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Resources, Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Recycling of Coal Ash in Concrete as a Partial Cementitious Resource
Received: 21 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
Concrete construction offers a great opportunity to replace the cement with a coal-based power plant waste—known as coal bottom ash (CBA)—which offers great environmental and technical benefits. These are significant in sustainable concrete construction. This study aims to recycle CBA in concrete and [...] Read more.
Concrete construction offers a great opportunity to replace the cement with a coal-based power plant waste—known as coal bottom ash (CBA)—which offers great environmental and technical benefits. These are significant in sustainable concrete construction. This study aims to recycle CBA in concrete and evaluate its particle fineness influence on workability, compressive and tensile strength of concrete. In this study, a total of 120 specimens were prepared, in which ground CBA with a different fineness was used as a partial cement replacement of 0% to 30% the weight of cement. It was noticed that workability was decreased due to an increased amount of ground CBA, because it absorbed more water in the concrete mix. The growth in the compressive and tensile strength of concrete with ground CBA was not significant at the early ages. At 28 days, a targeted compressive strength of 35 MPa was achieved with the 10% ground CBA. However, it required a longer time to achieve a 44.5 MPa strength of control mix. This shows that the pozzolanic reaction was not initiated up to 28 days. It was experimentally explored that 10% ground CBA—having particle fineness around 65% to 75% and passed through 63 µm sieve—could achieve the adequate compressive and tensile strength of concrete. This study confirmed that the particle fineness of cement replacement materials has a significant influence on strength performance of concrete. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2 in Deciduous Pine Forest of Lower Western Himalaya, India
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
Carbon cycle studies over the climate-sensitive Himalayan regions are relatively understudied and to address this gap, systematic measurements on carbon balance components were performed over a deciduous pine forest with an understory layer. We determined annual net carbon balance, seasonality in components of [...] Read more.
Carbon cycle studies over the climate-sensitive Himalayan regions are relatively understudied and to address this gap, systematic measurements on carbon balance components were performed over a deciduous pine forest with an understory layer. We determined annual net carbon balance, seasonality in components of carbon balance, and their environmental controls. Results indicated a strong seasonality in the behavior of carbon exchange components. Net primary productivity (NPP) of pine forest exceeded soil respiration during the growing phase. Consequently, net ecosystem exchange exhibited a net carbon uptake. In the initial phase of the growing season, daily mean uptake was −3.93 (±0.50) g C m−2 day−1, which maximizes (−8.47 ± 2.3) later during post-monsoon. However, a brief phase of carbon release was observed during peak monsoon (August) owing to an overcast condition. Nevertheless, annually the forest remained as a carbon sink. The understory is extensively distributed and it turned out to be a key component of carbon balance because of sustained NPP during the pine leafless period. Temperature and evaporative fraction exhibited a prime control over the seasonal carbon dynamics. Our observations could lend certain useful insights into the application of coupled climate-carbon cycle models for the Himalaya and ecological functions in the region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Evaluation of Composite from Recycled Polypropylene Reinforced with Mengkuang Leaf Fiber
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Due to environmental concerns, plastic recycling and natural fiber composites have been given more attention lately. In Malaysia, mengkuang leaf fiber (MLF) has been identified as a potential candidate to be used as a reinforcing fiber. The combination of recycled polypropylene (r-PP) and [...] Read more.
Due to environmental concerns, plastic recycling and natural fiber composites have been given more attention lately. In Malaysia, mengkuang leaf fiber (MLF) has been identified as a potential candidate to be used as a reinforcing fiber. The combination of recycled polypropylene (r-PP) and MLF could result in an inexpensive and sustainable composite. However, the mechanical properties of this composite have not been fully studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate tensile, flexural and impact properties of r-PP/MLF composites with and without sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment and maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MAPP). The composite consisted of 60 wt.% of r-PP and 40 wt.% of MLF. The composite was compounded by twin-screw extruder and test specimens were fabricated using an injection molding process. Generally, the tensile and flexural properties showed improvements, especially those with MAPP and alkaline treatment, compared to neat r-PP. Improvements in tensile strength and modulus of approximately 28% and 224% were achieved for r-PP/Treated MLF/MAPP composite respectively. However, an adverse effect was observed in the impact strength of the composite, which was expected due to the nature of short fiber employed in this work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
BFE Model–Business, Family and Environment–as Subsystems of the Family-Owned Business in Mexico City Metropolitan Area
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
This work proposes a model starting from the Three-Circle Model, based on the reality of the small and medium-sized family business sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The present paper proposes a new model that was built based on the Three Circle [...] Read more.
This work proposes a model starting from the Three-Circle Model, based on the reality of the small and medium-sized family business sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The present paper proposes a new model that was built based on the Three Circle Model, but it is based on the reality of the Small and Medium Mexican family business sector. The model does not include the Ownership Subsystem, but it includes the Environment Subsystem, a subsystem that has a vital influence on the life and performance of an organization of that size. These three subsystems intersect in common elements such as culture, economy or company vision, triggering the success or failure of the company itself. The methodology used was a mixed methodology, with both qualitative and quantitative elements. First, the Delphi method was used on a scale that was applied to 25 owners of Small and Medium Enterprises and then, to make an additional confirmation, hypothesis testing, factorial analysis and the technique of structural equations were used. It was seen that the ownership subsystem has a lower weight than the business, environment and family subsystems, is the least relevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worldwide Research on Resources in Social Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Promoting the Circular Economy via Waste-to-Power (WTP) in Taiwan
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
The waste management sector significantly contributes to emissions of ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases, especially in sanitary landfills. In this regard, Taiwan is moving toward a circular economy society via resource recycling and waste-to-power (WTP) in the waste management. In the past [...] Read more.
The waste management sector significantly contributes to emissions of ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases, especially in sanitary landfills. In this regard, Taiwan is moving toward a circular economy society via resource recycling and waste-to-power (WTP) in the waste management. In the past decade, the recycling rate of general waste (including recyclable waste, kitchen waste, and bulk waste) increased from 40.97% in 2008 to 60.22% in 2017. On the other hand, 24 large-scale waste incineration plants gained about 2.5 TW-h of net electricity generation, based on 6.25 million metric tons of waste incinerated in 2017. The objectives of this paper are to update the status of waste generation and its WTP in Taiwan. Based on these updated data, the preliminary benefit analysis of WTP showed annual benefits of equivalent electricity charge of around $US 3.3 × 108 (using the feed-in-tariff rate 3.8945 NTD$/kW-h; 1 $US ≈ 30 NTD$) and equivalent CO2 mitigation of about 1.4 million metric tons (using the electricity emissions factor 0.55 kg CO2 equivalent/kW-h). In order to gain environmental, energy, and economic benefits, the regulatory and technological measures for promoting WTP are briefly summarized to create another low-carbon society in Taiwan. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Approach to the Biological Reactor–Sedimentation Tank System
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
Secondary clarifiers are demanded to separate solids created in activated sludge biological processes to achieve both a clarified effluent and to manage the biological processes itself. Indeed, the biological process may influence the sludge characteristics, and conversely, the settling efficiency of the sedimentation [...] Read more.
Secondary clarifiers are demanded to separate solids created in activated sludge biological processes to achieve both a clarified effluent and to manage the biological processes itself. Indeed, the biological process may influence the sludge characteristics, and conversely, the settling efficiency of the sedimentation basin plays an important role on the biological process in the activated sludge system. The proposed model represents a tool for better addressing the design and management of activated sludge system in wastewater treatment plants. The aim is to develop a numerical model which takes into account both the conditions in the biological reactor and the sludge characteristics coupled to the hydrodynamic behavior of a clarifier tank. The obtained results show that the different conditions in the reactor exert a great influence on the sedimentation efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The LCA Methodology for Ceramic Tiles Production by Addition of MSWI BA
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract
Integrated waste management and sustainable use of natural resources are the basis of the Green Economy. In this context, the management of the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ashes (MSWI BA) is one of the current issues worldwide. This paper presents an application [...] Read more.
Integrated waste management and sustainable use of natural resources are the basis of the Green Economy. In this context, the management of the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ashes (MSWI BA) is one of the current issues worldwide. This paper presents an application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) procedure to the industrial production of ceramic tiles using bottom ashes in the mixture together with feldspathic sands and clays. The comparison between ashes and traditional mixture showed a similar mineralogical and rheological composition. In the reported procedure the MSWI BA, after storage, were treated to separate and recover metals. The residual ashes were added to the mixture and then they followed the traditional industrial production cycle. Samples of the different materials were taken during the experimental industrial activity and leaching tests were carried out to verify the environmental compatibility of MSWI BA use to produce ceramic tiles. The results of the LCA show large environmental and energy benefits related to the proposed reuse of BA. Metal recovery and lower use of clay in traditional mixture avoids emission of substances with a negative potential impact for environment. This study provides a sustainable alternative to the MSWI BA final disposal in landfill as MSWI BA are hazardous wastes that present complicated management and high disposal costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Concretizing Green Growth and Sustainable Business Models in the Water Sector of Jordan
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
The green growth paradigm has gained much attention from various governments worldwide as a guiding strategy for national and sectoral growth strategies. There is, however, little knowledge on how to integrate green growth into key natural resource sectors, such as water. This paper [...] Read more.
The green growth paradigm has gained much attention from various governments worldwide as a guiding strategy for national and sectoral growth strategies. There is, however, little knowledge on how to integrate green growth into key natural resource sectors, such as water. This paper explains the origins and underlying concepts of green growth, and assesses its potential in the Jordanian water sector. Using a green growth diagnostic model, we analyze six key industries in the Jordanian water sector that can be an engine for green growth and the achievement of key sector-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In addition, four innovative business models are presented which exemplify the best practices and future directions of the water sector in Jordan. The results and recommendations support the strategic decision-making process of linking economic growth and sustainability, and encouraging private investments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Circular Economy: Evaluation of Sewage Sludge Biogas Solutions
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
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Abstract
Today it is obvious that the existing linear model of the economy does not correlate with the principles of sustainable development. The circular economy model can replace the current linear economy whilst addressing the issues of environmental deterioration, social equity and long-term economic [...] Read more.
Today it is obvious that the existing linear model of the economy does not correlate with the principles of sustainable development. The circular economy model can replace the current linear economy whilst addressing the issues of environmental deterioration, social equity and long-term economic growth. In the context of effectively implementing circular economy objectives, particular importance should be attributed to wastewater treatment sludge management, due to the possibility of recovering valuable raw materials and using its energy potential. Anaerobic digestion is one of the methods of recovering energy from sewage sludge. The main goal of this study is to make a preliminary evaluation of possible sewage sludge biogas and biomethane solutions using a computation model called MCBioCH4 and compare its results with laboratory tests of sewage sludge fermentation from the northern wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the volume and qualitative composition of biogas produced throughout anaerobic fermentation of raw materials coming from the WWTP. The specific productivity of samples ranged between 308.46 Nm3/tvs and 583.08 Nm3/tvs depending if mesophilic or thermophilic conditions were analyzed, or if the experiment was conducted with or without sludge pre-treatment. Output values from the laboratory were used as input for MCBioCH4 to calculate the flow of biogas or biomethane produced. For the case study of Ekaterinburg two possible energy conversion options were selected: B-H (biogas combustion with cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy) and M-T (biomethane to be used in transports). The results of the energy module showed a net energy content of the biogas between 6575 MWh/year and 7200 MWh/year. Both options yielded a favorable greenhouse gas (GHG) balance, meaning that avoided emissions are higher than produced emissions. The results discussion also showed that, in this case, the B-H option is preferable to the M-T option. The implementation of the biogas/biomethane energy conversion system in Ekaterinburg WWTP necessitates further investigations to clarify the remaining technical and economic aspects Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of Circular Economy Principles in Regional Solid Municipal Waste Management: The Case of Sverdlovskaya Oblast (Russian Federation)
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
The circular economy entails the principles of rational waste management to the best advantage. Waste management in the Russian Federation is currently in a reform process, thus it is crucial to choose now the most efficient way for its development. Besides, in addition [...] Read more.
The circular economy entails the principles of rational waste management to the best advantage. Waste management in the Russian Federation is currently in a reform process, thus it is crucial to choose now the most efficient way for its development. Besides, in addition to general government strategic aims in such a vast country such as Russia, it is very important to take into consideration specific aspects typical of its territories, which will allow determining regional areas of activities. The article analyzes current municipal solid waste management in the Russian Federation. The case study is of one of the regions (Sverdlovskaya Oblast) characterized by some typical and specific problems which illustrate the results of the first stage of reforming. The authors analyzed the existing and planned mechanisms of state regulation in the waste management sector at regional and federal levels, and scrutinized changes in legislation. The development level of the circular economy in the region was determined on the basis of the index method. The life cycle analysis (LCA)-based evaluation approach made it possible to evaluate the economic efficiency of the production and economic activities at different stages of municipal solid waste (waste paper) recycling with due regard to externalities. The research showed that despite the current substantial economic potential of the secondary resources’ (waste paper) reuse, there was a low level of development of the circular economy index. Regional factors hindering and fostering the circular economy development were identified. Recommendations for improving the quality of governance of the municipal solid waste management were formulated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Physical and Monetary Methods for Estimating the Hidden Trade of Materials
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
The hidden trade of a material (e.g., aluminum) refers to the trade of that material embedded in final products (e.g., automobiles). There are two methods for estimating the hidden trade amount of materials: (1) the physical method relies on the physical trade data [...] Read more.
The hidden trade of a material (e.g., aluminum) refers to the trade of that material embedded in final products (e.g., automobiles). There are two methods for estimating the hidden trade amount of materials: (1) the physical method relies on the physical trade data (measured by physical units) in which products are categorized according to the standard international trade classification codes or the harmonized system codes; and (2) the monetary method relies on the monetary trade data (measured by monetary units) in which products are categorized in accordance to the sectors of an input–output (IO) table. Information on material concentrations in products can be relatively quickly estimated by an IO-based model in the monetary method, but will have to be collected from various sources with intensive time cost in the physical method. Exemplified by the U.S. hidden trade of aluminum, iron, and copper in 2007, this study attempts to compare the two methods. We find that, despite the unavoidable but reasonable differences in the amounts of three metals trade, the results generated by the two methods are consistent with each other pretty well for final products at the level of end-use product groups (e.g., total transportation facilities). However, the comparison for specific products (e.g., automobiles) is challenging or does not generate consistent enough results. We suggest that similar estimations be done for more materials, more countries/territories, and different years, to gain experience, reduce estimation time and costs, and increase the knowledge base on metal flows in society. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Opportunities and Threats of Implementing Drain Water Heat Recovery Units in Poland
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
In recent years an increase of interest in usage of renewable energy sources as a substitution of fossil fuels is being noticeable. However, the waste heat potential, which can be used as an additional source of energy for heating water in buildings, is [...] Read more.
In recent years an increase of interest in usage of renewable energy sources as a substitution of fossil fuels is being noticeable. However, the waste heat potential, which can be used as an additional source of energy for heating water in buildings, is being omitted. The sources of this heat can be grey water discharged from such sanitary facilities as showers or washing machines. In response to this issue, we took on the task to define and analyze key factors affecting the development of DWHR (Drain Water Heat Recovery) systems using PESTLE (political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental) analysis. The strengths and weaknesses of these systems were also identified. The studies were based on CFD (computational fluid dynamics) modeling tools. In the Autodesk Simulation CFD software environment, a DWHR unit was made, which was then analyzed for heat exchange efficiency. The obtained results were the basis for preparing the strategy for the development of Drain Water Heat Recovery systems. It was made using the SWOT/TOWS (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats/threats, opportunities, weaknesses and strengths) method, which precisely orders information and allows presenting the project characteristic in readable way for a recipient. The results of the conducted analysis indicated the lack of acceptance on the part of potential users and the resulting need to promote the use of Drain Water Heat Recovery systems at residential level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management: Natural Resources and Human Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Knowledge in Management of Innovation
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
Knowledge has always been, and still is, a crucial source of economy. However, during the past few years we have seen a growing interest in treating knowledge as a significant organizational resource for innovation. This trend coincides with the rapid development of ICT, [...] Read more.
Knowledge has always been, and still is, a crucial source of economy. However, during the past few years we have seen a growing interest in treating knowledge as a significant organizational resource for innovation. This trend coincides with the rapid development of ICT, indicating the strong influence that ICTs have on the processes of creating, disseminating, and using knowledge. At present, issues of innovation management and knowledge management are studied independently, which creates a certain gap in the systemic understanding of the innovation development processes. The paper proposes an integrated approach to the issues mentioned. The hierarchy and taxonomy of knowledge are considered from the point of view of their influence on decision-making at different stages of the innovation lifecycle. Our proposition complements and contributes to several recent models of decision-making developed in the frame of the innovation process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Resource Allocation in Oil-Dependent Communities: Oil Rent and Benefit Sharing Arrangements
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
This study is dedicated to the interaction between oil and gas companies and local communities that depend deeply on the production of oil. One of the key concerns of all oil-dependent communities is the distribution of oil rent: Who participates in decision making [...] Read more.
This study is dedicated to the interaction between oil and gas companies and local communities that depend deeply on the production of oil. One of the key concerns of all oil-dependent communities is the distribution of oil rent: Who participates in decision making regarding the distribution of oil profits and who can claim the benefits and on what grounds? Benefit sharing arrangements are used to decide such matters in global practice. Using Russian Arctic and subarctic areas as examples, we analyze the main rules and practices of the distribution of benefits from oil production at the local level. This study focuses on the coexistence of oil companies and indigenous people, many of whom practice a traditional way of life. We also pay attention to the institutionalization of the norms and rules of oil-dependent communities at the local level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Importance of Community Forestry Funds for Rural Development in Nepal
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
Nepal’s Community Forestry (CF) process has implied the devolution of powers to collect, retain, and redistribute forest revenue from community forests products. This study contributes to our knowledge about these important aspects of CF by presenting an analysis of the dynamic pattern of [...] Read more.
Nepal’s Community Forestry (CF) process has implied the devolution of powers to collect, retain, and redistribute forest revenue from community forests products. This study contributes to our knowledge about these important aspects of CF by presenting an analysis of the dynamic pattern of income and expenditure of 43 randomly selected Community Forestry User Groups (CFUGs) from Kaski, Nepal. Results show that CFUG three-year average annual income accounts NRs 216,225 (1 US$ = NRs.114) and is highly skewed towards a few wells off CFUGs; the high-and-low average annual income of one-third of CFUGs in the sample ranges from NRs. 33,116 to NRs 502,363. Timber income and user’s contribution constitute the most important sources of income, comprising 40% and 25% respectively. The rural development investments of CFUG income are also highly variable and are shaped by income size of CF, and the other socio-political factors such as the number of households, distance to market, infrastructure status, and contextual factors. Overall, 44% of the CFUG income is invested in community development and 37% in forest conservation. Investment in community development increases with rising income. Accordingly, results presented here provide insights to promote community forests to generate more income which, indeed, could be a vehicle for community development as it appears in the mid-hills of Nepal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Clean Energy Sources: Insights from Russia
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
The paper is devoted to the assessment of the prospects of implementing clean energy sources in Russia, where the current energy policy goal is to increase the role of renewable and clean energy sources. The research is based on data from the Krasnoyarsk [...] Read more.
The paper is devoted to the assessment of the prospects of implementing clean energy sources in Russia, where the current energy policy goal is to increase the role of renewable and clean energy sources. The research is based on data from the Krasnoyarsk Region as one of the largest territories but also as a representative model of Russia. The aim of the study is to identify where and which renewable energy source (solar, wind, hydro and nuclear) has the highest potential. The novelty of our research lies in its holistic nature: authors consider both geographical and technical potential for renewable energy sources development as well as prospective demand for such resources, while previous research is mostly focused on specific aspects of renewable energy development. We also consider the level of air pollution as an important factor for the development of renewable energy sources. The results of the study show that there is a strong potential for clean energy sources in the Krasnoyarsk Region. The resulting matrix identifies the potential of energy sources across all the municipal entities and also indicates whether the source of energy is primary or supplemental and where several sources may be implemented in cooperation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analyzing Changes in Supply Risks for Abiotic Resources over Time with the ESSENZ Method—A Data Update and Critical Reflection
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 27 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
In the last decade, several methods were developed to determine potential supply risks due to short term socio-economic aspects. One of them is the ESSENZ method (comprehensive method to measure and assess resource efficiency of products in the context of sustainable development) developed [...] Read more.
In the last decade, several methods were developed to determine potential supply risks due to short term socio-economic aspects. One of them is the ESSENZ method (comprehensive method to measure and assess resource efficiency of products in the context of sustainable development) developed by the authors. Due to newly available data (e.g., production statistics) the characterization factors (CFs) of the ESSENZ method were updated (based on data from the years 2011 to 2015, with focus on 2014 and 2015) and compared with the original CFs (based on data from the years 2009 to 2013, with focus on 2012 and 2013) for six of the overall eleven categories. The goal of the paper is to analyze if changes in the underlying data are adequately reflected in the CFs of ESSENZ for the considered categories. Further, the updated CFs are provided. The six categories are analyzed by comparing original and updated CFs and clustering them into four groups: declining, emerging, persistent, and non-occurring potential supply risks. Significant differences in the CFs are evaluated by analyzing changes in the underlying data as well as the steps to determine the CFs. It could be shown, that for most of the considered categories and resources changes in the underlying data are reflected adequately in the CFs. However, some methodological challenges of ESSENZ, which limit the reflection of potential supply risks changes, could also be identified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Managing Innovation Resources in Accordance with Sustainable Development Ethics: Typological Analysis
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The regional development path depends on managing innovation resources. However, increasing the quantity of innovation activity and managing innovation resources only by financial indicators does not guarantee progress in sustainable development. This paper argues that basic conditions for effective sustainability-oriented innovation activities are: [...] Read more.
The regional development path depends on managing innovation resources. However, increasing the quantity of innovation activity and managing innovation resources only by financial indicators does not guarantee progress in sustainable development. This paper argues that basic conditions for effective sustainability-oriented innovation activities are: (1) the accordance of relevant activities with sustainable development ethics and (2) their marked focus on systemic and long-term sustainable development targets. These parameters can be considered fundamental principles for designing and developing effective sustainability-oriented innovation systems and innovation policies. Analysis of the two basic principles precedes estimation of the effectiveness of innovation activities, innovation systems, or innovation policies. In this paper, a special typological analysis technique was applied to assess basic conditions for the effectiveness of sustainability-oriented innovation activities observed in the case of the Tyumen region, Russia. It was found that since 2009 the Tyumen regional innovation support system has not been conceptually designed in accordance with sustainable development ethics or considering a long-term vision. Therefore, the projects themselves afford only temporary solutions to regional problems by implementing innovations that mainly have short-term and mid-term social–economic effects. As a result of the analysis of fundamental conditions for sustainability-oriented innovation activities in Tyumen region, this paper proposes recommendations on necessary measures for redesigning decision-making principles of regional innovation support systems in order to significantly increase the potential impact on the development of a truly sustainable regional economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Comprehensive Development of the Arctic Territory)
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Open AccessReview
Biomass Energy: An Overview of Biomass Sources, Energy Potential, and Management in Southeast Asian Countries
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Potential depletion of fossil fuel and climate change have globally accelerated the demand in renewable and alternative energy. Most of the Southeast Asian countries have an abundance of biomass sources for the energy sector due to their agriculture-based economy and enormous forest resources. [...] Read more.
Potential depletion of fossil fuel and climate change have globally accelerated the demand in renewable and alternative energy. Most of the Southeast Asian countries have an abundance of biomass sources for the energy sector due to their agriculture-based economy and enormous forest resources. Therefore, the study aimed at highlighting an overview of biomass energy in the Southeast Asia countries to convey the environmental and economic benefits from the available biomass sources in the region. In order to achieve the aim, the study synthesized and evaluated the biomass sources, energy potential, utilization, and management in the region, based on the published research papers, review papers, and country reports. It was found that the major biomass sources in this region were fuelwood, wood residues, rice husk, rice straw, sugarcane residues, oil palm residues, and coconut residues. The total annual quantity of the biomass potential from agriculture and forest sector in the region was estimated at more than 500 million tons per year and equal to over 8000 million gigajoules of total energy potential. In order to implement the sustainable utilization of biomass sources, the study specified the barriers and challenges of biomass utilization in these countries and proposed a sustainable approach of biomass energy, by comparing the way of traditional biomass utilization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determining Health Index of Transmission Line Asset using Condition-Based Method
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Assessment of overhead transmission lines is a crucial task in the asset management of electric power infrastructures. Any assets have different life spans and require proper assessment and maintenance actions. Disruption of the power supply may cause national problems. Therefore, it is essential [...] Read more.
Assessment of overhead transmission lines is a crucial task in the asset management of electric power infrastructures. Any assets have different life spans and require proper assessment and maintenance actions. Disruption of the power supply may cause national problems. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that the distribution and transmission of electric power from the power plant to end consumers is achieved without fail. This paper presents a proposed framework of health index of the transmission line using a condition-based method. This study refers to previous methods in determining the health index of electrical power assets, mainly transformer and transmission line. Three main indicators contributed and need to be considered in determining the health index. The indicators are structural, electrical and environmental aspects. The health index of these three indicators with 14 items was calculated, and the overall health index of the transmission line determined. From the case study conducted for this study, the specific location, tower and item can be acknowledged that cause the failure and the service interruption of energy supply to the consumer. It is found that the implementation of the health index calculation gives a more accurate description of the health status of a transmission line. The health index can be used for the prioritizing of maintenance, refurbishment or replacement to avoid disruption. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Modeling of Some Operating Parameters Required for the Development of Fixed Bed Small Scale Pyrolysis Plant
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
In recent years, we have read a lot of research aimed at creating a small, easy-to-mobilize pyrolysis unit. But these devices were not efficiently designed. According to literature data, small equipment (5.0–50 kW) has to be considered differently on the combustion aspects, compared [...] Read more.
In recent years, we have read a lot of research aimed at creating a small, easy-to-mobilize pyrolysis unit. But these devices were not efficiently designed. According to literature data, small equipment (5.0–50 kW) has to be considered differently on the combustion aspects, compared to a larger pyrolysis unit. The main purpose of our research is to determine the operating characteristics of a small fixed bedding CHP (combined heat and power) pyrolysis power plant. At the design stage, it is also critical to know the properties of the biomass (usually different biological wastes) used on the input side. The use of a wide diversity of biomass waste may result in the volume of material remains and the energy produced is not usable in the right form. To obtain a clear picture of the combustion conditions, a fixed bedding pilot pyrolysis device was made. With the measurements in the experimental apparatus, we have a clearer picture of the changes in some of combustion parameters. We have examined exactly how the size and hardness of biomass materials affect the efficiency of pyrolysis. By modelling the “mass change”—with the knowledge of the material content, physical characteristics, and the parameters of the pyrolysis equipment—the amount of the expected material remains, and combustion conditions can be predicted with a mathematical function. We have found an appropriate mathematical model (R2 = 0.8758) to describe the relationship between gas production and material structure for a given period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Forest Management Based on Local Culture of Dayak Kotabaru in the Perspective of Customary Law for a Sustainable Future and Prosperity of the Local Community
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Forest management in Indonesia has not yet been able to realize the constitutional mandate which was followed by uncontrolled forest destruction. Implementing a good forest government system is necessary. Therefore, it is essential to give indigenous peoples the authority to play a more [...] Read more.
Forest management in Indonesia has not yet been able to realize the constitutional mandate which was followed by uncontrolled forest destruction. Implementing a good forest government system is necessary. Therefore, it is essential to give indigenous peoples the authority to play a more critical role in forest management in the future. This study aims to find a form of sustainable forest management and sanctions for the perpetrators of forest destruction based on Dayak Kotabaru’s indigenous people. This study uses the normative juridical method that focuses on data in the form of primary, secondary, and tertiary legal materials. While the objectives of this study are to review and describe the problems due to the absence of legal protection for customary rights, we also examine the extent of forest management by the Dayak Kotabaru’s customary law and seek to formulate forest management solutions in Indonesia based on the local culture as a prescriptive future policy. The results of this study indicate that a large amount of permits, given by the government to the private sector for forests in possession of indigenous peoples, are overlapping and as a result have increasingly marginalized the indigenous community and acted as a drawback to development. Forest management through the local culture, such as the Bera system in Dayak Kotabaru, can be beneficial for the local community, because locals will enjoy the production of farms and gardens, the soil will be naturally fertile because of a four year interlude, and the forest will remain sustainable as less forest area is cut down. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Willingness to Pay for Watershed Management
Received: 10 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Equitable payments for ecosystem services are emerging as a viable tool to protect and restore ecosystems. Unlike previous studies using contingent valuation approach in Ethiopia, this study is unique in its scope and target users. It explores the possibility of payment for watershed [...] Read more.
Equitable payments for ecosystem services are emerging as a viable tool to protect and restore ecosystems. Unlike previous studies using contingent valuation approach in Ethiopia, this study is unique in its scope and target users. It explores the possibility of payment for watershed services as an economic tool in supporting and promoting sustainable land management and financing community-based watershed investments from electric users at a national level. We examine the sensitivity of users’ ability to generate funds for watershed services for sustainable watershed management through the raising of small amounts of money added onto a monthly electrical bill. Sampling frame covered four of the nine regional states of Ethiopia with more than 86% coverage dating back to 2014. A total of 501 urban and rural households and 100 organizations were interviewed over a five-year period from 2014–2019. We used a multistage sampling technique; we first selected cities, towns, and villages based on several data collection methodologies. The findings indicate that about 84% and 90% of households and organizations, respectively, showed their willingness to pay (WTP) additional fees for watershed management that could potentially reduce upland degradation and siltation. Specifically, more than half of the households and organizations and industries were willing to pay the surcharge for watershed management. Likewise, we developed a model estimation of results which verified the WTP amount, respectively. We concluded that funds generated from electric users play a possible role in contributing to the financing of watershed management efforts and could be taken as an important lesson for the watershed management continuum efforts Ethiopia-wide and in other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple-effect Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessViewpoint
Concerns to Be Considered during Recycling Operations
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Recycling should in principle be the goal in all aspects of society. There are, however, limitations, as any recycling task may lead to pollution in the ground, water or air. In the most extreme case, recycling may lead to threats to human life. [...] Read more.
Recycling should in principle be the goal in all aspects of society. There are, however, limitations, as any recycling task may lead to pollution in the ground, water or air. In the most extreme case, recycling may lead to threats to human life. In this paper, we take examples from key industries where recycling can be harmful and where closed and sealed dumps should have been used, rather than the attempt to recycle such as the oil and gas industry, the construction industry and farming. Reuse, hereby defined as use for another purpose without industrial processes, will be briefly discussed. The objectives of the paper are to remind key industries about their responsibility to recycle in a manner that does not harm the environment and to promote recycling in a sustainable way. It is suggested that a recommendation to key industries be made, to carefully assess all consequences of recycling could enhance the recycling industry’s contribution to a cleaner world. The paper is intended to serve as a reminder that recycling in all industries requires careful planning and engineering to represent a valuable contribution towards a sustainable society. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geoheritage Resource of Small Mud Lakes in the Semi-Arid Environments of the Russian South
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
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Abstract
Lakes constitute a significant freshwater resource and are often regarded as being an important part of a country’s natural heritage. However, their geological heritage (geoheritage) value remains significantly understudied. Three small lakes, namely the Salt Lake, the Gruzskoe Lake and the Big Yashalta [...] Read more.
Lakes constitute a significant freshwater resource and are often regarded as being an important part of a country’s natural heritage. However, their geological heritage (geoheritage) value remains significantly understudied. Three small lakes, namely the Salt Lake, the Gruzskoe Lake and the Big Yashalta Lake, located in the central part of the Russian South were studied in this paper. The main focus of this research was to search for relevant unique geological features. This paper established that these lakes are distinguishable from other lakes by the presence of dark-colored mud that is rich in sulfides and methane. As a result of excessive summer evaporation, the lakes desiccate (partly or even fully) and this results in exposure of the mud as well as the formation of salt crystals and crusts. This bottom mud (peloid, therapeutic mud) forms as a result of highly-complex biogeochemical processes in semi-arid environments. This mud is interpreted as being part of the lake’s geoheritage as it belongs to sedimentary, geochemical and other types. Moreover, this geoheritage has a high ranking nationally. The most representative example can be found at the Big Yashalta Lake and for that reason, this lake is proposed as a geosite. Established sites of geoheritage importance are vital to geoscience research and geotourism activities and thus, these sites are considered to be a resource. Together with the development of local ecotourism and the use of peloids for the health industry purposes, the exploitation of this geoheritage resource would contribute to the sustainable development of the local area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
What is Benefit Sharing? Respecting Indigenous Rights and Addressing Inequities in Arctic Resource Projects
Received: 17 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
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Abstract
International standards refer to Indigenous peoples’ right to benefit from resource development, participate in decision-making and determine priorities in development planning that directly affects them. While good practice exists in benefit sharing, Indigenous peoples still lack opportunities for a meaningful role in strategic [...] Read more.
International standards refer to Indigenous peoples’ right to benefit from resource development, participate in decision-making and determine priorities in development planning that directly affects them. While good practice exists in benefit sharing, Indigenous peoples still lack opportunities for a meaningful role in strategic planning. In his role as UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, James Anaya identified a ‘preferred model’ of resource development in which Indigenous peoples have greater control over planning decisions and project implementation, and consequently a more meaningful share of the benefits of resource development. This paper explores the requirements of international standards and guidance alongside different models of benefit sharing in practice by extractive industries in Arctic and sub-Arctic contexts. It is based primarily on desk-based analysis of international hard and soft law and industry standards, while also drawing on ethnographic field research in Russia and Norway. It highlights good practice within mainstream development scenarios and identifies models of benefit sharing that represent a greater degree of Indigenous participation and control. It concludes that there is a need to consider benefit sharing within an overall paradigm that allows greater space for Indigenous voices in decision making, including at the strategic planning stage. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Rational Behavior of an Enterprise in the Energy Market in a Circular Economy
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
In order to ensure their market sustainability, it is essential for energy-intensive industrial companies to address the issues of efficient energy use. Companies that are prepared to embrace tariff hikes, structural changes in fuel and energy markets, and a shortage of energy resources [...] Read more.
In order to ensure their market sustainability, it is essential for energy-intensive industrial companies to address the issues of efficient energy use. Companies that are prepared to embrace tariff hikes, structural changes in fuel and energy markets, and a shortage of energy resources have a wider range of options to respond to the new challenges posed by the external environment and to reduce their risks. This task becomes particularly relevant in the context of the development of the circular economy that is aimed at resource optimization, energy conservation, zero-waste manufacturing, and business models that are based on maximum operational efficiency. This study aims to develop a methodology for rational behavior of the energy consumer in the context of the circular economy. The concept of “rational behavior” is defined by the authors as the intention to make the maximum use of the advantages and potential of energy markets in order to reduce the cost of energy supply, increase the level of electrification in industrial production, and use the capabilities of their own energy business. The article describes the main principles of rational behavior that serve as the foundation for effective implementation of various strategies (that of the seller, buyer, or both) in a company. A link is shown between rational behavior and energy market potential management in a company as a mix of technological, economic, and organizational activities performed by the energy consumer in a competitive market and effective market risk management. Forms of off-grid power supply and conditions for their application in manufacturing, for example, mini-combined heat and power (CHP) plants and quadgeneration plants at large metallurgical facilities were analyzed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Assessment of Innovation Development in the Arctic Regions of Russia Based on the Triple Helix Model
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
This article presents the methodology and tools for the econometric analysis and assessment of the innovation development of the Russian Arctic regions, under the Triple Helix concept. The econometric calculations based on this methodology allow the express assessment of innovation development of a [...] Read more.
This article presents the methodology and tools for the econometric analysis and assessment of the innovation development of the Russian Arctic regions, under the Triple Helix concept. The econometric calculations based on this methodology allow the express assessment of innovation development of a region and the contribution of the science and education complex (SEdC), industries, and the government, to the integral index of innovation development of this region, using minimum key statistical indicators in the field of science and innovation. The calculation results obtained using the author’s methodology show the adequacy of the express rating, with respect to the rating data obtained using other methodologies. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is the elimination of the human factors arising from the weighing coefficients and the results of the expert assessments used in the other rating methodologies. The calculation results obtained using this methodology might be useful to the executive bodies of state authorities, business entities, and scientific and educational institutions, for an express assessment and for making various organizational and managerial decisions on innovation development in a region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Comprehensive Development of the Arctic Territory)
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Open AccessArticle
The Compensation for Losses to Indigenous Peoples Due to the Arctic Industrial Development in Benefit Sharing Paradigm
Received: 17 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
This article discusses the results of research on the benefit sharing system in Russia focusing on compensation of losses to indigenous peoples due to industrial development in the Arctic. The authors analyzed a Russian case-study on the economic mechanisms of coordination and harmonization [...] Read more.
This article discusses the results of research on the benefit sharing system in Russia focusing on compensation of losses to indigenous peoples due to industrial development in the Arctic. The authors analyzed a Russian case-study on the economic mechanisms of coordination and harmonization of multi-vector and conflicting interests in the process of industrial development of traditional lands. The developed recommendations will allow, on the one hand, compensating the losses of the indigenous communities, and, on the other hand, to engage indigenous peoples in the process of environmental management and socio-economic development of their territories. The object of the research was the Republic of Sakha and the indigenous communities of the remote Anabar region. The calculation of losses was considered. The authors suggest using this tool for the traditional lands development, because it helps to define fair compensation due to project impacts and to form a fund for sustainable community development. The considered project was exploring and extracting placer diamonds in Polovinnaya River in Yakutia. This paper also presents the social poll results organized in the indigenous communities in 2017. The results helped to formulate the recommendations for the business on benefit sharing agreements with Anabar communities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
GIS and Remote Sensing Aided Information for Soil Moisture Estimation: A Comparative Study of Interpolation Techniques
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Soil moisture represents a vital component of the ecosystem, sustaining life-supporting activities at micro and mega scales. It is a highly required parameter that may vary significantly both spatially and temporally. Due to this fact, its estimation is challenging and often hard to [...] Read more.
Soil moisture represents a vital component of the ecosystem, sustaining life-supporting activities at micro and mega scales. It is a highly required parameter that may vary significantly both spatially and temporally. Due to this fact, its estimation is challenging and often hard to obtain especially over large, heterogeneous surfaces. This study aimed at comparing the performance of four widely used interpolation methods in estimating soil moisture using GPS-aided information and remote sensing. The Distance Weighting (IDW), Spline, Ordinary Kriging models and Kriging with External Drift (KED) interpolation techniques were employed to estimate soil moisture using 82 soil moisture field-measured values. Of those measurements, data from 54 soil moisture locations were used for calibration and the remaining data for validation purposes. The study area selected was Varanasi City, India covering an area of 1535 km2. The soil moisture distribution results demonstrate the lowest RMSE (root mean square error, 8.69%) for KED, in comparison to the other approaches. For KED, the soil organic carbon information was incorporated as a secondary variable. The study results contribute towards efforts to overcome the issue of scarcity of soil moisture information at local and regional scales. It also provides an understandable method to generate and produce reliable spatial continuous datasets of this parameter, demonstrating the added value of geospatial analysis techniques for this purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple-effect Water Resources Management)
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