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Biosensors, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 7 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Ovarian cancer is associated with tumors that form in the tissue of the ovary. It is often referred [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Attack Graph Modeling for Implantable Pacemaker
Biosensors 2020, 10(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10020014 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Remote health monitoring systems are used to audit implantable medical devices or patients’ health in a non-clinical setting. These systems are prone to cyberattacks exploiting their critical vulnerabilities. Thus, threatening patients’ health and confidentiality. In this paper, a pacemaker automatic remote monitoring system [...] Read more.
Remote health monitoring systems are used to audit implantable medical devices or patients’ health in a non-clinical setting. These systems are prone to cyberattacks exploiting their critical vulnerabilities. Thus, threatening patients’ health and confidentiality. In this paper, a pacemaker automatic remote monitoring system (PARMS) is modeled using architecture analysis and design language (AADL), formally characterized, and checked using the JKind model checker tool. The generated attack graph is visualized using the Graphviz tool, and classifies security breaches through the violation of the security features of significance. The developed attack graph showed the essentiality of setting up appropriate security measures in PARMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectric Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of the Ovarian Cancer Biomarker Lysophosphatidic Acid in Serum
Biosensors 2020, 10(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10020013 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is present during the medical condition of ovarian cancer at all stages of the disease, and, therefore possesses considerable potential as a biomarker for screening its presence in female patients. Unfortunately, there is currently no clinically employable assay for this [...] Read more.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is present during the medical condition of ovarian cancer at all stages of the disease, and, therefore possesses considerable potential as a biomarker for screening its presence in female patients. Unfortunately, there is currently no clinically employable assay for this biomarker. In the present work, we introduce a test based on the duel protein system of actin and gelsolin that could allow the quantitative measurement of LPA in serum samples in a biosensing format. In order to evaluate this possibility, actin protein was dye-modified and complexed with gelsolin protein, followed by surface deposition onto silica nanoparticles. This solid-phase system was exposed to serum samples containing various concentrations of LPA and analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. Measurements conducted for the LPA-containing serum samples were higher after exposure to the developed test than samples without LPA. Early results suggest a limit of detection of 5 μM LPA in serum. The eventual goal is to employ the chemistry described here in a biosensor configuration for the large population-scale, rapid screening of women for the potential occurrence of ovarian cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Portable C-320 Electronic Nose for Discrimination of Nine Insectivorous Bat Species: Implications for Monitoring White-Nose Syndrome
Biosensors 2020, 10(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10020012 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
The development of new C-320 electronic-nose (e-nose) methods for pre-symptomatic detection of White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) in bats has required efficacy studies of instrument capabilities to discriminate between major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from clinical samples. In this phase-2 study, we [...] Read more.
The development of new C-320 electronic-nose (e-nose) methods for pre-symptomatic detection of White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) in bats has required efficacy studies of instrument capabilities to discriminate between major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from clinical samples. In this phase-2 study, we further tested this e-nose for capabilities to distinguish between bat species based on differences in whole-body VOC emissions. Live healthy individuals of nine bat species were temporarily captured outside of caves in Arkansas and Louisiana. VOC emissions from bats were collected using newly developed portable air collection and sampling-chamber devices in tandem. Sensor-array output responses to bat VOC emissions were compared to those of 22 pure VOC analytical standards from five chemical classes. Distinct smellprint signatures were produced from e-nose analyses of VOC metabolites derived from individual bat species. Smellprint patterns were analyzed using 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to produce aroma map plots showing effective discrimination between bat species with high statistical significance. These results demonstrate potential instrument efficacy for distinguishing between species-specific, bat-derived VOC metabolite emissions as major components of clinical samples collected from bats in caves for disease detection prior to symptom development. This study provided additional information required to fully test the efficacy of a portable e-nose instrument for diagnostic applications in subsequent phase-3 testing of noninvasive, early WNS disease detection in intra-cave hibernating bats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noninvasive Early Disease Diagnosis)
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Open AccessReview
Label-Free Biosensors for Laboratory-Based Diagnostics of Infections: Current Achievements and New Trends
Biosensors 2020, 10(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10020011 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
Infections pose a serious global public health problem and are a major cause of premature mortality worldwide. One of the most challenging objectives faced by modern medicine is timely and accurate laboratory-based diagnostics of infectious diseases. Being a key factor of timely initiation [...] Read more.
Infections pose a serious global public health problem and are a major cause of premature mortality worldwide. One of the most challenging objectives faced by modern medicine is timely and accurate laboratory-based diagnostics of infectious diseases. Being a key factor of timely initiation and success of treatment, it may potentially provide reduction in incidence of a disease, as well as prevent outbreak and spread of dangerous epidemics. The traditional methods of laboratory-based diagnostics of infectious diseases are quite time- and labor-consuming, require expensive equipment and qualified personnel, which restricts their use in case of limited resources. Over the past six decades, diagnostic technologies based on lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) have been and remain true alternatives to modern laboratory analyzers and have been successfully used to quickly detect molecular ligands in biosubstrates to diagnose many infectious diseases and septic conditions. These devices are considered as simplified formats of modern biosensors. Recent advances in the development of label-free biosensor technologies have made them promising diagnostic tools that combine rapid pathogen indication, simplicity, user-friendliness, operational efficiency, accuracy, and cost effectiveness, with a trend towards creation of portable platforms. These qualities exceed the generally accepted standards of microbiological and immunological diagnostics and open up a broad range of applications of these analytical systems in clinical practice immediately at the site of medical care (point-of-care concept, POC). A great variety of modern nanoarchitectonics of biosensors are based on the use of a broad range of analytical and constructive strategies and identification of various regulatory and functional molecular markers associated with infectious bacterial pathogens. Resolution of the existing biosensing issues will provide rapid development of diagnostic biotechnologies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cutting-Edge Advances in Electrochemical Affinity Biosensing at Different Molecular Level of Emerging Food Allergens and Adulterants
Biosensors 2020, 10(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10020010 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
The presence of allergens and adulterants in food, which represents a real threat to sensitized people and a loss of consumer confidence, is one of the main current problems facing society. The detection of allergens and adulterants in food, mainly at the genetic [...] Read more.
The presence of allergens and adulterants in food, which represents a real threat to sensitized people and a loss of consumer confidence, is one of the main current problems facing society. The detection of allergens and adulterants in food, mainly at the genetic level (characteristic fragments of genes that encode their expression) or at functional level (protein biomarkers) is a complex task due to the natural interference of the matrix and the low concentration at which they are present. Methods for the analysis of allergens are mainly divided into immunological and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based assays. In recent years, electrochemical affinity biosensors, including immunosensors and biosensors based on synthetic sequences of DNA or ribonucleic acid (RNA), linear, aptameric, peptide or switch-based probes, are gaining special importance in this field because they have proved to be competitive with the methods commonly used in terms of simplicity, test time and applicability in different environments. These unique features make them highly promising analytical tools for routine determination of allergens and food adulterations at the point of care. This review article discusses the most significant trends and developments in electrochemical affinity biosensing in this field over the past two years as well as the challenges and future prospects for this technology. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Metal Nanoparticles for Small Molecule Sensing
Biosensors 2020, 10(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10020009 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
Recent progress in the field of electroanalysis with metal nanoparticle (NP)-based screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is discussed, focusing on the methods employed to perform the electrode surface functionalization, and the final application achieved with different types of metallic NPs. The ink mixing approach, electrochemical [...] Read more.
Recent progress in the field of electroanalysis with metal nanoparticle (NP)-based screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is discussed, focusing on the methods employed to perform the electrode surface functionalization, and the final application achieved with different types of metallic NPs. The ink mixing approach, electrochemical deposition, and drop casting are the usual methodologies used for SPEs’ modification purposes to obtain nanoparticulated sensing phases with suitable tailor-made functionalities. Among these, applications on inorganic and organic molecule sensing with several NPs of transition metals, bimetallic alloys, and metal oxides should be highlighted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Newly Developed System for Acetamiprid Residue Screening in the Lettuce Samples Based on a Bioelectric Cell Biosensor
Biosensors 2020, 10(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10020008 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Population growth and increased production demands on fruit and vegetables have driven agricultural production to new heights. Nevertheless, agriculture remains one of the least optimized industries, with laboratory tests that take days to provide a clear result on the chemical level of produce. [...] Read more.
Population growth and increased production demands on fruit and vegetables have driven agricultural production to new heights. Nevertheless, agriculture remains one of the least optimized industries, with laboratory tests that take days to provide a clear result on the chemical level of produce. To address this problem, we developed a tailor-made solution for the industry that can allow multiple field tests on key pesticides, based on a bioelectric cell biosensor and the measurement of the cell membrane potential changes, according to the principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). We developed a fully functional system that operates using a newly developed hardware for multiple data sources and an Android application to provide results within 3 min. The presence of acetamiprid residues caused a cell membrane hyperpolarization, which was distinguishable from the control samples. A database that classified samples Below or Above Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) was then created, based on a newly developed algorithm. Additionally, lettuce samples were analyzed with the conventional and the newly developed method, in parallel, revealing a high correlation on sample classification. Thus, it was demonstrated that the novel biosensor system could be used in the food supply chain to increase the number of tested products before they reach the market. Full article
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