Next Issue
Volume 9, June
Previous Issue
Volume 9, April

Table of Contents

Resources, Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 9 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia and Arundo donax are tall wetland plants [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Strategies for the Valorisation of Chestnut Resources in Italian Mountainous Areas from a Sustainable Development Perspective
Resources 2020, 9(5), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9050060 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 640
Abstract
The chestnut tree has characterised the social history of the Italian hills and mountains. However, in recent years, this resource has been abandoned because of the change in socio-economic needs. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) To give an overview of [...] Read more.
The chestnut tree has characterised the social history of the Italian hills and mountains. However, in recent years, this resource has been abandoned because of the change in socio-economic needs. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) To give an overview of this resource, assessing the strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats of the chestnut tree through the use of the SWOT methodology; (ii) to provide action strategies for resource valorisation, in accordance with the SDGs set out in the UN 2030 Agenda, by using the TOWS methodology. Our results suggest four strategies, specifically; ‘resource-based’, ‘network-based’, ‘policy-based’ and ‘market-based’, capable of valorising the resource from environmental, economic and societal points of view. The active management of chestnut forests, together with the development of a value chain can guarantee sustainable production, technological and process innovation and could empower companies to face global markets in a more competitive way and lead to the creation of high value-added products, generating a strong economic and social engine for the revival of the sector. Moreover, the commitment of the private sector to the reorganisation of the supply chain must also be accompanied by coherent public policy action. This is essential for the adoption of plans and programmes consistent with sustainable development objectives, ensuring their prioritisation and implementation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Role of Hydrocarbons in the Global Energy Agenda: The Focus on Liquefied Natural Gas
Resources 2020, 9(5), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9050059 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Presently, there is a paradoxical situation in the global energy market related to a gap between the image of hydrocarbon resources (HCR) and their real value for the economy. On the one hand, we face an increase in expected HCR production and consumption [...] Read more.
Presently, there is a paradoxical situation in the global energy market related to a gap between the image of hydrocarbon resources (HCR) and their real value for the economy. On the one hand, we face an increase in expected HCR production and consumption volumes, both in the short and long term. On the other hand, we see the formation of the image of HCR and associated technologies as an unacceptable option, without enough attention to the differences in fuels and the ways of their usage. Due to this, it seems necessary to take a step back to review the vitality of such a political line. This article highlights an alternative point of view with regard to energy development prospects. The purpose of this article is to analyse the consistency of criticism towards HCR based on exploration of scientific literature, analytical documents of international corporations and energy companies as well as critical assessment of technologies offered for the HCR substitution. The analysis showed that: (1) it is impossible to substitute the majority of HCR with alternative power resources in the near term, (2) it is essential that the criticism of energy companies with regard to their responsibility for climate change should lead not to destruction of the industry but to the search of sustainable means for its development, (3) the strategic benchmarks of oil and coal industries should shift towards chemical production, but their significance should not be downgraded for the energy sector, (4) liquified natural gas (LNG) is an independent industry with the highest expansion potential in global markets in the coming years as compared to alternative energy options, and (5) Russia possesses a huge potential for the development of the gas industry, and particularly LNG, that will be unlocked if timely measures on higher efficiency of the state regulation system are implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Provision of the Sustainable Development under Global Shocks)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Thermal Tourism and Geoheritage: Examining Visitor Motivations and Perceptions
Resources 2020, 9(5), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9050058 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Kúpele Vyžne Ružbachy spa and San Giovanni spa are very well known spas located in Slovakia and in Italy. Both spas are surrounded by environmental and historical richness, including geological features that hold considerable potential for geotourism. In order to gauge the promotional [...] Read more.
Kúpele Vyžne Ružbachy spa and San Giovanni spa are very well known spas located in Slovakia and in Italy. Both spas are surrounded by environmental and historical richness, including geological features that hold considerable potential for geotourism. In order to gauge the promotional value of these geological features, this study investigates: (a) The motivation of tourists for visiting the area, (b) the level of visitors’ interest and knowledge regarding the area’s geological features, (c) their assessment of the attractiveness and accessibility of these features, (d) their overall opinion about the area for geotourism, and (e) indications for utilizing these features to improve the landscape knowledge of the general public. The data were collected using on-site survey methods and examined by statistical analysis. Results of the survey show that the attraction of tourists to these areas is due not only to health and wellness benefits, but also to social aspects and the desire for exploring new places. It was found that the geological elements in both locations hold significant geotourism potential—and efforts to increase visitors’ awareness of their environmental and cultural significance could be decisive in capitalizing on the attraction of these unique sites. Improvement of the accessibility to the sites would be highly recommended as a way to increase tourism diversity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Biomethane Yield from Different European Phragmites australis Genotypes, Compared with Other Herbaceous Wetland Species Grown at Different Fertilization Regimes
Resources 2020, 9(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9050057 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia and Arundo donax are tall wetland graminoids with the potential to replace fossil fuels under sustainable cultivation conditions. We investigated the biomethane (CH4) production of these four species, including four different genotypes of [...] Read more.
Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia and Arundo donax are tall wetland graminoids with the potential to replace fossil fuels under sustainable cultivation conditions. We investigated the biomethane (CH4) production of these four species, including four different genotypes of P. australis, which represent the high intraspecific diversity of European reed. All plants were grown under three different macronutrient supplies (no nutrients added, an equivalent of 75 kg N ha−1 year−1 added and an equivalent of 500 kg N ha−1 year−1 added). Biomethane production was measured in four independent batch digestion tests. Across all experiments, fertilization regime had little effect on CH4 yield, which was on average 222 ± 31 L kg−1 volatile solids (VS). The lowest yield was produced by T. angustifolia (140 L kgVS−1) receiving no nutrients, while the highest yield was produced by A. donax (305 L kgVS−1) in the highest nutrient treatment. The intraspecific diversity of P. australis did not affect biomethane production. All P. australis genotypes produced on average 226 ± 19 L CH4 kgVS−1, which, although high, was still lower than conventional biogas species. The biomass production of P. australis was less increased by fertilization than that of Typha sp. and A. donax, but all species had similar biomass without fertilization. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Development of a Protective Enclosure for Remote Sensing Applications—Case Study: Laser Scanning in Underground Coal Mines
Resources 2020, 9(5), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9050056 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Sensing for equipment location and mapping in explosion risk zones such as underground coal mines is a difficult proposition due to the regulatory requirement for certified protective enclosures to safely house the required complex electrical equipment. This paper provides a case study for [...] Read more.
Sensing for equipment location and mapping in explosion risk zones such as underground coal mines is a difficult proposition due to the regulatory requirement for certified protective enclosures to safely house the required complex electrical equipment. This paper provides a case study for the process involved in creating and implementing an optical-grade enclosure for use in these environments. The result of this process has been the creation of ExScan®, a 3D laser mapping system that is providing step-change capability for remote operations and automation in the underground coal mining industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mining Technology: The Digital Mine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Importance of Sustainable Mineral Resource Management in Implementing the Circular Economy (CE) Model and the European Green Deal Strategy
Resources 2020, 9(5), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9050055 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 934 | Correction
Abstract
The European Green Deal is the new strategy for economic growth adopted by the European Commission (EC) in late 2019. One of the most important tasks in the realisation of this strategy is the mobilisation of the industry for a clean and circular [...] Read more.
The European Green Deal is the new strategy for economic growth adopted by the European Commission (EC) in late 2019. One of the most important tasks in the realisation of this strategy is the mobilisation of the industry for a clean and circular economy (CE). Currently, the European Union (EU) is in the process of transformation towards a CE model, which was announced in 2014. The CE assumes a transition from a linear model based on take–make–dispose to a circular model, in which waste, if it arises, becomes a valuable resource. At the same time, it is recommended to use raw materials (RMs) more efficiently and to recycle them. The EC underlines that both changes in the management of mineral resources in individual member states and their effects should be monitored. Therefore, in 2018, the EC pointed out issues related to RM management as important elements of the monitoring framework in transformation process towards CE. The paper presents strategic directions aimed at sustainable and circular RM management in the EU, with a strong emphasis on the key elements of sustainable development—environmental, economic and social. Moreover, the importance of mineral resources management in the EC in the context of transformation towards the European Green Deal and CE is presented, and the results of selected CE indicators related to the RMs, and indicators that present sustainable RMs management are discussed. The core of the paper is presentation of a set of recommended actions which should be taken in coming years with strong emphasis on the implementation of the sustainable development (SD) principles. RM management faces a number of challenges, primarily in achieving increased levels of critical raw materials (CRMs) recycling, as well as the greater involvement of stakeholders themselves and awareness raising in the field of SD and CE among enterprises operating in the RMs sector. Currently, all member states are working together to accelerate the transformation process in the area of CE and the European Green Deal, e.g., by implementing national CE programs. A great opportunity to accelerate the transformation process is the new financial perspective for projects under the balanced and circular management of RMs—Horizon Europe, which plans to finance the new projects on RMs management and recycling. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Torrefaction as a Pretreatment Technology for Chlorine Elimination from Biomass: A Case Study Using Eucalyptus globulus Labill
Resources 2020, 9(5), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9050054 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
The recognition of the effects of fossil fuel consumption resulted in several agreements, legislation, and projects focusing on the minimization of impacts caused. Biomass is a versatile energy source. Eucalyptus is a fast-growing crop, mainly used by the pulp and paper industry. Torrefaction [...] Read more.
The recognition of the effects of fossil fuel consumption resulted in several agreements, legislation, and projects focusing on the minimization of impacts caused. Biomass is a versatile energy source. Eucalyptus is a fast-growing crop, mainly used by the pulp and paper industry. Torrefaction is a thermochemical conversion process that can improve biomass fuel properties, enabling its use in the energy sector. However, correct management of biomass is crucial for the sustainability of this process. Torrefaction can also be used to eliminate some elements that can hinder subsequent conversion processes. One example is chlorine, which, during combustion or gasification processes, can form hydrochloric acid that leads to corrosion of metal surfaces. In this context, this research aimed to determine the temperature at which chlorine is eliminated during torrefaction process. For this purpose, several tests were performed at different temperatures and residence times. All samples were analyzed before and after the process, and were characterized by proximate and elemental analysis, calorimetry, and chlorine titration. The analysis showed that, even for the lowest torrefaction temperature used, chlorine content was already below the detection value, showing that, even at lower temperatures, thermal treatment is an efficient technique for the elimination of chlorine from biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Biomass for Bioenergy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report
Turning Food Waste into Value-Added Resources: Current Status and Regulatory Promotion in Taiwan
Resources 2020, 9(5), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9050053 - 30 Apr 2020
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Food waste is daily generated in significant amounts around the world, implying the depletion of natural resources and the emergence of environmental pollution issues if discarded without valorization or utilization. In this regard, food waste management poses an important challenge in the circular [...] Read more.
Food waste is daily generated in significant amounts around the world, implying the depletion of natural resources and the emergence of environmental pollution issues if discarded without valorization or utilization. In this regard, food waste management poses an important challenge in the circular society. Based on the official statistics and the national laws and regulations database in Taiwan, this study analyzed the on-line reporting amounts of collected food waste since it has been officially designated as one of the mandatory recyclable wastes. Furthermore, the regulatory measures for promoting food waste utilization in Taiwan were addressed to valorize it for the production of value-added resources and also prevent the spread of African swine flu. It showed that the collected amounts of food waste from residential and commercial sectors in Taiwan significantly increased from about 168,600 metric tons in 2003 to the maximal amount (i.e., 834,500 metric tons) in 2012, reflecting the regulatory promulgation and promotional measures. Based on the joint efforts by the central governing authorities (including the Environmental Protection Administration, the Council of Agriculture, and the Ministry of Economic Affairs), this study also examined the regulatory promotions for utilizing food waste as an available resource for the production of value-added resources (i.e., organic fertilizer, pig feed, and bioenergy). Through the central governing authority, local governments, and private recyclers, about 2000 metric tons of food waste in Taiwan was recycled every day, which can not only mitigate the pressure on waste incineration and disposal systems, but also conform to the trends of environmental sustainability and circular bioeconomy. Therefore, the Taiwan government is currently supporting the establishment of anaerobic digestion and aerobic composting plants for turning food waste into organic fertilizers and biogas-to-electricity because they have been evaluated as the best options of food waste valorization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Waste Prevention: Reduction, Reuse and Recycling)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Geotourism in the Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni UNESCO Global Geopark (Southern Italy): The Middle Bussento Karst System
Resources 2020, 9(5), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9050052 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
In this paper we want to stress the role of geotourism as a means to promote environmental education and, on occasion, as a way to increase the touristic interest of an area. Geoparks are certainly the territory where geotourism can be best exploited. [...] Read more.
In this paper we want to stress the role of geotourism as a means to promote environmental education and, on occasion, as a way to increase the touristic interest of an area. Geoparks are certainly the territory where geotourism can be best exploited. We propose a geoitinerary to discover the amazing, but poorly known, Middle Bussento Karst System, with the blind valley of the Bussento River, in the southeast of the Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Global Geopark. This is the only example, in Southern Italy, of a stream sinking underground and it is the second longest subsurface river path in Italy, making this a core area of the Geopark. We combined field surveys and literature data to create a geoitinerary that can be useful in helping to promote this site. This geoitinerary is applicable to both simple generic visitors and geo-tourists and has an educational purpose, especially in explaining the significance and the fragility of karst areas in terms of environmental protection. Moreover, it may represent a sort of stimulus for the growth of touristic activity in this inner area of the Geopark. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoheritage and Geotourism Resources)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop