Special Issue "Water Resources and Climate Change"

A special issue of Resources (ISSN 2079-9276).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Manolis G. Grillakis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania GR73100, Greece
Interests: hydrology; water resources; climate change
Dr. Aristeidis Koutroulis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece
Interests: hydrology; water resources; extremes; droughts; floods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate change has a strong impact on the global water cycle, affecting the availability and variability of water resources. Recent research advances strongly suggest that climate change is expected to alter the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff and soil moisture. Such changes raise concerns for possible dislocations in societal and economic development, affecting future water resource planning and management. Adding to the already limited amount of available water in several regions, the demand is expected to continue rising with socioeconomic developments and population growth. This will affect water and food security, energy production, and ecosystem services. This Special Issue aims to increase the scientific knowledge on water resources and climate change interaction at the local, regional and global scale. Contributions tackling the theme of water resources and climate change in their broader sense, including but not limited to sustainable water resource management, changes in seasonality, soil moisture, river flow, dam storage under climate change, hydrological modelling and projection, arid region hydrology, droughts, water resource planning and management, under the perspective of a changing climate, are welcome.

Dr. Manolis G. Grillakis
Dr. Aristeidis Koutroulis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Resources is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Climate change
  • Water resources
  • Water resources planning, management
  • Hydrological projections
  • Hydrological modeling
  • Hydrological processes
  • Droughts
  • Soil moisture
  • Water sustainability

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Article
Statistical Approach to the Problem of Selecting the Most Appropriate Model for Managing Stormwater in Newly Designed Multi-Family Housing Estates
Resources 2020, 9(9), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090110 - 05 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Stormwater is a valuable resource, whose management in harmony with nature is one of the main challenges of modern water management. The problems encountered are additionally exacerbated by the lack of space for the development of sustainable drainage systems. For that reason, new [...] Read more.
Stormwater is a valuable resource, whose management in harmony with nature is one of the main challenges of modern water management. The problems encountered are additionally exacerbated by the lack of space for the development of sustainable drainage systems. For that reason, new housing estates should be designed considering efficient stormwater management. This paper assesses five stormwater management models to determine the statistically most appropriate model for managing stormwater in newly designed multi-family housing estates using multi-criteria analysis. Various options were assessed by means of the scoring method based on six groups of criteria (political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental). The research considered the different views and priorities of the experts involved in stormwater management in Poland. A survey conducted among them showed that the statistically most suitable way of managing stormwater is its infiltration into the ground with the use of infiltration basins or tanks. Only if the possibility of their application is excluded, should the application of other models of stormwater management, especially its retention, be considered. It is expected that the research results presented in this paper will be a guide for investors and developers, and their use will allow people who are not experts in the field of stormwater management to make appropriate decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Article
A Case Study of the Retention Efficiency of a Traditional and Innovative Drainage System
Resources 2020, 9(9), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090108 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
To determine the effectiveness of the retention capacity utilization of traditional and innovative drainage systems equipped with damming partitions, the detailed model tests were carried out. The research results allowed indicating what values of the hydraulic parameter of the innovative drainage system should [...] Read more.
To determine the effectiveness of the retention capacity utilization of traditional and innovative drainage systems equipped with damming partitions, the detailed model tests were carried out. The research results allowed indicating what values of the hydraulic parameter of the innovative drainage system should be adopted in order to effectively use the retention capacity of drainage collectors. The adoption of short distances between the LKR damming partitions and a high level of permissible rainfall of stormwater Hper turned out to be the most effective solution. In the most favorable conditions, the peak flow was reduced by up to 60% (717.46 dm3/s) compared to the values established in the traditional drainage system (1807.62 dm3/s). The benefits obtained resulted from the increased retention efficiency of the drainage system after equipping it with the damming partitions. It was found that the innovative system always achieved the maximum retention capacity with longer rainfall compared to the traditional system. In the real catchment area, an increase in the use of the retention capacity of the drainage system, from an initial value of 65% for a traditional system to almost 88% for an innovative system, was also found. Very large variability of the volume of accumulated stormwater in the conduits of the traditional and innovative drainage system was observed during rainfall, which generated the peak rainfall discharge in the innovative system. With rainfall of TRK duration, the innovative system accumulated up to 746.50 m3 more stormwater compared to a traditional system, which was 49.2% of the total retention capacity of the drainage system, with a value of 1515.76 m3. The approach to reduce the growing flood risk in cities provided the right approach to long-term urban drainage system planning, especially since traditional drainage systems are still the leading way to transport stormwater in cities. In addition, the innovative sewage system gives the possibility of favorable cooperation with any objects (LID) and retention tanks with any hydraulic model. The implementation of an innovative system allows achieving significant financial savings and reducing the need to reserve areas designated for infrastructure investments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Article
Variability of Air Temperature, Precipitation and Outflows in the Vistula Basin (Poland)
Resources 2020, 9(9), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090103 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
This study examines trends in temperature, precipitation and discharge rates over a 65-year observation period (1951–2015) and compares the two sub-periods 1951–1980 and 1981–2015. The research was carried out on annual and monthly values. The research area is the basin of the Vistula, [...] Read more.
This study examines trends in temperature, precipitation and discharge rates over a 65-year observation period (1951–2015) and compares the two sub-periods 1951–1980 and 1981–2015. The research was carried out on annual and monthly values. The research area is the basin of the Vistula, the largest river in Poland. The main aim of the study was to assess how changes in air temperature and precipitation in the Vistula basin have translated into river hydrology. In the 65-year study period, a lack of statistically significant trends in outflow prevailed. Compared to the full period 1951–2015, the sub-period 1951–1980 stood out for its statistically significant increase in annual average outflows. In the years 1981–2015 a slight falling trend in outflow of the Vistula was noted, though the values were not statistically significant. This was caused by significant warming during this period (an increase in air temperature of between 0.27 and 0.45 °C per decade, depending on location) and a slight increase in precipitation. Seasonal changes in outflows were more volatile. The results indicate that the Vistula’s water resources have fallen slightly as a result of changes in air temperature and precipitation and due to the river’s significant hydrological inertia, which in turn results from the catchment being very large and physiographically diverse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Article
An Analysis of Stormwater Management Variants in Urban Catchments
Resources 2020, 9(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020019 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2797
Abstract
In order to identify the most effective variants for reducing flood risk in cities and to provide protection for water resources, an in-depth study was carried out. The research results allowed for the identification of sustainable drainage infrastructure solutions that should be used [...] Read more.
In order to identify the most effective variants for reducing flood risk in cities and to provide protection for water resources, an in-depth study was carried out. The research results allowed for the identification of sustainable drainage infrastructure solutions that should be used to increase the efficiency of traditional drainage systems. The most effective solution turned out to be the simultaneous use of low impact development facilities and stormwater flow control devices in drainage systems (Variant IV). Applicationof this variant (maximum discharge QOmax = 246.39 dm3/s) allowed for the reduction of the peak flow by as much as 86% in relation to those values that were established in the traditional drainage system (maximum discharge QOmax = 1807.62 dm3/s). The use of Variant IV allowed for a combination of the advantages of low impact development (LID) facilities and stormwater flow control devices in drainage systems while limiting their disadvantages. In practice, the flow of rainwater from the catchment area to the drainage system was limited, the share of green areas increased, and the drainage system retention capacity grew. The proposed approach for reducing the increasing flood risk in cities and providing protection for water resources provides a structured approach to long-term urban drainage system planning and land use guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Article
The Quality of Rainwater Collected from Roofs and the Possibility of Its Economic Use
Resources 2020, 9(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9020012 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
The large temporal and spatial variability of rainwater quality, as well as the relatively small number of tests, makes the preliminary assessment of its economic exploitation difficult. Determining the relationship between the conditions and location of rainwater collection and rainwater quality would help [...] Read more.
The large temporal and spatial variability of rainwater quality, as well as the relatively small number of tests, makes the preliminary assessment of its economic exploitation difficult. Determining the relationship between the conditions and location of rainwater collection and rainwater quality would help indicate the range of options for rainwater use, as well as the parameters that require improvement. The aim of the presented article is to establish the physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of different rainwater sources and, from the results obtained, determine the possibilities for its safe use in households. The research was carried out for two years. Samples of rainfall were collected from spring to fall from the following roofing materials: Concrete roof tiles, ceramic roof tiles, galvanized steel sheet, and epoxy-coated terrace. The physical, chemical, and microbiological quality were assessed on the basis of the pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, the concentration of biogenic compounds, the concentration of chosen elements, the number of Escherichia coli, and the number of fecal streptococci. Significant bacterial contamination, decreased pH, and increased turbidity were identified in the water, depending on the parameters of the roofing washed by the rainfall and the intensity and frequency of precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Article
Groundwater Flow Model and Statistical Comparisons Used in Sustainability of Aquifers in Arid Regions
Resources 2019, 8(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8030134 - 27 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
Groundwater provides the most important of the water resources used in the maintenance of communities in arid and semi-arid regions. In these areas, the usage of deep wells with motorized pumps in combination with the lack of effective regulatory policies and high human [...] Read more.
Groundwater provides the most important of the water resources used in the maintenance of communities in arid and semi-arid regions. In these areas, the usage of deep wells with motorized pumps in combination with the lack of effective regulatory policies and high human population growth (increase the water demand) impact the quality of the groundwater. This is especially the case for the San José del Cabo aquifer, in Baja California Sur. In the present study the groundwater flow system is analyzed in order to recognize the impact from variations in groundwater extraction and recharge on the phreatic levels and discharge values. In order to achieve this goal, a groundwater model was generated using the MODFLOW program. Different scenarios of extraction and recharge were calculated, based on different estimations of population growth. All the scenarios result in decreasing groundwater levels. As an important result, a relationship between the phreatic level and the extraction volume was found for the middle zone of the aquifer, where an average annual decrease of 0.5 m was observed from every 5 × 106 m3 additional extraction volume. This zone is up to three times more susceptible to changes in extraction values than the southern zone. As the results show, the San José del Cabo aquifer is in a fragile state where an increment in extraction is not an option without the use of remediation technics or new sources for water supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Article
Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Flow Variability of the Indus River
Resources 2019, 8(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8020103 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3420
Abstract
Considerable controversy exists among researchers over the behavior of glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) with regard to climate change. Glacier monitoring studies using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques have given rise to contradictory results for various reasons. [...] Read more.
Considerable controversy exists among researchers over the behavior of glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) with regard to climate change. Glacier monitoring studies using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques have given rise to contradictory results for various reasons. This uncertain situation deserves a thorough examination of the statistical trends of temperature and streamflow at several gauging stations, rather than relying solely on climate projections. Planning for equitable distribution of water among provinces in Pakistan requires accurate estimation of future water resources under changing flow regimes. Due to climate change, hydrological parameters are changing significantly; consequently the pattern of flows are changing. The present study assesses spatial and temporal flow variability and identifies drought and flood periods using flow data from the Indus River. Trends and variations in river flows were investigated by applying the Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s method. We divide the annual water cycle into two six-month and four three-month seasons based on the local water cycle pattern. A decile indices technique is used to determine drought and flood periods. Overall, the analysis indicates that flow and temperature variabilities are greater seasonally than annually. At the Tarbela Dam, Indus River, annual mean, maximum, and minimum flows decreased steeply from 1986–2010 compared to the 1961–1985 period. Seasonal flow analysis unveils a more complex flow regime: Winter (October–March), (December–February), and spring (March–May) seasons demonstrate increasing flows along with increasing maximum temperature, whereas summer (April–September), (June–August) and autumn (September–November) showed decreasing trends in the flow. Spatial analysis shows that minimum discharge increased at the higher elevation gauging station (Kharmong, 2542 m.a.s.l.) and decreased at the lower elevation gauging station (Tarbela). Over the same timeframe, maximum and mean discharges decreased more substantially at lower elevations than at higher elevations. Drought and flood analysis revealed 2000–2004 to be the driest period in the Indus Basin for this record. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Erratum
Erratum: Arfan M., et al. Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Flow Variability of the Indus River. Resources 2019, 8, 103
Resources 2019, 8(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8030142 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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