Special Issue "Benefit Sharing in the Arctic: Extractive Industries and Arctic People "

A special issue of Resources (ISSN 2079-9276).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Maria Tysiachniouk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Geography, University of Eatern Finland, 80100 Joensuu, Finland
Interests: governance generating networks, benefit sharing, corporate social responsibility, extractive industries, Arctic sustainable development, indigenous peoples, governance of natural resources, local community resilience
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Andrey N Petrov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
ARCTICenter, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614, USA
Interests: sustainability; Arctic social-ecological systems; resilience and change in Arctic communities; community wellbeing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Violetta Gassiy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Kuban State University, Action Group on Indigenous Involvement International Arctic Scince Committee (IASC)
Interests: arctic sustainable development, indigenous and local community, extractive industries in the Arctic, partnership and cooperation, benefits sharing, economic and eco-system development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a comprehensive view of the benefit sharing and compensation mechanisms for the indigenous peoples of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic due to industrial development.

The editors welcome papers within the following topics:

  1. Benefit-sharing frameworks in the Arctic.
  2. Corporate social responsibility and the benefit sharing of extractive industries in the Arctic.
  3. Benefit sharing and international and national legislation.
  4. The practice of implementing legislation to support Indigenous and local interests.
  5. The methodology for assessing the losses of indigenous peoples of the North and mechanisms for their compensation.

Dr. Maria Tysiachniouk
Assoc. Prof. Andrey Petrov
Prof. Dr. Violetta Gassiy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Resources is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Benefit sharing
  • Corporate social responsobility
  • Extractive industries
  • Governance of natural resources
  • Compensations
  • Mitigation money
  • Oil and gas
  • Mining
  • Alaska
  • Arctic
  • Russian North

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Towards Understanding Benefit Sharing between Extractive Industries and Indigenous/Local Communities in the Arctic
Resources 2020, 9(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040048 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2157
Abstract
The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a comprehensive view of the benefit sharing and compensation mechanisms for the Indigenous Peoples and local communities in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions due to industrial resource extraction. The papers cover the following topics: [...] Read more.
The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a comprehensive view of the benefit sharing and compensation mechanisms for the Indigenous Peoples and local communities in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions due to industrial resource extraction. The papers cover the following topics: (1) Benefit-sharing frameworks in the Arctic. (2) Corporate social responsibility standards and benefit sharing by extractive industries in the Arctic. (3) Benefit sharing and international and national legislation. (4) The practice of implementing legislation to support Indigenous and local interests. (5) The methodologies for assessing compensation to Indigenous communities from extractive industries. Full article

Research

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Article
Mobilizing Benefit-Sharing Through Transportation Infrastructure: Informal Roads, Extractive Industries and Benefit-Sharing in the Irkutsk Oil and Gas Region, Russia
Resources 2020, 9(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9030021 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2705
Abstract
Road infrastructure development is an existing, but not a frequent element of extractive industry benefit-sharing frameworks in remote northern regions. However, it is often at the center of extractive activity and inflicts major impact on environment and communities. This paper examines the benefits [...] Read more.
Road infrastructure development is an existing, but not a frequent element of extractive industry benefit-sharing frameworks in remote northern regions. However, it is often at the center of extractive activity and inflicts major impact on environment and communities. This paper examines the benefits and impacts derived from development of informal roads, i.e., vehicular roadways beyond the current publicly-governed road networks constructed, maintained and/or used by various entities and individuals based on private, special purpose and/or informal practices and regulations. Based on several field studies, GIS analysis of road networks and examination of secondary sources, the article investigates the use of informal roads as a form of benefit-sharing and details their impact on mobilities, environment and livelihoods of local and indigenous communities in the Irkutsk Oil and Gas region, Russia. We argue that construction, maintenance and use of the industry-built roads can be a part of benefit-sharing agreements, albeit mostly semi-formal and negotiated. The gains and problems stemming from ‘trickle-down’ (i.e., unintended) effects of the road networks are the most significant. The community-relevant implications of informal roads go far beyond immediate impacts on surrounding environment, but deeply affect subsistence activities, mobility, food security, personal safety and even consumer preferences of the indigenous residents. Full article
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Article
Pipeline Neighbors: How Can We Avoid Conflicts?
Resources 2020, 9(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020013 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2275
Abstract
In this article, I consider the various policies of oil and gas companies relating to Indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation. The analysis is based on field research in Northern Russian regions. Data for the analysis comprises: International standards, Russian laws, corporate codes, [...] Read more.
In this article, I consider the various policies of oil and gas companies relating to Indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation. The analysis is based on field research in Northern Russian regions. Data for the analysis comprises: International standards, Russian laws, corporate codes, official regulations, and interviews with company employees and representatives of the Indigenous populations. The research methodology is based on the concept of legal pluralism as the coexistence of various legal regimes and the search for platforms of common interests. The goal of this article is to analyze policies on benefit sharing by assessing projects and programs adopted by various industrial companies according to the social and humanitarian prospects of their social acceptance. I consider the possibilities for Russian legislation to promote respecting Indigenous people’s interests in the preparation of corporate sustainability reports. Full article
Article
Globalizing Extraction and Indigenous Rights in the Russian Arctic: The Enduring Role of the State in Natural Resource Governance
Resources 2019, 8(4), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8040179 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3224
Abstract
The governance of extractive industries has become increasingly globalized. International conventions and multi-stakeholder institutions set out rules and standards on a range of issues, such as environmental protection, human rights, and Indigenous rights. Companies’ compliance with these global rules may minimize risks for [...] Read more.
The governance of extractive industries has become increasingly globalized. International conventions and multi-stakeholder institutions set out rules and standards on a range of issues, such as environmental protection, human rights, and Indigenous rights. Companies’ compliance with these global rules may minimize risks for investors and shareholders, while offering people at sites of extraction more leverage. Although the Russian state retains a significant stake in the oil and gas industries, Russian oil and gas companies have globalized as well, receiving foreign investment, participating in global supply chains, and signing on to global agreements. We investigate how this global engagement has affected Nenets Indigenous communities in Yamal, an oil- and gas-rich region in the Russian Arctic, by analyzing Indigenous protests and benefit-sharing arrangements. Contrary to expectations, we find that Nenets Indigenous communities have not been empowered by international governance measures, and also struggle to use domestic laws to resolve problems. In Russia, the state continues to play a significant role in determining outcomes for Indigenous communities, in part by working with Indigenous associations that are state allies. We conclude that governance generating networks in the region are under-developed. Full article
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Article
Benefit Sharing in the Arctic: A Systematic View
Resources 2019, 8(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8030155 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3017
Abstract
Benefit sharing is a key concept for sustainable development in communities affected by the extractive industry. In the Arctic, where extractive activities have been growing, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of benefit sharing frameworks is especially critical. The goal of this paper is [...] Read more.
Benefit sharing is a key concept for sustainable development in communities affected by the extractive industry. In the Arctic, where extractive activities have been growing, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of benefit sharing frameworks is especially critical. The goal of this paper is to develop a synthesis and advance the theory of benefit sharing frameworks in the Arctic. Based on previously published research, a review of literature, a desktop analysis of national legislation, as well as by capitalizing on the original case studies, this paper analyzes benefit sharing arrangements and develops the typology of benefit sharing regimes in the Arctic. It also discusses the examples of various regimes in Russia, Alaska, and Canada. Each regime is described by a combination of principles, modes, mechanisms, and scales of benefit sharing. Although not exhaustive or entirely comprehensive, this systematization and proposed typologies appear to be useful for streamlining the analysis and improving understanding of benefit sharing in the extractive sector. The paper has not identified an ideal benefit sharing regime in the Arctic, but revealed the advantages and pitfalls of different existing arrangements. In the future, the best regimes –in respect to sustainable development would support the transition from benefit sharing to benefit co-management. Full article
Article
Land Resources Evaluation for Damage Compensation to Indigenous Peoples in the Arctic (Case-Study of Anabar Region in Yakutia)
Resources 2019, 8(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8030143 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
The compensation for losses caused to the indigenous peoples in Arctic Russia due to the industrial development of their traditional lands is an urgent question whose resolution requires development of new mechanisms and tools. The losses caused to indigenous traditional lands are part [...] Read more.
The compensation for losses caused to the indigenous peoples in Arctic Russia due to the industrial development of their traditional lands is an urgent question whose resolution requires development of new mechanisms and tools. The losses caused to indigenous traditional lands are part of the damage caused to the natural environment, their culture and livelihood. In the Russian Federation cultural impact assessment is a rather new tool aiming to protect indigenous peoples’ rights to lands. In this paper the authors show the applied side of the cultural assessment that is used to improve the methodology of the calculation of losses adopted by ministry of regional development in Russia in 2009. This methodology is based on the resource disposition and evaluation of traditional lands. Accordingly, compensation payments are calculated as the sum of the losses in traditional economic activities such as: reindeer herding, hunting, fishing and gathering. Such compensation is considered by authors as the elements of a benefit-sharing system. In practice, this methodology has been tested at industrial projects on alluvial diamonds in Yakutia. In this paper we look at the Polovinnya project case-study which deals with indigenous peoples of Dolgans and Evenks and argues that such a justified, understandable methodology both for indigenous peoples and subsoil user could reduce to a minimum the conflict of interests. Full article
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Article
Ethnological Expertise in Yakutia: The Local Experience of Assessing the Impact of Industrial Activities on the Northern Indigenous Peoples
Resources 2019, 8(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8030123 - 07 Jul 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2864
Abstract
Indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North traditionally live on the territory of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Growing industrial activities on their traditional natural resource management territories (hereinafter TNRMT) raise issues of assessing the impact on traditional indigenous livelihood. Ethnological expertise was introduced in [...] Read more.
Indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North traditionally live on the territory of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Growing industrial activities on their traditional natural resource management territories (hereinafter TNRMT) raise issues of assessing the impact on traditional indigenous livelihood. Ethnological expertise was introduced in Yakutia in 2010 as the way to solve these problems. This article addresses issues of the practical application of the ethnological expertise in the complex environment of the Russian Arctic. More specifically, the local experience of implementation of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is examined in the article. The research was conducted with the use of analytical, social, statistical, and legal methods. The necessity of development of the ethnological expertise institute is explained, along with the legal basis for regulating relationships among governmental bodies, business, and northern indigenous peoples. Both of those factors are necessary for sustainable development of the Russian Arctic. Full article
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Article
Industrial Projects and Benefit-Sharing Arrangements in the Russian North. Is Contracting Possible?
Resources 2019, 8(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8020104 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
The extractive industries and local communities in the Russian Arctic make socio-economic agreements to support social and environmental initiatives in the territories of their operations. The extractive industries address social responsibilities through grant projects and social investments. In the framework of social investments, [...] Read more.
The extractive industries and local communities in the Russian Arctic make socio-economic agreements to support social and environmental initiatives in the territories of their operations. The extractive industries address social responsibilities through grant projects and social investments. In the framework of social investments, major industrial corporations are supposed to distribute benefits obtained from resource exploitation to stakeholders who are affected by industrial operations. This article presents different forms of benefit-sharing arrangements and how they work in practice in the context of contracting for natural resources (oil, gas, metals and minerals) in Russia. The analysis outlines specific types of contracts and how they are implemented. While benefit-sharing arrangements can provide some benefits for local and regional stakeholders, it is controversial whether these arrangements can improve the situation as far as even-handed sharing of society’s environmental risks, benefits, and impacts is concerned. The article discusses how voluntary social partnership agreements in line with corporate citizenship and stakeholder management can alleviate problems between local people and industries in the Russian Arctic. Full article
Article
Resource Allocation in Oil-Dependent Communities: Oil Rent and Benefit Sharing Arrangements
Resources 2019, 8(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8020086 - 03 May 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2708
Abstract
This study is dedicated to the interaction between oil and gas companies and local communities that depend deeply on the production of oil. One of the key concerns of all oil-dependent communities is the distribution of oil rent: Who participates in decision making [...] Read more.
This study is dedicated to the interaction between oil and gas companies and local communities that depend deeply on the production of oil. One of the key concerns of all oil-dependent communities is the distribution of oil rent: Who participates in decision making regarding the distribution of oil profits and who can claim the benefits and on what grounds? Benefit sharing arrangements are used to decide such matters in global practice. Using Russian Arctic and subarctic areas as examples, we analyze the main rules and practices of the distribution of benefits from oil production at the local level. This study focuses on the coexistence of oil companies and indigenous people, many of whom practice a traditional way of life. We also pay attention to the institutionalization of the norms and rules of oil-dependent communities at the local level. Full article
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Article
What is Benefit Sharing? Respecting Indigenous Rights and Addressing Inequities in Arctic Resource Projects
Resources 2019, 8(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8020074 - 20 Apr 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3416
Abstract
International standards refer to Indigenous peoples’ right to benefit from resource development, participate in decision-making and determine priorities in development planning that directly affects them. While good practice exists in benefit sharing, Indigenous peoples still lack opportunities for a meaningful role in strategic [...] Read more.
International standards refer to Indigenous peoples’ right to benefit from resource development, participate in decision-making and determine priorities in development planning that directly affects them. While good practice exists in benefit sharing, Indigenous peoples still lack opportunities for a meaningful role in strategic planning. In his role as UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, James Anaya identified a ‘preferred model’ of resource development in which Indigenous peoples have greater control over planning decisions and project implementation, and consequently a more meaningful share of the benefits of resource development. This paper explores the requirements of international standards and guidance alongside different models of benefit sharing in practice by extractive industries in Arctic and sub-Arctic contexts. It is based primarily on desk-based analysis of international hard and soft law and industry standards, while also drawing on ethnographic field research in Russia and Norway. It highlights good practice within mainstream development scenarios and identifies models of benefit sharing that represent a greater degree of Indigenous participation and control. It concludes that there is a need to consider benefit sharing within an overall paradigm that allows greater space for Indigenous voices in decision making, including at the strategic planning stage. Full article
Article
The Compensation for Losses to Indigenous Peoples Due to the Arctic Industrial Development in Benefit Sharing Paradigm
Resources 2019, 8(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8020071 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2696
Abstract
This article discusses the results of research on the benefit sharing system in Russia focusing on compensation of losses to indigenous peoples due to industrial development in the Arctic. The authors analyzed a Russian case-study on the economic mechanisms of coordination and harmonization [...] Read more.
This article discusses the results of research on the benefit sharing system in Russia focusing on compensation of losses to indigenous peoples due to industrial development in the Arctic. The authors analyzed a Russian case-study on the economic mechanisms of coordination and harmonization of multi-vector and conflicting interests in the process of industrial development of traditional lands. The developed recommendations will allow, on the one hand, compensating the losses of the indigenous communities, and, on the other hand, to engage indigenous peoples in the process of environmental management and socio-economic development of their territories. The object of the research was the Republic of Sakha and the indigenous communities of the remote Anabar region. The calculation of losses was considered. The authors suggest using this tool for the traditional lands development, because it helps to define fair compensation due to project impacts and to form a fund for sustainable community development. The considered project was exploring and extracting placer diamonds in Polovinnaya River in Yakutia. This paper also presents the social poll results organized in the indigenous communities in 2017. The results helped to formulate the recommendations for the business on benefit sharing agreements with Anabar communities. Full article
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Article
Damage Compensation for Indigenous Peoples in the Conditions of Industrial Development of Territories on the Example of the Arctic Zone of the Sakha Republic
Resources 2019, 8(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8010055 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
In the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, hereinafter SR, the Arctic zones are the original habitat of indigenous peoples, who can conduct economic activities only in undisturbed or lightly disturbed lands. From this point of view, the problem of compensation for losses of indigenous peoples [...] Read more.
In the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, hereinafter SR, the Arctic zones are the original habitat of indigenous peoples, who can conduct economic activities only in undisturbed or lightly disturbed lands. From this point of view, the problem of compensation for losses of indigenous peoples as a result of industrial development of territories is of particular relevance. At the same time, it is necessary to identify the main problems of indemnification of losses of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North (ISNPN) during the industrial development of the traditional natural resource management territories (TNRMT). The study was conducted using historical, geographical, analytical, synthetic, and statistical methods. In the Arctic zone, the diamond mining, gold mining, and coal mining industrial facilities are located inside TNRM areas. In the near future, it is planned to revive the tin industry, develop oil and gas fields on the continental Arctic shelf, and develop the Tomtor Complex Rare-Earth Deposit. In 2010, a law of the SR was passed: “On Ethnological Expertise in the Places of Traditional Residence and Traditional Economic Activities of the Peoples of the SR”. To date, in the ethnological examination of SR, we have investigated 13 investment business projects. In the course of the investigation, it turned out that most of the comments from both experts and tribal communities concern the section of compensation for damages. The official methodology developed on materials from the polar regions of the western part of Russia cannot be extrapolated to the entire territory of the North, Siberia, and the Far East. It is necessary to develop regional methods for calculating losses of indigenous peoples, which regulate the interaction of subsoil users with the authorities and representatives of the clan communities engaged in traditional crafts. Full article
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