas makes it an attractive field for research on weekend tourism [...] Read more.
The aim of the publication was to assess the geotourist attractiveness of protected areas in Poland among weekend tourists based on the example of Gorczański National Park. The park location near urbanized areas makes it an attractive field for research on weekend tourism development. The tourist potential of the park is presented, starting from geological aspects and geotourist values. Then, the tourist potential was analysed, with a focus on geotourist resources, which include tourist trails and didactic routes. The tourist traffic volume was also examined. On the basis of legal documents, such as nature conservation plans, threats related to tourism development in protected areas were presented as indicated by park managers. In accordance with the Act on Nature Conservation, the threats are divided into four groups: internal existing and potential threats and external existing and potential threats. The tourists’ opinion on the geotourist attractiveness of the park was investigated with surveys conducted during selected weekends significant in the context of tourist traffic volume. Thus, a profile of people visiting the park for short stays was obtained, as well as their assessment of the tourist resources of the area, with particular emphasis on geotourist values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoheritage and Geotourism Resources)
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