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Resources, Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 11 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A step towards characterizing underground strata by capturing machine signals while drilling for [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Decision Criteria for the Development of Stormwater Management Systems in Poland
Resources 2020, 9(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020020 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Progressing urbanisation is one of the key causes of environmental degradation. This problem also applies to stormwater management. For this reason, drainage infrastructures should be designed in harmony with nature and the decision for selecting a specific stormwater management system solution must not [...] Read more.
Progressing urbanisation is one of the key causes of environmental degradation. This problem also applies to stormwater management. For this reason, drainage infrastructures should be designed in harmony with nature and the decision for selecting a specific stormwater management system solution must not be taken on an ad-hoc or single-perspective basis. The purpose of this paper is to identify the criteria for selecting the best solution for a problem involving the selection of a stormwater management system, and to present a method that will enable all relevant criteria to be taken into account in the decision-making process. The developed decision problem structure takes into account all criteria related to the construction and operation of stormwater infrastructure, and its individual elements were identified based on the analysis and synthesis of information regarding the principles of stormwater management in Poland. The presented approach will allow for the taking into account of all, often mutually exclusive, criteria determining the choice of the stormwater management system option. This, in turn, will make it possible to significantly simplify the decision-making process. The indicated criteria can form the basis for choosing the most favorable stormwater management system for both large urban catchments and individual facilities. Thanks to the considerable flexibility of the developed decision problem structure, its widespread application can contribute to improving the efficiency of stormwater management systems. An example of the developed model’s application in a decision-making process is presented, concerning the selection of a design variant of a single-family residential building’s stormwater management system in Poland. Four design variants were included in the analysis, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process was used as the tool to select the most favorable option. This study shows that nature-based solutions are the most beneficial decision stormwater management options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-based Solutions for Urban Global Change Adaptation)
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Stormwater Management Variants in Urban Catchments
Resources 2020, 9(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020019 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 711
Abstract
In order to identify the most effective variants for reducing flood risk in cities and to provide protection for water resources, an in-depth study was carried out. The research results allowed for the identification of sustainable drainage infrastructure solutions that should be used [...] Read more.
In order to identify the most effective variants for reducing flood risk in cities and to provide protection for water resources, an in-depth study was carried out. The research results allowed for the identification of sustainable drainage infrastructure solutions that should be used to increase the efficiency of traditional drainage systems. The most effective solution turned out to be the simultaneous use of low impact development facilities and stormwater flow control devices in drainage systems (Variant IV). Applicationof this variant (maximum discharge QOmax = 246.39 dm3/s) allowed for the reduction of the peak flow by as much as 86% in relation to those values that were established in the traditional drainage system (maximum discharge QOmax = 1807.62 dm3/s). The use of Variant IV allowed for a combination of the advantages of low impact development (LID) facilities and stormwater flow control devices in drainage systems while limiting their disadvantages. In practice, the flow of rainwater from the catchment area to the drainage system was limited, the share of green areas increased, and the drainage system retention capacity grew. The proposed approach for reducing the increasing flood risk in cities and providing protection for water resources provides a structured approach to long-term urban drainage system planning and land use guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Regional Geotourist Resources—Assessment and Management (A Case Study in SE Poland)
Resources 2020, 9(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020018 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 685
Abstract
The appropriate identification of the geoheritage resources of a specific area is the sine qua non of the development of geotourism. The identification of tourists’ perception of abiotic nature sites of high scientific value is also particularly important because it determines the possibility [...] Read more.
The appropriate identification of the geoheritage resources of a specific area is the sine qua non of the development of geotourism. The identification of tourists’ perception of abiotic nature sites of high scientific value is also particularly important because it determines the possibility of using the potential of geosites. In the study, a detailed analysis was carried out of the assets of geological, geomorphological and hydrologic sites in the Central Roztocze region (SE Poland) comprising the central part of the proposed Geopark “Stone Forest in Roztocze”. Data from the Polish Central Register of Geosites, the results of a geotourist assessment and questionnaire surveys were used in the analysis. These data indicate a high potential for geotourism development and consistency between scientific assessments and ratings from tourists. However, this potential is not used to a sufficient degree, while actions aimed at developing geotourism and establishing the Geopark are not appreciated by local authorities and institutions responsible for tourism development. The idea of geoparks and geotourism development is not supported by the State either, whether institutionally or financially. Based on the studies conducted, we propose practical measures that should be implemented to increase the use of the region’s geotourist assets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoheritage and Geotourism Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Data Analytic Approaches for Mining Process Improvement—Machinery Utilization Use Case
Resources 2020, 9(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020017 - 07 Feb 2020
Viewed by 848
Abstract
This paper investigates the application of process mining methodology on the processes of a mobile asset in mining operations as a means of identifying opportunities to improve the operational efficiency of such. Industry 4.0 concepts with related extensive digitalization of industrial processes enable [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the application of process mining methodology on the processes of a mobile asset in mining operations as a means of identifying opportunities to improve the operational efficiency of such. Industry 4.0 concepts with related extensive digitalization of industrial processes enable the acquisition of a huge amount of data that can and should be used for improving processes and decision-making. Utilizing this data requires appropriate data processing and data analysis schemes. In the processing and analysis stage, most often, a broad spectrum of data mining algorithms is applied. These are data-oriented methods and they are incapable of mapping the cause-effect relationships between process activities. However, in this scope, the importance of process-oriented analytical methods is increasingly emphasized, namely process mining (PM). PM techniques are a relatively new approach, which enable the construction of process models and their analytics based on data from enterprise IT systems (data are provided in the form of so-called event logs). The specific working environment and a multitude of sensors relevant for the working process causes the complexity of mining processes, especially in underground operations. Hence, an individual approach for event log preparation and gathering contextual information to be utilized in process analysis and improvement is mandatory. This paper describes the first application of the concept of PM to investigate the normal working process of a roof bolter, operating in an underground mine. By applying PM, the irregularities of the operational scheme of this mobile asset have been identified. Some irregularities were categorized as inefficiencies that are caused by either failure of machinery or suboptimal utilization of the same. In both cases, the results achieved by applying PM to the activity log of the mobile asset are relevant for identifying the potential for improving the efficiency of the overall working process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mining Technology: The Digital Mine)
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Open AccessArticle
Mine Machine Radar Sensor for Emergency Escape
Resources 2020, 9(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020016 - 04 Feb 2020
Viewed by 713
Abstract
This paper presents the results of recent work to develop and trial a mine machine radar sensor for underground coal mine vehicles. There is an urgent industry need for an integrated solution to the problem of operating an underground vehicle in conditions of [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of recent work to develop and trial a mine machine radar sensor for underground coal mine vehicles. There is an urgent industry need for an integrated solution to the problem of operating an underground vehicle in conditions of dense ambient dust and/or smoke, such as may occur in underground coal mines after a fire or explosion. Under these conditions, sensors such as cameras and lidar offer limited assistance due to their inability to penetrate thick dust. Thermal infrared can penetrate dust but still results in poor vision, as there is insufficient temperature contrast between the tunnel walls and the ambient air. Microwave radar sensors are able to penetrate the dust, and suitable radar sensors have been developed for use in the automation industry. Adapting such sensors for use in an underground coal mining environment was the focus of this research effort, and involved trialing a suitable sensor in dust and smoke chambers as well as trials in an underground coal mine with introduced dust. Data processing and the development of a suitable user interface were key aspects of the research. Since any sensor would have to operate in an explosive atmosphere, a related research work developed a flameproof dielectric enclosure to allow the use of the radar in the mine environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mining Technology: The Digital Mine)
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Open AccessEditorial
The Embeddedness of Social Sciences and Economics in Research on Resources
Resources 2020, 9(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020015 - 02 Feb 2020
Viewed by 739
Abstract
Sustainability, local development, and ecology are keywords that cover a wide range of research fields in both experimental and social sciences. The transversal nature of this knowledge area creates synergies but also divergences, making a continuous review of the existing literature necessary in [...] Read more.
Sustainability, local development, and ecology are keywords that cover a wide range of research fields in both experimental and social sciences. The transversal nature of this knowledge area creates synergies but also divergences, making a continuous review of the existing literature necessary in order to facilitate research. There has been an increasing number of articles that have analyzed trends in the literature and the state-of-the-art in many subjects. In this Special Issue of Resources, the most prestigious researchers analyzed the past and future of Social Sciences in Resources from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Research on Resources in Social Science)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Iceland, an Open-Air Museum for Geoheritage and Earth Science Communication Purposes
Resources 2020, 9(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020014 - 02 Feb 2020
Viewed by 794
Abstract
Iceland is one of the most recognizable and iconic places on Earth, offering an unparalleled chance to admire the most powerful natural phenomena related to the combination of geodynamic, tectonic and magmatic forces, such as active rifting, volcanic eruptions and subvolcanic intrusions. We [...] Read more.
Iceland is one of the most recognizable and iconic places on Earth, offering an unparalleled chance to admire the most powerful natural phenomena related to the combination of geodynamic, tectonic and magmatic forces, such as active rifting, volcanic eruptions and subvolcanic intrusions. We have identified and selected 25 geosites from the Snæfellsnes Peninsula and the Northern Volcanic Zone, areas where most of the above phenomena can be admired as they unfold before the viewers’ eyes. We have qualitatively assessed the selected volcano–tectonic geosites by applying a set of criteria derived from previous studies and illustrated them through field photographs, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-captured images and 3-D models. Finally, we have discussed and compared the different options and advantages provided by such visualization techniques and proposed a novel, cutting-edge approach to geoheritage promotion and popularization, based on interactive, navigable Virtual Outcrops made available online. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoheritage and Geotourism Resources)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Pipeline Neighbors: How Can We Avoid Conflicts?
Resources 2020, 9(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020013 - 24 Jan 2020
Viewed by 792
Abstract
In this article, I consider the various policies of oil and gas companies relating to Indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation. The analysis is based on field research in Northern Russian regions. Data for the analysis comprises: International standards, Russian laws, corporate codes, [...] Read more.
In this article, I consider the various policies of oil and gas companies relating to Indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation. The analysis is based on field research in Northern Russian regions. Data for the analysis comprises: International standards, Russian laws, corporate codes, official regulations, and interviews with company employees and representatives of the Indigenous populations. The research methodology is based on the concept of legal pluralism as the coexistence of various legal regimes and the search for platforms of common interests. The goal of this article is to analyze policies on benefit sharing by assessing projects and programs adopted by various industrial companies according to the social and humanitarian prospects of their social acceptance. I consider the possibilities for Russian legislation to promote respecting Indigenous people’s interests in the preparation of corporate sustainability reports. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Quality of Rainwater Collected from Roofs and the Possibility of Its Economic Use
Resources 2020, 9(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020012 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
The large temporal and spatial variability of rainwater quality, as well as the relatively small number of tests, makes the preliminary assessment of its economic exploitation difficult. Determining the relationship between the conditions and location of rainwater collection and rainwater quality would help [...] Read more.
The large temporal and spatial variability of rainwater quality, as well as the relatively small number of tests, makes the preliminary assessment of its economic exploitation difficult. Determining the relationship between the conditions and location of rainwater collection and rainwater quality would help indicate the range of options for rainwater use, as well as the parameters that require improvement. The aim of the presented article is to establish the physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of different rainwater sources and, from the results obtained, determine the possibilities for its safe use in households. The research was carried out for two years. Samples of rainfall were collected from spring to fall from the following roofing materials: Concrete roof tiles, ceramic roof tiles, galvanized steel sheet, and epoxy-coated terrace. The physical, chemical, and microbiological quality were assessed on the basis of the pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, the concentration of biogenic compounds, the concentration of chosen elements, the number of Escherichia coli, and the number of fecal streptococci. Significant bacterial contamination, decreased pH, and increased turbidity were identified in the water, depending on the parameters of the roofing washed by the rainfall and the intensity and frequency of precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Applications of Geophysical Logs to Coal Mining—Some Illustrative Examples
Resources 2020, 9(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020011 - 22 Jan 2020
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Geophysical logs can be used not only for qualitative interpretation such as strata correlation but also for geotechnical assessment through quantitative data analysis. In an emerging digital mining age, such a use of geophysical logs helps to establish reliable geological and geotechnical models, [...] Read more.
Geophysical logs can be used not only for qualitative interpretation such as strata correlation but also for geotechnical assessment through quantitative data analysis. In an emerging digital mining age, such a use of geophysical logs helps to establish reliable geological and geotechnical models, which reduces safety and financial risks due to geological and geotechnical uncertainty for new and existing coal mining projects. This paper presents some examples of geological and geotechnical characterizations from geophysical logs at various coal mines in Australia and India. The applications include rock strength and coal quality estimations, automated lithological/geotechnical interpretation and geophysical strata rating, all based on geophysical logs. These derived parameters could provide input to modelling, control, even ‘digital twin’ generation in a form of geological and geotechnical models as part of the future digital mining. The outcomes can be visualized in 3D space and used for identifying the key geotechnical strata units that are responsible for caving behaviors during longwall mining. This could assist site geologists and planning and production engineers predict and manage mining conditions on an ongoing basis. Both conventional logs such as density, natural gamma and sonic and less common logging data, such as full waveform sonic, televiewer and SIROLOG spectrometric natural gamma logging data are examined for their potential applications. The geotechnical strata classification and rock strengths predicted from the geophysical logs match the laboratory tests, drill core geotechnical strata classification, core photos and the mining condition/behavior observed. These illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of using geophysical logs for geological and geotechnical characterizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mining Technology: The Digital Mine)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Investigation into Measurement While Drilling as a Means to Characterize the Coalmine Roof
Resources 2020, 9(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020010 - 21 Jan 2020
Viewed by 873
Abstract
The variable nature of the coalmine roof poses a challenge to roadway stability during underground coal mining. There have been fatalities and financial losses in the coal mining industry due to roadway failures and roof falls. Generally, the geotechnical and geological data gathered [...] Read more.
The variable nature of the coalmine roof poses a challenge to roadway stability during underground coal mining. There have been fatalities and financial losses in the coal mining industry due to roadway failures and roof falls. Generally, the geotechnical and geological data gathered from exploration boreholes, which are drilled at considerable distances from each other, are used to characterize the thickness and quality (including strength) of the coalmine roof. This process provides a limited number of samples that cannot represent the discontinuous nature of the strata in the coalmine roof nor can they form reliable inputs to a digital model of the rock mass component of the digital mine. Gaining confidence in the strata properties of the coalmine roof is necessary for the modelling, design, and maintenance of roadways. The paper describes the progress of the ongoing work to investigate the monitoring while drilling (MWD) concept for characterizing coalmine roofs. Large-scale drilling experiments in synthesized sandwiched rock samples without interfaces were carried out. The drilling response data were analyzed to identify whether the drill data differentiates the various strengths associated with the rock samples. The initial results show that the drilling data can differentiate the synthesized rock samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mining Technology: The Digital Mine)
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