Infections pose a serious global public health problem and are a major cause of premature mortality worldwide. One of the most challenging objectives faced by modern medicine is timely and accurate laboratory-based diagnostics of infectious diseases. Being a key factor of timely initiation and success of treatment, it may potentially provide reduction in incidence of a disease, as well as prevent outbreak and spread of dangerous epidemics. The traditional methods of laboratory-based diagnostics of infectious diseases are quite time- and labor-consuming, require expensive equipment and qualified personnel, which restricts their use in case of limited resources. Over the past six decades, diagnostic technologies based on lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) have been and remain true alternatives to modern laboratory analyzers and have been successfully used to quickly detect molecular ligands in biosubstrates to diagnose many infectious diseases and septic conditions. These devices are considered as simplified formats of modern biosensors. Recent advances in the development of label-free biosensor technologies have made them promising diagnostic tools that combine rapid pathogen indication, simplicity, user-friendliness, operational efficiency, accuracy, and cost effectiveness, with a trend towards creation of portable platforms. These qualities exceed the generally accepted standards of microbiological and immunological diagnostics and open up a broad range of applications of these analytical systems in clinical practice immediately at the site of medical care (point-of-care concept, POC). A great variety of modern nanoarchitectonics of biosensors are based on the use of a broad range of analytical and constructive strategies and identification of various regulatory and functional molecular markers associated with infectious bacterial pathogens. Resolution of the existing biosensing issues will provide rapid development of diagnostic biotechnologies.
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