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Open AccessArticle

Magnetic Bead-Based Electrochemical Immunoassays On-Drop and On-Chip for Procalcitonin Determination: Disposable Tools for Clinical Sepsis Diagnosis

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33.600, Alcalá de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Chemistry in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Complutense, s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Chemical Research Institute “Andres M. Del Rio”, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Biosensors 2020, 10(6), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10060066
Received: 27 April 2020 / Revised: 29 May 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a known protein biomarker clinically used for the early stages of sepsis diagnosis and therapy guidance. For its reliable determination, sandwich format magnetic bead-based immunoassays with two different electrochemical detection approaches are described: (i) disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPE-C, on-drop detection); (ii) electro-kinetically driven microfluidic chips with integrated Au electrodes (EMC-Au, on-chip detection). Both approaches exhibited enough sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 and 0.04 ng mL−1 for SPE-C and EMC-Au, respectively; cutoff 0.5 ng mL−1), an adequate working range for the clinically relevant concentrations (0.5–1000 and 0.1–20 ng mL−1 for SPE-C and EMC-Au, respectively), and good precision (RSD < 9%), using low sample volumes (25 µL) with total assay times less than 20 min. The suitability of both approaches was successfully demonstrated by the analysis of human serum and plasma samples, for which good recoveries were obtained (89–120%). Furthermore, the EMC-Au approach enabled the easy automation of the process, constituting a reliable alternative diagnostic tool for on-site/bed-site clinical analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical immunoassays; microfluidic chips; screen-printed; sepsis electrochemical immunoassays; microfluidic chips; screen-printed; sepsis
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Molinero-Fernández, Á.; Moreno-Guzmán, M.; López, M.Á.; Escarpa, A. Magnetic Bead-Based Electrochemical Immunoassays On-Drop and On-Chip for Procalcitonin Determination: Disposable Tools for Clinical Sepsis Diagnosis. Biosensors 2020, 10, 66.

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