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Biology, Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 102 articles

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9 pages, 1043 KiB  
Review
A Review of Eales’ Disease and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
by Kailey Bae, Cheldon Ann Alcantara, Jonathan Kim, Crystal Tsui and Vishwanath Venketaraman
Biology 2024, 13(6), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060460 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Eales’ Disease is an idiopathic peripheral retinal vasculopathy first described by British ophthalmologist Henry Eales in 1880. Most prevalent in healthy young males, Eales’ Disease often presents with symptoms of sudden blurry or decreased vision and floaters. Although no clear, standardized stage of [...] Read more.
Eales’ Disease is an idiopathic peripheral retinal vasculopathy first described by British ophthalmologist Henry Eales in 1880. Most prevalent in healthy young males, Eales’ Disease often presents with symptoms of sudden blurry or decreased vision and floaters. Although no clear, standardized stage of the disease exists, it progresses through three overlapping phases—peripheral periphlebitis, ischemic capillary ischemia, and retinal neovascularization. The etiology of Eales’ Disease is unknown and appears to be multifactorial, but post-TB hypersensitivity to tuberculoprotein and M. tuberculosis DNA is the most potential cause in the etiology of Eales’ Disease. With a thorough examination of the clinical presentation and diagnosis of Eales’ Disease—incorporating the latest clinical findings related to the condition—the investigation for Eales’ Disease extends to explore recent potential connections with other ocular conditions or possible cofactors, such as glaucoma, uncontrolled diabetes, drug abuse, or inherited medical conditions. Moreover, focusing on critical insights into the treatment of Eales’ Disease across its various stages of progression, the overarching goal of the paper is to refine and suggest possible future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Widening our understanding of pathophysiology and utilizing various treatment options for individual patients holds immense potential for advancing ocular medicine and optimizing patient care for people with this disease with unknown pathophysiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vision and the Immune System)
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15 pages, 4876 KiB  
Article
Rotation Culture of Macroalgae Based on Photosynthetic Physiological Characteristics of Algae
by Xiaopeng Cheng, Xu Zhao, Jun Lin, Shouyu Zhang, Zhenhua Wang, Hong Huang, Kai Wang and Jianqu Chen
Biology 2024, 13(6), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060459 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 145
Abstract
Seaweed farming has made outstanding contributions to food supply and the restoration of the ecological environment despite the limitations in production and ecological effects due to the current intensive farming of single algae species. These limitations can be overcome by selecting suitable algal [...] Read more.
Seaweed farming has made outstanding contributions to food supply and the restoration of the ecological environment despite the limitations in production and ecological effects due to the current intensive farming of single algae species. These limitations can be overcome by selecting suitable algal species based on their physiological characteristics and by constructing a large-scale seaweed rotation model. This study carried out a trial culture in aquaculture sea areas, and performed in situ monitoring of the environmental conditions and physiological characteristics of Saccharina japonica, Hizikia fusiformis, and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the three macroalgae at different times was conducted to determine their response characteristics to environmental factors. The results showed that: (1) The three macroalgae had varying light tolerance. The effective quantum yield of Hizikia fusiformis and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis remained unchanged during the changes in light environment, while that of Saccharina japonica first decreased and then recovered. (2) The relative electron transport rates of the three macroalgae were significantly different under different temperature conditions. Hizikia fusiformis and Saccharina japonica exhibited the highest relative electron transport rates (70.45 and 106.75, respectively) in May (20.3 °C). Notably, Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis demonstrated good growth and exhibited the highest relative electron transport rate (93.07) in September (27.5 °C). These findings collectively support the feasibility of establishing a macroalgae rotation model. Based on the combined environmental conditions of the seas in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Fujian, a macroalgae rotation model was proposed. The application of this model in the construction of artificial seaweed farms in marine ranches can provide a stable output of large-scale seaweed production and ecological benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology, Ecology and Management of Aquatic Macrophytes)
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10 pages, 1149 KiB  
Article
Gazing Strategies among Sentinels of a Cooperative Breeder Are Repeatable but Unrelated to Survival
by Guy Beauchamp and Sahas Barve
Biology 2024, 13(6), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060458 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Vigilance is a common behavioural adaptation to increase the chances of detecting predators before it is too late to escape. Behavioural traits are often repeatable among individuals over the long term, suggesting differences in personality. Earlier studies have documented individual consistency in the [...] Read more.
Vigilance is a common behavioural adaptation to increase the chances of detecting predators before it is too late to escape. Behavioural traits are often repeatable among individuals over the long term, suggesting differences in personality. Earlier studies have documented individual consistency in the time allocated to vigilance. However, little is known about individual consistency in the ways vigilance is achieved from one moment to another and whether different patterns of vigilance among individuals are associated with survival. We aimed to determine whether sentinels of a cooperative breeder showed individual consistency in their vigilance and if individual variation was related to annual survival. During sentinel bouts from vantage points, Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) turn their heads from side to side to monitor their surroundings. Over three field seasons, we found that the head-turning frequency was repeatable in breeders but not in juveniles or non-breeding helpers. The moderate repeatability in breeders was not related to survival. Our results suggest that the head-turning frequency in sentinels of the Florida scrub-jay is repeatable in breeders but not in less experienced juveniles or helpers and, therefore, likely becomes more repeatable as individuals age. The assumption that individual variation in vigilance is related to survival was unsupported in our study and requires further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioural Biology)
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13 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Encapsulated Butyric Acid and Zinc as a Feed Additive for Lambs Abruptly Transitioned to a Grain-Based Diet
by Forest L. Francis, Thiago Lauro Maia Ribeiro, Doug LaFleur, Jerilyn E. Hergenreder and Zachary K. Smith
Biology 2024, 13(6), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060457 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Butyric acid is attributed to gastrointestinal epithelial development and health and two studies were conducted to determine if supplementing encapsulated butyric acid and zinc (BZ) in lambs abruptly transitioned to a finishing diet has effects on growth performance, efficiency of dietary net energy [...] Read more.
Butyric acid is attributed to gastrointestinal epithelial development and health and two studies were conducted to determine if supplementing encapsulated butyric acid and zinc (BZ) in lambs abruptly transitioned to a finishing diet has effects on growth performance, efficiency of dietary net energy utilization, rumen morphometrics, small intestinal histology, and carcass traits. Polypay wethers (n = 84; initial shrunk body weight = 38.8 kg ± 4.8 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design study. Wethers were abruptly transitioned from a high roughage-based diet to a 100% concentrate-based diet and dietary treatments were 0 or 2 g BZ/kg of diet dry matter. Study 1 evaluated growth performance and carcass traits of lambs over a 59.5 d feeding period, and Study 2 evaluated changes in rumen morphometrics and small intestine histology in serial harvested lambs. Wethers supplemented with BZ had increased body wall thickness, decreased calculated boneless closely trimmed retail cuts, and decreased red meat yield (p ≤ 0.03) compared to non-supplemented wethers. Linear effects (p ≤ 0.01) for harvest date were observed for most rumen and small intestine measurements. Supplementing wethers with BZ did not improve growth performance, carcass traits, or rumen and small intestine measurements. The effects of BZ supplementation on fat deposition in ruminants should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Zoology)
16 pages, 5580 KiB  
Review
Review of Allelopathy in Green Tides: The Case of Ulva prolifera in the South Yellow Sea
by Yinqing Zeng, Xinlan Yang, Zhangyi Xia, Runze Chen, Faqing He, Jianheng Zhang and Peimin He
Biology 2024, 13(6), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060456 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 282
Abstract
The proliferation of large green macroalgae in marine environments has led to the occurrence of green tides, particularly in the South Yellow Sea region of China, where Ulva prolifera has been identified as the primary species responsible for the world’s largest green tide [...] Read more.
The proliferation of large green macroalgae in marine environments has led to the occurrence of green tides, particularly in the South Yellow Sea region of China, where Ulva prolifera has been identified as the primary species responsible for the world’s largest green tide events. Allelopathy among plants is a critical factor influencing the dynamics of green tides. This review synthesizes previous research on allelopathic interactions within green tides, categorizing four extensively studied allelochemicals: fatty acids, aldehydes, phenols, and terpenes. The mechanisms by which these compounds regulate the physiological processes of green tide algae are examined in depth. Additionally, recent advancements in the rapid detection of allelochemicals are summarized, and their potential applications in monitoring green tide events are discussed. The integration of advanced monitoring technologies, such as satellite observation and environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis, with allelopathic substance detection is also explored. This combined approach addresses gaps in understanding the dynamic processes of green tide formation and provides a more comprehensive insight into the mechanisms driving these phenomena. The findings and new perspectives presented in this review aim to offer valuable insights and inspiration for researchers and policymakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology, Ecology and Management of Aquatic Macrophytes)
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14 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Effect of Statin Lipophilicity on the Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
by Goda Glebavičiūtė, Akshay Kumar Vijaya and Giulio Preta
Biology 2024, 13(6), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060455 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 346
Abstract
The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, statins, are drugs used globally for lowering the level of cholesterol in the blood. Different clinical studies of statins in cancer patients have indicated a decrease in cancer mortality, particularly in patients using lipophilic statins compared to those on [...] Read more.
The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, statins, are drugs used globally for lowering the level of cholesterol in the blood. Different clinical studies of statins in cancer patients have indicated a decrease in cancer mortality, particularly in patients using lipophilic statins compared to those on hydrophilic statins. In this paper, we selected two structurally different statins (simvastatin and pravastatin) with different lipophilicities and investigated their effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Lipophilic simvastatin highly influences cancer cell growth and survival in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, while pravastatin, due to its hydrophilic structure and limited cellular uptake, showed minimal cytotoxic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Biology)
26 pages, 3339 KiB  
Article
Genetic and Phenotypic Evaluation of European Maize Landraces as a Tool for Conservation and Valorization of Agrobiodiversity
by Carlotta Balconi, Agustin Galaretto, Rosa Ana Malvar, Stéphane D. Nicolas, Rita Redaelli, Violeta Andjelkovic, Pedro Revilla, Cyril Bauland, Brigitte Gouesnard, Ana Butron, Alessio Torri, Ana Maria Barata, Natalija Kravic, Valérie Combes, Pedro Mendes-Moreira, Danela Murariu, Hrvoje Šarčević, Beate Schierscher-Viret, Morgane Vincent, Anne Zanetto, Bettina Kessel, Delphine Madur, Tristan Mary-Huard, André Pereira, Domnica Daniela Placinta, Alexandre Strigens, Alain Charcosset and Sandra Goritschnigadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Biology 2024, 13(6), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060454 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 274
Abstract
The ECPGR European Evaluation Network (EVA) for Maize involves genebanks, research institutions, and private breeding companies from nine countries focusing on the valorization of maize genetic resources across Europe. This study describes a diverse collection of 626 local landraces and traditional varieties of [...] Read more.
The ECPGR European Evaluation Network (EVA) for Maize involves genebanks, research institutions, and private breeding companies from nine countries focusing on the valorization of maize genetic resources across Europe. This study describes a diverse collection of 626 local landraces and traditional varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) from nine European genebanks, including criteria for selection of the collection and its genetic and phenotypic diversity. High-throughput pool genotyping grouped the landraces into nine genetic groups with a threshold of 0.6 admixture, while 277 accessions were designated admixed and likely to have resulted from previous breeding activities. The grouping correlated well with the geographic origins of the collection, also reflecting the various pathways of introduction of maize to Europe. Phenotypic evaluations of 588 accessions for flowering time and plant architecture in multilocation trials over three years confirmed the great diversity within the collection, although phenotypic clusters only partially correlated with the genetic grouping. The EVA approach promotes conservation of genetic resources and opens an opportunity to increase genetic variability for developing improved varieties and populations for farmers, with better adaptation to specific environments and greater tolerance to various stresses. As such, the EVA maize collection provides valuable sources of diversity for facing climate change due to the varieties’ local adaptation. Full article
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14 pages, 1178 KiB  
Brief Report
Exposure to Waterpipe Smoke Disrupts Erythrocyte Homeostasis of BALB/c Mice
by Zannatul Ferdous, Sumaya Beegam, Nur E. Zaaba and Abderrahim Nemmar
Biology 2024, 13(6), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060453 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 268
Abstract
The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WPS) is increasing worldwide and is relatively high among youth and young adults. It has been shown, both experimentally and clinically, that WPS exposure adversely affects the cardiovascular and hematological systems through the generation of oxidative stress [...] Read more.
The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WPS) is increasing worldwide and is relatively high among youth and young adults. It has been shown, both experimentally and clinically, that WPS exposure adversely affects the cardiovascular and hematological systems through the generation of oxidative stress and inflammation. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of WPS exposure on erythrocytes, a major component of the hematological system, of BALB/c mice. Here, we assessed the effect of nose-only WPS exposure for four consecutive weeks on erythrocyte inflammation, oxidative stress, and eryptosis. The duration of the session was 30 min/day, 5 days/week. Control mice were exposed to air. Our results showed that the levels of C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase, and total nitric oxide (NO) were significantly increased in the plasma of WPS-exposed mice. The number of erythrocytes and the hematocrit were significantly decreased in WPS-exposed mice compared with the control group. Moreover, there was an increase in the erythrocyte fragility in mice exposed to WPS compared with those exposed to air. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase, LPO, reduced glutathione, catalase, and NO were significantly increased in the red blood cells (RBCs) of WPS-exposed mice. In addition, erythrocytes of the WPS-exposed group showed a significant increase in ATPase activity, Ca2+, annexin V binding, and calpain activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that WPS exposure elevated inflammation and oxidative stress in the plasma and induced hemolysis in vivo. It also caused alterations of RBCs oxidative stress and eryptosis in vitro. Our data confirm the detrimental impact of WPS on erythrocyte physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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18 pages, 8011 KiB  
Article
Predicting the Potential Distribution of Hypericum perforatum under Climate Change Scenarios Using a Maximum Entropy Model
by Yulan Hao, Pengbin Dong, Liyang Wang, Xiao Ke, Xiaofeng Hao, Gang He, Yuan Chen and Fengxia Guo
Biology 2024, 13(6), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060452 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 328
Abstract
H. perforatum, as one of the Traditional Chinese Medicinal materials, possesses a variety of pharmacological activities and high medicinal value. However, in recent years, the wild resources of H. perforatum have been severely depleted due to global climate change and human activities, [...] Read more.
H. perforatum, as one of the Traditional Chinese Medicinal materials, possesses a variety of pharmacological activities and high medicinal value. However, in recent years, the wild resources of H. perforatum have been severely depleted due to global climate change and human activities, and artificial cultivation faces problems such as unstable yield and active ingredient content. This poses a serious obstacle to the development and utilization of its resources. Therefore, this experiment took H. perforatum as the research object and used 894 distribution records of H. perforatum and 36 climatic environmental factors, using the MaxEnt model and GIS technology to explore the main climatic factors affecting the distribution of H. perforatum. Additionally, by utilizing the principles of ecological niche theory, the potential suitable distribution regions of H. perforatum across past, present, and future timelines were predicted, which can ascertain the dynamics of its spatial distribution patterns and the trend of centroid migration. The results indicate that the main environmental factors affecting the geographical distribution of H. perforatum are solar radiation in April (Srad4), solar radiation in September (Srad9), mean temperature of driest quarter (Bio9), solar radiation in November (Srad11), annual mean temperature (Bio1), and annual precipitation (Bio12). Under future climate scenarios, there is a remarkable trend of expansion in the suitable distribution areas of H. perforatum. The centroid migration indicates a trend of migration towards the northwest direction and high-altitude areas. These results can provide a scientific basis for formulating conservation and sustainable use management strategies for H. perforatum resources. Full article
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28 pages, 6334 KiB  
Review
The Advancement and Application of the Single-Cell Transcriptome in Biological and Medical Research
by Kongwei Huang, Yixue Xu, Tong Feng, Hong Lan, Fei Ling, Hai Xiang and Qingyou Liu
Biology 2024, 13(6), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060451 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Single-cell RNA sequencing technology (scRNA-seq) has been steadily developing since its inception in 2009. Unlike bulk RNA-seq, scRNA-seq identifies the heterogeneity of tissue cells and reveals gene expression changes in individual cells at the microscopic level. Here, we review the development of scRNA-seq, [...] Read more.
Single-cell RNA sequencing technology (scRNA-seq) has been steadily developing since its inception in 2009. Unlike bulk RNA-seq, scRNA-seq identifies the heterogeneity of tissue cells and reveals gene expression changes in individual cells at the microscopic level. Here, we review the development of scRNA-seq, which has gone through iterations of reverse transcription, in vitro transcription, smart-seq, drop-seq, 10 × Genomics, and spatial single-cell transcriptome technologies. The technology of 10 × Genomics has been widely applied in medicine and biology, producing rich research results. Furthermore, this review presents a summary of the analytical process for single-cell transcriptome data and its integration with other omics analyses, including genomes, epigenomes, proteomes, and metabolomics. The single-cell transcriptome has a wide range of applications in biology and medicine. This review analyzes the applications of scRNA-seq in cancer, stem cell research, developmental biology, microbiology, and other fields. In essence, scRNA-seq provides a means of elucidating gene expression patterns in single cells, thereby offering a valuable tool for scientific research. Nevertheless, the current single-cell transcriptome technology is still imperfect, and this review identifies its shortcomings and anticipates future developments. The objective of this review is to facilitate a deeper comprehension of scRNA-seq technology and its applications in biological and medical research, as well as to identify avenues for its future development in alignment with practical needs. Full article
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12 pages, 1269 KiB  
Communication
Effects of an Anti-Fertility Product on Reproductive Structures of Common Vole Males and Residues of Compounds
by Kyra Jacoblinnert, Marion Reilly, Raul Da Costa, Detlef Schenke and Jens Jacob
Biology 2024, 13(6), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060450 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Some rodent species cause significant damage to agriculture and forestry, and some can transmit pathogens to humans and livestock. The common vole (Microtus arvalis) is widespread in Europe, and its population outbreaks have resulted in massive crop loss. Bait-based fertility control [...] Read more.
Some rodent species cause significant damage to agriculture and forestry, and some can transmit pathogens to humans and livestock. The common vole (Microtus arvalis) is widespread in Europe, and its population outbreaks have resulted in massive crop loss. Bait-based fertility control could contribute to rodent pest management. Bait containing 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) and triptolide (TP), registered as ContraPest®, was delivered to male common voles for 14 or 28 consecutive days. The effects on reproductive structures and residues in the liver and testes were assessed. There was no effect on testis weight, sperm viability, sperm motility and oxidative stress in sperm cells. Results regarding the mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm, DNA fragmentation and progressively motile sperm cells were inconclusive. However, there was an increase in morphological sperm defects in voles treated for 14/28 days and fewer normal sperm cells in voles treated for 28 days. There were no TP residues in the testes, few and low TP residues and no VCD residues in liver tissues, making considerable secondary exposure to non-target species unlikely. Treatments with VCD + TP seemed to have minor effects on the reproductive organs of males. Further studies should evaluate the effect of VCD + TP on females and on the reproductive success of common voles and other pest rodent species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Reproductive Biology)
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20 pages, 634 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Glycosylation on the Functional Activity of CD133 and the Accuracy of Its Immunodetection
by Alisa Gisina, Konstantin Yarygin and Alexey Lupatov
Biology 2024, 13(6), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060449 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 228
Abstract
The membrane glycoprotein CD133 (prominin-1) is widely regarded as the main molecular marker of cancer stem cells, which are the most malignant cell subpopulation within the tumor, responsible for tumor growth and metastasis. For this reason, CD133 is considered a promising prognostic biomarker [...] Read more.
The membrane glycoprotein CD133 (prominin-1) is widely regarded as the main molecular marker of cancer stem cells, which are the most malignant cell subpopulation within the tumor, responsible for tumor growth and metastasis. For this reason, CD133 is considered a promising prognostic biomarker and molecular target for antitumor therapy. Under normal conditions, CD133 is present on the cell membrane in glycosylated form. However, in malignancies, altered glycosylation apparently leads to changes in the functional activity of CD133 and the availability of some of its epitopes for antibodies. This review focuses on CD133’s glycosylation in human cells and its impact on the function of this glycoprotein. The association of CD133 with proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, the organization of plasma membrane protrusions and extracellular trafficking is discussed. In this review, particular attention is paid to the influence of CD133’s glycosylation on its immunodetection. A list of commercially available and custom antibodies with their characteristics is provided. The available data indicate that the development of CD133-based biomedical technologies should include an assessment of CD133’s glycosylation in each tumor type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Stem Cells Biology)
39 pages, 17064 KiB  
Article
A Cybertaxonomic Revision of the “Crocidura pergrisea” Species Complex with a Special Focus on Endemic Rocky Shrews: Crocidura armenica and Crocidura arispa (Soricidae)
by Leonid L. Voyta, Tatyana V. Petrova, Valentina A. Panitsina, Semyon Yu. Bodrov, Viola Winkler, Lyudmila Yu. Kryuchkova and Natalia I. Abramson
Biology 2024, 13(6), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060448 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 587
Abstract
The extraction of museum DNA from a unique collection of samples of the “Crocidura pergrisea” species complex, which comprises local endemics of Central and West Asia, allowed us to determine their inter- and intragroup relationships. The first step of this study [...] Read more.
The extraction of museum DNA from a unique collection of samples of the “Crocidura pergrisea” species complex, which comprises local endemics of Central and West Asia, allowed us to determine their inter- and intragroup relationships. The first step of this study was the re-evaluation of heavily damaged type specimens of C. armenica via a microcomputed-tomography-based cybertaxonomic approach (CTtax), which enabled a precise description of the species’ morphology; three-dimensional models of the cybertypes were made available through the MorphoBank Repository. We developed the “AProMaDesU” pipeline on the basis of five requirements for micro-CT-based cyber-datasets in relation to mammalian collections. Our second step was a combination of several meticulous approaches to morphological investigation against a background of a cytb-based phylogeny, which helped us to make a taxonomic decision about the status of species of the “pergrisea” group, e.g., C. arispa, C. armenica, and C. serezkyensis, when the morphological results were partly incongruent with the molecular phylogeny. Nevertheless, under two assumptions, our findings preserved a separate species-level status of C. serezkyensis and C. arispa. In addition, we restored the species-level status of C. armenica. This taxonomic decision is based on our morphospace analysis, which revealed unique craniomandibular shape transformations within the rocky shrews that helped them with the transition to a new area of morphospace/trophic niches and consequently separated them from the other analyzed Crocidura groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Zoology)
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15 pages, 2328 KiB  
Article
Identification, Elucidation and Deployment of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterility System for Hybrid Potato
by Ernst-Jan Eggers, Ying Su, Esmee van der Poel, Martijn Flipsen, Michiel E. de Vries, Christian W. B. Bachem, Richard G. F. Visser and Pim Lindhout
Biology 2024, 13(6), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060447 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Recent advances in diploid F1 hybrid potato breeding rely on the production of inbred lines using the S-locus inhibitor (Sli) gene. As a result of this method, female parent lines are self-fertile and require emasculation before hybrid seed production. The [...] Read more.
Recent advances in diploid F1 hybrid potato breeding rely on the production of inbred lines using the S-locus inhibitor (Sli) gene. As a result of this method, female parent lines are self-fertile and require emasculation before hybrid seed production. The resulting F1 hybrids are self-fertile as well and produce many undesirable berries in the field. Utilization of cytoplasmic male sterility would eliminate the need for emasculation, resulting in more efficient hybrid seed production and male sterile F1 hybrids. We observed plants that completely lacked anthers in an F2 population derived from an interspecific cross between diploid S. tuberosum and S. microdontum. We studied the antherless trait to determine its suitability for use in hybrid potato breeding. We mapped the causal locus to the short arm of Chromosome 6, developed KASP markers for the antherless (al) locus and introduced it into lines with T and A cytoplasm. We found that antherless type male sterility is not expressed in T and A cytoplasm, proving that it is a form of CMS. We hybridized male sterile al/al plants with P cytoplasm with pollen from al/al plants with T and A cytoplasm and we show that the resulting hybrids set significantly fewer berries in the field. Here, we show that the antherless CMS system can be readily deployed in diploid F1 hybrid potato breeding to improve hybridization efficiency and reduce berry set in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollination Biology)
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21 pages, 13044 KiB  
Article
Travelling in Microphis (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) Otoliths with Two-Dimensional X-ray Fluorescence Maps: Twists and Turns on the Road to Strontium Incorporation
by Clara Lord, Vincent Haÿ, Kadda Medjoubi, Sophie Berland and Philippe Keith
Biology 2024, 13(6), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060446 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Indo-Pacific tropical island streams are home to freshwater pipefish (Microphis spp., Syngnathidae). Otoliths were used to uncover life history traits in four species, including a New Caledonian endemic. All four species present the same methodological challenge: their otoliths are small, fragile and [...] Read more.
Indo-Pacific tropical island streams are home to freshwater pipefish (Microphis spp., Syngnathidae). Otoliths were used to uncover life history traits in four species, including a New Caledonian endemic. All four species present the same methodological challenge: their otoliths are small, fragile and mute for growth marks using basic observation tools. Strontium (Sr) is calcium substituent in the mineral lattice, driven by salinity conditions, and thus useful to study diadromous migrations. Synchrotron-based scanning X-ray fluorescence 2D high-resolution mapping allowed us to tackle the global and hyperfine strontium (Sr) distribution. We developed analytical imaging processes to retrieve biological information from otoliths from the data generated via synchrotron analysis. We uncovered plasticity in the life cycle: all species were amphidromous, apart from some freshwater residents from New Caledonia. Understanding life cycle modalities is crucial to categorize species distribution limits and to implement adapted conservation measures, especially when endemic species are at stake. 2D fine-scale images outlined the heterogeneity of Sr distribution: in addition to the trivial Sr incorporation driven by environmental ionic conditions, there is an unusual mosaic arrangement of Sr distribution and we hypothesize that biological control, especially growth during the early life stages, may sometimes overrule stoichiometry. This shows that it is worth studying otolith formation and element integration at imbricated scales, and our methods and results provide a strong basis for future works and prospects in otolith science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Zoology)
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13 pages, 1097 KiB  
Review
Adenylyl Cyclase in Ocular Health and Disease: A Comprehensive Review
by Polly Thompson, Virginija Vilkelyte, Malgorzata Woronkowicz, Mitra Tavakoli, Piotr Skopinski and Harry Roberts
Biology 2024, 13(6), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060445 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of enzymes that convert adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine 3′,5′ monophosphate (cAMP), a vital and ubiquitous signalling molecule in cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. There are nine transmembrane (tmAC) forms, which have been widely studied; however, [...] Read more.
Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of enzymes that convert adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine 3′,5′ monophosphate (cAMP), a vital and ubiquitous signalling molecule in cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. There are nine transmembrane (tmAC) forms, which have been widely studied; however, the tenth, soluble AC (sAC) is less extensively characterised. The eye is one of the most metabolically active sites in the body, where sAC has been found in abundance, making it a target for novel therapeutics and biomarking. In the cornea, AC plays a role in endothelial cell function, which is vital in maintaining stromal dehydration, and therefore, clarity. In the retina, AC has been implicated in axon cell growth and survival. As these cells are irreversibly damaged in glaucoma and injury, this molecule may provide focus for future therapies. Another potential area for glaucoma management is the source of aqueous humour production, the ciliary body, where AC has also been identified. Furthering the understanding of lacrimal gland function is vital in managing dry eye disease, a common and debilitating condition. sAC has been linked to tear production and could serve as a therapeutic target. Overall, ACs are an exciting area of study in ocular health, offering multiple avenues for future medical therapies and diagnostics. This review paper explores the diverse roles of ACs in the eye and their potential as targets for innovative treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology)
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15 pages, 2419 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Environmental Factors on Site Selection Augment Breeding Success in Honey Bees: An Insight of Honey Bee Genetic Resource Conservation
by Peter Njukang Akongte, Bo-Sun Park, Minwoong Son, Chang-hoon Lee, Daegeun Oh, Yong-Soo Choi and Dongwon Kim
Biology 2024, 13(6), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060444 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Honey bee reproductive behavior involves a complicated mating system that embodies a number of factors, including environmental and human-induced factors. Controlled breeding in isolated mating stations is a prerequisite to maintain the genetic resources of honey bees through natural mating. The concept of [...] Read more.
Honey bee reproductive behavior involves a complicated mating system that embodies a number of factors, including environmental and human-induced factors. Controlled breeding in isolated mating stations is a prerequisite to maintain the genetic resources of honey bees through natural mating. The concept of controlled mating is a challenge in most beekeeping operations due to its low mating success rate. Therefore, a detailed investigation into the suitability of isolated mating stations is of interest. Thus, we bred two subspecies of honey bees (Apis cerana koreana and Apis mellifera L.) in isolated mating stations (island) from 2021 to 2023 and in an open breeding station in 2023. Our results demonstrate that the highest percentage of the mating success rate in isolated mating stations was recorded in the Wido Island, which had the highest percentage of bare land, coniferous forests, deciduous forests, fields, and mixed forests. The mating success rate was higher in the summer and spring for A. cerana and A. mellifera, respectively. The mating success rate was higher in open mating compared to controlled mating (Island) and did not vary between pure-breeding and cross-breeding lines. Our findings suggested that mating stations with mixed forest and fields are potential sites for the successful breeding of honey bees. Full article
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18 pages, 4144 KiB  
Article
Auditory Sensory Gating: Effects of Noise
by Fan-Yin Cheng, Julia Campbell and Chang Liu
Biology 2024, 13(6), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060443 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) indicate that noise degrades auditory neural encoding, causing decreased peak amplitude and increased peak latency. Different types of noise affect CAEP responses, with greater informational masking causing additional degradation. In noisy conditions, attention can improve target signals’ neural [...] Read more.
Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) indicate that noise degrades auditory neural encoding, causing decreased peak amplitude and increased peak latency. Different types of noise affect CAEP responses, with greater informational masking causing additional degradation. In noisy conditions, attention can improve target signals’ neural encoding, reflected by an increased CAEP amplitude, which may be facilitated through various inhibitory mechanisms at both pre-attentive and attentive levels. While previous research has mainly focused on inhibition effects during attentive auditory processing in noise, the impact of noise on the neural response during the pre-attentive phase remains unclear. Therefore, this preliminary study aimed to assess the auditory gating response, reflective of the sensory inhibitory stage, to repeated vowel pairs presented in background noise. CAEPs were recorded via high-density EEG in fifteen normal-hearing adults in quiet and noise conditions with low and high informational masking. The difference between the average CAEP peak amplitude evoked by each vowel in the pair was compared across conditions. Scalp maps were generated to observe general cortical inhibitory networks in each condition. Significant gating occurred in quiet, while noise conditions resulted in a significantly decreased gating response. The gating function was significantly degraded in noise with less informational masking content, coinciding with a reduced activation of inhibitory gating networks. These findings illustrate the adverse effect of noise on pre-attentive inhibition related to speech perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Correlates of Perception in Noise in the Auditory System)
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16 pages, 971 KiB  
Review
The Molecular Mechanism of Cold-Stress Tolerance: Cold Responsive Genes and Their Mechanisms in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
by Nida Shahzad, Hafiz Ghulam Nabi, Lei Qiao and Wenqiang Li
Biology 2024, 13(6), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060442 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production is highly susceptible to temperature fluctuations, which can significantly reduce plant growth and development at different developmental stages, resulting in a dramatic loss of grain yield. Over the past century, substantial efforts have been undertaken to investigate [...] Read more.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production is highly susceptible to temperature fluctuations, which can significantly reduce plant growth and development at different developmental stages, resulting in a dramatic loss of grain yield. Over the past century, substantial efforts have been undertaken to investigate the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of cold stress tolerance in rice. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent developments and trends in this field. We summarized the previous advancements and methodologies used for identifying cold-responsive genes and the molecular mechanisms of cold tolerance in rice. Integration of new technologies has significantly improved studies in this era, facilitating the identification of essential genes, QTLs, and molecular modules in rice. These findings have accelerated the molecular breeding of cold-resistant rice varieties. In addition, functional genomics, including the investigation of natural variations in alleles and artificially developed mutants, is emerging as an exciting new approach to investigating cold tolerance. Looking ahead, it is imperative for scientists to evaluate the collective impacts of these novel genes to develop rice cultivars resilient to global climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Plant Stress Adaptation)
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15 pages, 3011 KiB  
Article
Promising New Methods Based on the SOD Enzyme and SAUR36 Gene to Screen for Canola Materials with Heavy Metal Resistance
by Yue Dai, Hao Chen, Yufang Li, Rongkui Hui and Zhenqian Zhang
Biology 2024, 13(6), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060441 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Canola is the largest self-produced vegetable oil source in China, although excessive levels of cadmium, lead, and arsenic seriously affect its yield. Therefore, developing methods to identify canola materials with good heavy metal tolerance is a hot topic for canola breeding. In this [...] Read more.
Canola is the largest self-produced vegetable oil source in China, although excessive levels of cadmium, lead, and arsenic seriously affect its yield. Therefore, developing methods to identify canola materials with good heavy metal tolerance is a hot topic for canola breeding. In this study, canola near-isogenic lines with different oil contents (F338 (40.62%) and F335 (46.68%) as the control) and heavy metal tolerances were used as raw materials. In an experiment with 100 times the safe standard values, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities of F335 were 32.02 mmol/mg and 71.84 mmol/mg, while the activities of F338 were 24.85 mmol/mg and 63.86 mmol/mg, exhibiting significant differences. The DEGs and DAPs in the MAPK signaling pathway of the plant hormone signal transduction pathway and other related pathways were analyzed and verified using RT-qPCR. SAUR36 and SAUR32 were identified as the key differential genes. The expression of the SAUR36 gene in canola materials planted in the experimental field was significantly higher than in the control, and FY958 exhibited the largest difference (27.82 times). In this study, SOD and SAUR36 were found to be closely related to heavy metal stress tolerance. Therefore, they may be used to screen for new canola materials with good heavy metal stress tolerance for canola breeding. Full article
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5 pages, 195 KiB  
Editorial
Conservation and Evolution of Wildlife in the Context of Climate Change and Human Population Growth
by Wenbo Liao and Lingsen Cao
Biology 2024, 13(6), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060440 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Global climate change results in variations in morphological traits, resource competition, species diversity, physiological activity, genetic diversity, habitat use, distributional range, and conservation status in organisms [...] Full article
17 pages, 798 KiB  
Article
Genetic Polymorphisms in Exon 5 and Intron 5 and 7 of AIRE Are Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk in a Hungarian Population
by Bálint Bérczi, Nóra Nusser, Iván Péter, Balázs Németh, Ágota Kulisch, Zsuzsanna Kiss and Zoltán Gyöngyi
Biology 2024, 13(6), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060439 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronically persistent synovitis and systemic inflammation. Although multiple contributors are detected, only one is pivotal in the neonatal period: the negative selection of autoimmune naïve T-cells by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) transcriptional factor. Methods: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in [...] Read more.
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronically persistent synovitis and systemic inflammation. Although multiple contributors are detected, only one is pivotal in the neonatal period: the negative selection of autoimmune naïve T-cells by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) transcriptional factor. Methods: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DNA-binding site of AIRE may determine its function and expression. We intended to analyse site-specific allelic polymorphisms in two exon (rs878081 and rs1055311) and three intron (rs1003853, rs2075876, and rs1003854) loci with an RA risk. Our analytical case-control study analysed 270 RA patients and 322 control subjects in five different genetic models using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with TaqMan® assays. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the odds of allelic polymorphisms in the loci of rs878081, rs1003854, and rs1003853 among the controls and RA patients, and the disease activity seemed to be significantly associated with the genotypic subgroups of rs878081 and rs1055311. Our in silico analysis supported this, suggesting that allele-specific alterations in the binding affinity of transcriptional factor families might determine RA activity. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the involvement of neonatal self-tolerance in RA pathogenesis, providing novel insights into disease development and paving the way for an analysis of further site-specific genetic polymorphisms in AIRE to expand the intervention time for RA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Pathways Underlying Chronic and Age-Related Disease)
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17 pages, 3495 KiB  
Article
The Extraction Using Deep Eutectic Solvents and Evaluation of Tea Saponin
by Jianjun Guo, Nanshan Zhao, Yaxin Zhao, Hao Jin, Guozhi Sun, Jing Yu, Haihua Zhang, Jianzhong Shao, Meilan Yu, Dongfeng Yang and Zongsuo Liang
Biology 2024, 13(6), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060438 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Tea saponins have high surface-active and biological activities and are widely used in chemicals, food, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. Tea saponins are usually extracted using ethanol or water, but both methods have their disadvantages, including a negative impact on the environment, high energy consumption, [...] Read more.
Tea saponins have high surface-active and biological activities and are widely used in chemicals, food, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. Tea saponins are usually extracted using ethanol or water, but both methods have their disadvantages, including a negative impact on the environment, high energy consumption, and low purity. In this study, we explored an effective process for extracting tea saponins from tea meal using deep eutectic solvents combined with ultrasonic extraction and enzymatic techniques. The experimental results showed that a high extraction efficiency of 20.93 ± 0.48% could be achieved in 20 min using an ultrasonic power of 40% and a binary DES consisting of betaine and ethylene glycol (with a molar ratio of 1:3) at a material–liquid ratio of 1:35 and that the purity of the tea saponins after purification by a large-pore adsorption resin reached 95.94%, which was higher than that of commercially available standard tea saponin samples. In addition, the extracted tea saponins were evaluated for their antioxidant and bacteriostatic activities using chemical and biological methods; the results showed that the tea saponins extracted using these methods possessed antioxidant properties and displayed significant antibacterial activity. Therefore, the present study developed a method for using deep eutectic solvents as an environmentally friendly technological solution for obtaining high-purity tea saponins from tea meal oil. This is expected to replace the current organic solvent and water extraction process and has great potential for industrial development and a number of possible applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Science)
16 pages, 8292 KiB  
Article
The Response of Soil Respiration to Temperature and Humidity in the Thermokarst Depression Zone of the Headwater Wetlands of Qinghai Lake
by Yahui Mao, Kelong Chen, Wei Ji and Yanli Yang
Biology 2024, 13(6), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060437 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 331
Abstract
As the climate warms, the thickening of the active layer of permafrost has led to permafrost melting and surface collapse, forming thermokarst landforms. These changes significantly impact regional vegetation, soil physicochemical properties, and hydrological processes, thereby exacerbating regional carbon cycling. This study analyzed [...] Read more.
As the climate warms, the thickening of the active layer of permafrost has led to permafrost melting and surface collapse, forming thermokarst landforms. These changes significantly impact regional vegetation, soil physicochemical properties, and hydrological processes, thereby exacerbating regional carbon cycling. This study analyzed the relationship between soil respiration rate (Rs), soil temperature (T), and volumetric water content (VWC) in the thermokarst depression zone of the headwater wetlands of Qinghai Lake, revealing their influence on these soil parameters. Results showed a significant positive correlation between soil temperature and Rs (p < 0.001), and a significant negative correlation between VWC and Rs (p < 0.001). The inhibitory effect of VWC on Rs in the thermokarst depression zone was stronger than under natural conditions (p < 0.05). Single-factor models indicated that the temperature-driven model had higher explanatory power for Rs variation in both the thermokarst depression zone (R2 = 0.509) and under natural conditions (R2 = 0.414), while the humidity-driven model had lower explanatory power. Dual-factor models further improved explanatory power, slightly more so in the thermokarst depression zone. This indicates that temperature and humidity jointly drive Rs. Additionally, during the daytime, temperature had a more significant impact on Rs under natural conditions, while increased VWC inhibited Rs. At night, the positive correlation between Rs and temperature in the thermokarst depression zone increased significantly. The temperature sensitivity (Q10) values of Rs were 3.32 and 1.80 for the thermokarst depression zone and natural conditions, respectively, indicating higher sensitivity to temperature changes at night in the thermokarst depression zone. This study highlights the complexity of soil respiration responses to temperature and humidity in the thermokarst depression zone of Qinghai Lake’s headwater wetlands, contributing to understanding carbon cycling in wetland ecosystems and predicting wetland carbon emissions under climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecology)
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14 pages, 7753 KiB  
Article
Assessing Reptile Conservation Status under Global Climate Change
by Qian Li, Weijie Shao, Ying Jiang, Chengzhi Yan and Wenbo Liao
Biology 2024, 13(6), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060436 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Global climate change drives variations in species distribution patterns and affects biodiversity, potentially increasing the risk of species extinction. Investigating the potential distribution range of species under future global climate change is crucial for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Global climate change drives variations in species distribution patterns and affects biodiversity, potentially increasing the risk of species extinction. Investigating the potential distribution range of species under future global climate change is crucial for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management. In this study, we collected distributional data for 5282 reptile species to assess their conservation status based on distributional ranges using species distribution models. Our predictions indicate that the potential distribution ranges for over half of these species are projected to decrease under different scenarios. Under future scenarios with relatively low carbon emissions, the increase in the number of threatened reptiles is significantly lower, highlighting the importance of human efforts. Surprisingly, we identified some endangered species that are projected to expand their distribution ranges, underscoring the potential positive effects of climate change on some special species. Our findings emphasize the increased extinction risk faced by reptile species due to climate change and highlight the urgent need to mitigate the effects of habitat degradation and human activities on their potential distribution in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecology)
16 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
Geographical–Historical Analysis of the Herbarium Specimens Representing the Economically Important Family Amaranthaceae (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae Clade) Collected in 1821–2022 and Preserved in the Herbarium of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow
by Agata Stadnicka-Futoma and Marcin Nobis
Biology 2024, 13(6), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060435 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Herbaria constitute a form of documentation, store and secure comparative material, as well as constitute an extra original gene bank. They are an invaluable database among others for the biological, ethnobotanical and agricultural sciences. The digitization of herbarium collections significantly facilitates access to [...] Read more.
Herbaria constitute a form of documentation, store and secure comparative material, as well as constitute an extra original gene bank. They are an invaluable database among others for the biological, ethnobotanical and agricultural sciences. The digitization of herbarium collections significantly facilitates access to archival materials; however, searching them is still time-consuming. Therefore, our work aims to analyze the herbarium collection of 8801 sheets for specimens representing the economically important family Amaranthaceae (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae clade) deposited the oldest herbarium in Poland, the herbarium of the Jagiellonian University (KRA). These specimens have been collected from almost all the continents in dozens of countries for over 200 years. The analyses conducted, including the taxonomic coverage, geographical characteristics and origin, temporal coverage and utility importance of representative species, present the discussed resources in a more accessible way and may become a more attractive form for scientists potentially interested in more advanced research work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Science)
19 pages, 1420 KiB  
Review
Mechanobiology of Adipocytes
by Sean P. Blade, Dylan J. Falkowski, Sarah N. Bachand, Steven J. Pagano and LiKang Chin
Biology 2024, 13(6), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060434 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 535
Abstract
The growing obesity epidemic necessitates increased research on adipocyte and adipose tissue function and disease mechanisms that progress obesity. Historically, adipocytes were viewed simply as storage for excess energy. However, recent studies have demonstrated that adipocytes play a critical role in whole-body homeostasis, [...] Read more.
The growing obesity epidemic necessitates increased research on adipocyte and adipose tissue function and disease mechanisms that progress obesity. Historically, adipocytes were viewed simply as storage for excess energy. However, recent studies have demonstrated that adipocytes play a critical role in whole-body homeostasis, are involved in cell communication, experience forces in vivo, and respond to mechanical stimuli. Changes to the adipocyte mechanical microenvironment can affect function and, in some cases, contribute to disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the mechanobiology of adipocytes. We reviewed over 100 papers on how mechanical stress is sensed by the adipocyte, the effects on cell behavior, and the use of cell culture scaffolds, particularly those with tunable stiffness, to study adipocyte behavior, adipose cell and tissue mechanical properties, and computational models. From our review, we conclude that adipocytes are responsive to mechanical stimuli, cell function and adipogenesis can be dictated by the mechanical environment, the measurement of mechanical properties is highly dependent on testing methods, and current modeling practices use many different approaches to recapitulate the complex behavior of adipocytes and adipose tissue. This review is intended to aid future studies by summarizing the current literature on adipocyte mechanobiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biophysics)
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19 pages, 6327 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Distribution Characteristics of Jellyfish and Environmental Factors in the Seawater Intake Area of the Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant in China
by Yunpeng Song, Tiantian Wang, Minsi Xiong, Shenglong Yang, Heng Zhang, Jie Ying, Yongchuang Shi, Guoqing Zhao, Xiumei Zhang, Xiaodan Liu, Cankun Lin, Zuli Wu and Yumei Wu
Biology 2024, 13(6), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060433 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 449
Abstract
In recent years, there have been frequent jellyfish outbreaks in Chinese coastal waters, significantly impacting the structure, functionality, safety, and economy of nuclear power plant cooling water intake and nearby ecosystems. Therefore, this study focuses on jellyfish outbreaks in Chinese coastal waters, particularly [...] Read more.
In recent years, there have been frequent jellyfish outbreaks in Chinese coastal waters, significantly impacting the structure, functionality, safety, and economy of nuclear power plant cooling water intake and nearby ecosystems. Therefore, this study focuses on jellyfish outbreaks in Chinese coastal waters, particularly near the Shandong Peninsula. By analyzing jellyfish abundance data, a Generalized Additive Model integrating environmental factors reveals that temperature and salinity greatly influence jellyfish density. The results show variations in jellyfish density among years, with higher densities in coastal areas. The model explains 42.2% of the variance, highlighting the positive correlation between temperature (20–26 °C) and jellyfish density, as well as the impact of salinity (27.5–29‰). Additionally, ocean currents play a significant role in nearshore jellyfish aggregation, with a correlation between ocean currents and site coordinates. This study aims to investigate the relationship between jellyfish blooms and environmental factors. The results obtained from the study provide data support for the prevention and control of blockages in nuclear power plant cooling systems, and provide a data basis for the implementation of monitoring measures in nuclear power plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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12 pages, 2128 KiB  
Article
Using a Combination of Novel Research Tools to Understand Social Interaction in the Drosophila melanogaster Model for Fragile X Syndrome
by Maja Stojkovic, Milan Petrovic, Maria Capovilla, Sara Milojevic, Vedrana Makevic, Dejan B. Budimirovic, Louise Corscadden, Shuhan He and Dragana Protic
Biology 2024, 13(6), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060432 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common monogenic cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, is caused by a full mutation (>200 CGG repeats) in the Fragile X Messenger Ribonucleoprotein 1 (FMR1) gene. Individuals with FXS experience various challenges [...] Read more.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common monogenic cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, is caused by a full mutation (>200 CGG repeats) in the Fragile X Messenger Ribonucleoprotein 1 (FMR1) gene. Individuals with FXS experience various challenges related to social interaction (SI). Animal models, such as the Drosophila melanogaster model for FXS where the only ortholog of human FMR1 (dFMR1) is mutated, have played a crucial role in the understanding of FXS. The aim of this study was to investigate SI in the dFMR1B55 mutants (the groups of flies of both sexes simultaneously) using the novel Drosophila Shallow Chamber and a Python data processing pipeline based on social network analysis (SNA). In comparison with wild-type flies (w1118), SNA analysis in dFMR1B55 mutants revealed hypoactivity, fewer connections in their networks, longer interaction duration, a lower ability to transmit information efficiently, fewer alternative pathways for information transmission, a higher variability in the number of interactions they achieved, and flies tended to stay near the boundaries of the testing chamber. These observed alterations indicate the presence of characteristic strain-dependent social networks in dFMR1B55 flies, commonly referred to as the group phenotype. Finally, combining novel research tools is a valuable method for SI research in fruit flies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basics to Applications of Gene Regulatory Networks)
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22 pages, 2192 KiB  
Review
Double-Edged Sword: Exploring the Mitochondria–Complement Bidirectional Connection in Cellular Response and Disease
by Jingfei (Carly) Lin, Sinwoo (Wendy) Hwang, Honglin Luo and Yasir Mohamud
Biology 2024, 13(6), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology13060431 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Mitochondria serve an ultimate purpose that seeks to balance the life and death of cells, a role that extends well beyond the tissue and organ systems to impact not only normal physiology but also the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. Theorized to have originated [...] Read more.
Mitochondria serve an ultimate purpose that seeks to balance the life and death of cells, a role that extends well beyond the tissue and organ systems to impact not only normal physiology but also the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. Theorized to have originated from ancient proto-bacteria, mitochondria share similarities with bacterial cells, including their own circular DNA, double-membrane structures, and fission dynamics. It is no surprise, then, that mitochondria interact with a bacterium-targeting immune pathway known as a complement system. The complement system is an ancient and sophisticated arm of the immune response that serves as the body’s first line of defense against microbial invaders. It operates through a complex cascade of protein activations, rapidly identifying and neutralizing pathogens, and even aiding in the clearance of damaged cells and immune complexes. This dynamic system, intertwining innate and adaptive immunity, holds secrets to understanding numerous diseases. In this review, we explore the bidirectional interplay between mitochondrial dysfunction and the complement system through the release of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns. Additionally, we explore several mitochondria- and complement-related diseases and the potential for new therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria: The Diseases' Cause and Cure)
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