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Nanomaterials, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Inapparent Strengthening Effect of Twin Interface in Cu/Pd Multilayered Films with a Large Lattice Mismatch 
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121778 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
It has been found that there are two kinds of interfaces in a Cu/Pd multilayered film, namely, cube-on-cube and twin. However, the effects of the interfacial structure and modulation period on the mechanical properties of a Cu/Pd multilayered film remain unclear. In this [...] Read more.
It has been found that there are two kinds of interfaces in a Cu/Pd multilayered film, namely, cube-on-cube and twin. However, the effects of the interfacial structure and modulation period on the mechanical properties of a Cu/Pd multilayered film remain unclear. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations of Cu/Pd multilayered film with different interfaces and modulation periods under in-plane tension are performed to investigate the effects of the interfacial structure and modulation period. The interface misfit dislocation net exhibits a periodic triangular distribution, while the residual internal stress can be released through the bending of dislocation lines. With the increase of the modulation period, the maximum stress shows an upward trend, while the flow stress declines. It was found that the maximum stress and flow stress of the sample with a cube-on-cube interface is higher than that of the sample with a twin interface, which is different from the traditional cognition. This unusual phenomenon is mainly attributed to the discontinuity and unevenness of the twin boundaries caused by the extremely severe lattice mismatch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Synthesis, Interfaces, and Nanostructures)
Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Antifungal Activities of Eugenol-Entrapped Casein Nanoparticles against Anthracnose in Postharvest Fruits
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121777 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
This study aims to improve the antifungal effects of eugenol through low-energy self-assembly fabrication and optimization of eugenol-casein nanoparticles (EC-NPs). Optimized EC-NPs (eugenol/casein ratio of 1:5) were obtained with a mean size of 307.4 ± 2.5 nm and entrapment efficiency of 86.3% ± [...] Read more.
This study aims to improve the antifungal effects of eugenol through low-energy self-assembly fabrication and optimization of eugenol-casein nanoparticles (EC-NPs). Optimized EC-NPs (eugenol/casein ratio of 1:5) were obtained with a mean size of 307.4 ± 2.5 nm and entrapment efficiency of 86.3% ± 0.2%, and showed high stability under incubated at 20 and 37 °C for 48 h. EC-NPs exhibited satisfactory sustained-release effect at 20 °C or 37 °C, with remaining eugenols amounts of 79.51% and 53.41% after 72 h incubation, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of native eugenol (only 26.40% and 19.82% after the first 12 h). EC-NPs exhibited a greater antifungal activity (>95.7%) against spore germination of fungus that was greater than that of native eugenol, showed 100% inhibition of the anthracnose incidence in postharvest pear after 7 d. EC-NPs is potential as an environmental-friendly preservatives in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Antimicrobial Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Nitriding an Oxygen-Doped Nanocarbonaceous Sorbent Synthesized via Solution Plasma Process for Improving CO2 Adsorption Capacity
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121776 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
The synthesis of carbon nanoparticles (Cn) and oxygen-doped nanocarbon (OCn) was successfully done through a one-step synthesis by the solution plasma process (SPP). The Cn and OCn were nitrogen-doped by nitridation under an ammonia atmosphere at 800 °C for 2 h to yield [...] Read more.
The synthesis of carbon nanoparticles (Cn) and oxygen-doped nanocarbon (OCn) was successfully done through a one-step synthesis by the solution plasma process (SPP). The Cn and OCn were nitrogen-doped by nitridation under an ammonia atmosphere at 800 °C for 2 h to yield NCn and NOCn, respectively, for carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption. The NOCn exhibited the highest specific surface area (~570 m2 g−1) and highest CO2 adsorption capacity (1.63 mmol g−1 at 25 °C) among the synthesized samples. The primary nitrogen species on the surface of NOCn were pyridinic-N and pyrrolic-N. The synergistic effect of microporosity and nitrogen functionality on the NOCn surface played an essential role in CO2 adsorption enhancement. From the thermodynamic viewpoint, the CO2 adsorption on NOCn was physisorption, exothermic, and spontaneous. The NOCn showed a more negative enthalpy of adsorption, indicating its stronger interaction for CO2 on the surface, and hence, the higher adsorption capacity. The CO2 adsorption on NOCn over the whole pressure range at 25–55 °C best fitted the Toth model, suggesting monolayer adsorption on the heterogeneous surface. In addition, NOCn expressed a higher selective CO2 adsorption than Cn and so was a good candidate for multicycle adsorption. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Limitations of Recent Studies Dealing with the Antibacterial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles: Fact and Opinion
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121775 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
Due to the constant increase in the number of infectious diseases and the concomitant lack of treatment available, metallic nanoparticles (e.g., silver nanoparticles) have been of particular interest in the last decades. Indeed, several studies suggest that silver nanoparticles have valuable antimicrobial activities, [...] Read more.
Due to the constant increase in the number of infectious diseases and the concomitant lack of treatment available, metallic nanoparticles (e.g., silver nanoparticles) have been of particular interest in the last decades. Indeed, several studies suggest that silver nanoparticles have valuable antimicrobial activities, especially against bacteria, which may lead us to think that these nanoparticles may one day be an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of bacterial infections. Unfortunately, when we look a little closer to these studies, we can see a very great heterogeneity (e.g., in the study design, in the synthetic process of nanoparticles, in the methods that explore the antibacterial properties of nanoparticles and in the bacteria chosen) making cross-interpretation between these studies impossible, and significantly limiting the interest of silver nanoparticles as promising antibacterial agents. We have selected forty-nine international publications published since 2015, and propose to discuss, not the results obtained, but precisely the different methodologies developed in these publications. Through this discussion, we highlighted the aspects to improve, or at least to homogenize, in order to definitively establish the interest of silver nanoparticles as valuable antibacterial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Facile Synthesis of Triangular and Hexagonal Anionic Gold Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Cytotoxicity
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121774 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 130
Abstract
Comprehension of the shape-dependent properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) could benefit the advancements in cellular uptake efficiency. Spherical AuNPs have generally been used for drug delivery, and recent research has indicated that the cellular uptake of triangular AuNPs was higher than that of [...] Read more.
Comprehension of the shape-dependent properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) could benefit the advancements in cellular uptake efficiency. Spherical AuNPs have generally been used for drug delivery, and recent research has indicated that the cellular uptake of triangular AuNPs was higher than that of spherical ones. Previous reports have also revealed that chemically synthesized AuNPs were cytotoxic. Therefore, we have developed a facile, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method for synthesizing triangular and hexagonal anionic AuNPs. The zeta potential of the synthesized AuNPs was negative, which indicated that their surface could be easily functionalized with positively charged molecules to upload drugs or biomolecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images illustrated that the largest particle size of the synthesized quasi-hexagonal AuNPs was 61 nm. The TEM images also illustrated that two types of equilateral-triangular AuNPs were synthesized: One featured sharp and the other rounded corners. The sides of the smallest and largest triangular AuNPs were 23 and 178 nm, respectively. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra of the green-synthesized AuNPs indicated that they consisted entirely of elemental Au. The cytotoxicity of the green-synthesized AuNPs was evaluated using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Using cell viability data, we determined that the green-synthesized AuNPs did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials for Solar Energy Storage: MgO and Mg(OH)2 Mixed with Polyethylene Glycol
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121773 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 119
Abstract
Heat energy storage systems were fabricated with the impregnation method using MgO and Mg(OH)2 as supporting materials and polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) as the functional phase. MgO and Mg(OH)2 were synthesized from the salt Mg(NO3)·6H2O by performing hydrothermal [...] Read more.
Heat energy storage systems were fabricated with the impregnation method using MgO and Mg(OH)2 as supporting materials and polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) as the functional phase. MgO and Mg(OH)2 were synthesized from the salt Mg(NO3)·6H2O by performing hydrothermal reactions with various precipitating agents. The precipitating agents were NaOH, KOH, NH3, NH3 with pamoic acid (PA), or (NH4)2CO3. The result shows that the selection of the precipitating agent has a significant impact on the crystallite structure, size, and shape of the final products. Of the precipitating agents tested, only NaOH and NH3 with PA produce single-phase Mg(OH)2 as the as-synthesized product. Pore size distribution analyses revealed that the surfaces of the as-synthesized MgO have a slit-like pore structure with a broad-type pore size distribution, whereas the as-synthesized Mg(OH)2 has a mesoporous structure with a narrow pore size distribution. This structure enhances the latent heat of the phase change material (PCM) as well as super cooling mitigation. The PEG/Mg(OH)2 PCM also exhibits reproducible behavior over a large number of thermal cycles. Both MgO and Mg(OH)2 matrices prevent the leakage of liquid PEG during the phase transition in phase change materials (PCMs). However, MgO/PEG has a low impregnation ratio and efficiency, with a low thermal storage capability. This is due to the large pore diameter, which does not allow MgO to retain a larger amount of PEG. The latent heat values of PEG-1000/PEG-6000 blends with MgO and Mg(OH)2 were also determined with a view to extending the application of the PCMs to energy storage over wider temperature ranges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ionic Liquid-Modulated Synthesis of Porous Worm-Like Gold with Strong SERS Response and Superior Catalytic Activities
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121772 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 96
Abstract
Porous gold with well-defined shape and size have aroused extensive research enthusiasm due to their prominent properties in various applications. However, it is still a great challenge to explore a simple, green, and low-cost route to fabricate porous gold with a “clean” surface. [...] Read more.
Porous gold with well-defined shape and size have aroused extensive research enthusiasm due to their prominent properties in various applications. However, it is still a great challenge to explore a simple, green, and low-cost route to fabricate porous gold with a “clean” surface. In this work, porous worm-like Au has been easily synthesized in a one-step procedure from aqueous solution at room temperature under the action of ionic liquid tetrapropylammonium glycine ([N3333][Gly]). It is shown that the as-prepared porous worm-like Au has the length from 0.3 to 0.6 μm and the width of approximately 100–150 nm, and it is composed of lots of small nanoparticles about 6–12 nm in diameter. With rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a probe molecule, porous worm-like Au displays remarkable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensitivity (detection limit is lower than 10−13 M), and extremely high reproducibility (average relative standard deviations is less than 2%). At the same time, owing to significantly high specific surface area, various pore sizes and plenty of crystal defects, porous worm-like Au also exhibits excellent catalytic performance in the reduction of nitroaromatics, such as p-nitrophenol and p-nitroaniline, which can be completely converted within only 100 s and 150 s, respectively. It is expected that the as-prepared porous worm-like Au with porous and self-supported structures will also present the encouraging advances in electrocatalysis, sensing, and many others. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Filtering Monochromatic Infrared Detectors Based on Bi2Se3 (Sb2Te3)/Silicon Heterojunctions
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121771 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 94
Abstract
This paper focuses on the photoelectric properties of heterostructures formed by surface-modified Si (111) and hexagonal, quintuple-layered selenides (Bi2Se3 and Sb2Te3). It was shown that H-passivated Si (111) can form robust Schottky junctions with either Bi [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the photoelectric properties of heterostructures formed by surface-modified Si (111) and hexagonal, quintuple-layered selenides (Bi2Se3 and Sb2Te3). It was shown that H-passivated Si (111) can form robust Schottky junctions with either Bi2Se3 or Sb2Te3. When back illuminated (i.e., light incident towards the Si side of the junction), both the Bi2Se3/Si and Sb2Te3/Si junctions exhibited significant photovoltaic response at 1030 nm, which is right within the near-infrared (NIR) light wavelength range. A maximum external quantum efficiency of 14.7% with a detection response time of 2 ms for Bi2Se3/Si junction, and of 15.5% with a 0.8 ms response time for the Sb2Te3/Si junction, were achieved. Therefore, utilizing Si constituents as high-pass filters, the Bi2Se3 (Sb2Te3)/Si heterojunctions can serve as monochromatic NIR photodetectors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
N-Doped Modified Graphene/Fe2O3 Nanocomposites as High-Performance Anode Material for Sodium Ion Storage
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121770 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 102
Abstract
Sodium-ion storage devices have received widespread attention because of their abundant sodium resources, low cost and high energy density, which verges on lithium-ion storage devices. Electrochemical redox reactions of metal oxides offer a new approach to construct high-capacity anodes for sodium-ion storage devices. [...] Read more.
Sodium-ion storage devices have received widespread attention because of their abundant sodium resources, low cost and high energy density, which verges on lithium-ion storage devices. Electrochemical redox reactions of metal oxides offer a new approach to construct high-capacity anodes for sodium-ion storage devices. However, the poor rate performance, low Coulombic efficiency, and undesirable cycle stability of the redox conversion anodes remain a huge challenge for the practical application of sodium ion energy storage devices due to sluggish kinetics and irreversible structural change of most conversion anodes during cycling. Herein, a nitrogen-doping graphene/Fe2O3 (N-GF-300) composite material was successfully prepared as a sodium-ion storage anode for sodium ion batteries and sodium ion supercapacitors through a water bath and an annealing process, where Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a homogenous size of about 30 nm were uniformly anchored on the graphene nanosheets. The nitrogen-doping graphene structure enhanced the connection between Fe2O3 nanoparticles with graphene nanosheets to improve electrical conductivity and buffer the volume change of the material for high capacity and stable cycle performance. The N-GF-300 anode material delivered a high reversible discharge capacity of 638 mAh g−1 at a current density of 0.1 A g−1 and retained 428.3 mAh g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 after 100 cycles, indicating a strong cyclability of the SIBs. The asymmetrical N-GF-300//graphene SIC exhibited a high energy density and power density with 58 Wh kg−1 at 1365 W kg−1 in organic solution. The experimental results from this work clearly illustrate that the nitrogen-doping graphene/Fe2O3 composite material N-GF-300 is a potential feasibility for sodium-ion storage devices, which further reveals that the nitrogen doping approach is an effective technique for modifying carbon matrix composites for high reaction kinetics during cycles in sodium-ion storage devices and even other electrochemical storage devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Different Approaches to Surface Functionalization of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Scaffolds
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121769 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 100
Abstract
Due to their good mechanical stability compared to gelatin, collagen or polyethylene glycol nanofibers and slow degradation rate, biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers are promising material as scaffolds for bone and soft-tissue engineering. Here, PCL nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning method and then [...] Read more.
Due to their good mechanical stability compared to gelatin, collagen or polyethylene glycol nanofibers and slow degradation rate, biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers are promising material as scaffolds for bone and soft-tissue engineering. Here, PCL nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning method and then subjected to surface functionalization aimed at improving their biocompatibility and bioactivity. For surface modification, two approaches were used: (i) COOH-containing polymer was deposited on the PCL surface using atmospheric pressure plasma copolymerization of CO2 and C2H4, and (ii) PCL nanofibers were coated with multifunctional bioactive nanostructured TiCaPCON film by magnetron sputtering of TiC–CaO–Ti3POx target. To evaluate bone regeneration ability in vitro, the surface-modified PCL nanofibers were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF, 1×) for 21 days. The results obtained indicate different osteoblastic and epithelial cell response depending on the modification method. The TiCaPCON-coated PCL nanofibers exhibited enhanced adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells, promoted the formation of Ca-based mineralized layer in SBF and, therefore, can be considered as promising material for bone tissue regeneration. The PCL–COOH nanofibers demonstrated improved adhesion and proliferation of IAR-2 cells, which shows their high potential for skin reparation and wound dressing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Simulation of a Multi-Sheet Beam Terahertz Radiation Source Based on Carbon-Nanotube Cold Cathode
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121768 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Carbon nanotube (CNT) cold cathodes are proving to be compelling candidates for miniaturized terahertz (THz) vacuum electronic devices (VEDs) owning to their superior field-emission (FE) characteristics. Here, we report on the development of a multi-sheet beam CNT cold cathode electron optical system with [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotube (CNT) cold cathodes are proving to be compelling candidates for miniaturized terahertz (THz) vacuum electronic devices (VEDs) owning to their superior field-emission (FE) characteristics. Here, we report on the development of a multi-sheet beam CNT cold cathode electron optical system with concurrently high beam current and high current density. The microscopic FE characteristics of the CNT film emitter is captured through the development of an empirically derived macroscopic simulation model which is used to provide representative emission performance. Through parametrically optimized macroscale simulations, a five-sheet-beam triode electron gun has been designed, and has been shown to emit up to 95 mA at 3.2 kV. Through careful engineering of the electron gun geometric parameters, a low-voltage compact THz radiation source operating in high-order TM 5 , 1 mode is investigated to improve output power and suppress mode competition. Particle in cell (PIC) simulations show the average output power is 33 W at 0.1 THz, and the beam–wave interaction efficiency is approximately 10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronics, Electromagnetism and Applications of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Nanotubes Incorporated Z-Scheme Assembly of AgBr/TiO2 for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production under Visible Light Irradiations
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121767 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Photocatalytic H2 production is a promising strategy toward green energy and alternative to carbon-based fuels which are the root cause of global warming and pollution. In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated Z-scheme assembly of AgBr/TiO2 was developed for photocatalytic H [...] Read more.
Photocatalytic H2 production is a promising strategy toward green energy and alternative to carbon-based fuels which are the root cause of global warming and pollution. In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated Z-scheme assembly of AgBr/TiO2 was developed for photocatalytic H2 production under visible light irradiations. Synthesized photocatalysts were characterized through transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), photoluminescence spectra (PL), Brunauer Emmet-Teller(BET), and UV-vis spectroscopy analysis techniques. The composite photocatalysts exhibited a H2 production of 477 ppm which was three-folds higher than that produced by TiO2. The good performance was attributed to the strong interaction of three components and the reduced charge recombination, which was 89 and 56.3 times lower than the TiO2 and AgBr/TiO2. Furthermore, the role of surface acidic and basic groups was assessed and the photocatalytic results demonstrated the importance of surface functional groups. In addition, the composites exhibited stability and reusability for five consecutive cycles of reaction. Thus, improved performance of the photocatalyst was credited to the CNTs as an electron mediator, surface functional groups, higher surface area, enhanced charge separation and extended visible light absorption edge. This work provides new development of Z-scheme photocatalysts for sustainable H2 production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Nanosystems for Artificial Photosynthesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Melt-Mixed 3D Hierarchical Graphene/Polypropylene Nanocomposites with Low Electrical Percolation Threshold
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121766 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Graphene-based materials are a family of carbonaceous structures that can be produced using a variety of processes either from graphite or other precursors. These materials are typically a few layered sheets of graphene in the form of platelets and maintain some of the [...] Read more.
Graphene-based materials are a family of carbonaceous structures that can be produced using a variety of processes either from graphite or other precursors. These materials are typically a few layered sheets of graphene in the form of platelets and maintain some of the properties of pristine graphene (such as two-dimensional platelet shape, aspect ratio, and graphitic bonding). In this work we present melt mixed graphene-based polypropylene systems with significantly reduced percolation threshold. Traditionally melt-mixed systems suffer from poor dispersion that leads to high electrical percolation values. In contrast in our work, graphene was added into an isotactic polypropylene matrix, achieving an electrical percolation threshold of ~1 wt.%. This indicates that the filler dispersion process has been highly efficient, something that leads to the suppression of the β phase that have a strong influence on the crystallization behavior and subsequent thermal and mechanical performance. The electrical percolation values obtained are comparable with reported solution mixed systems, despite the use of simple melt mixing protocols and the lack of any pre or post-treatment of the final compositions. The latter is of particular importance as the preparation method used in this work is industrially relevant and is readily scalable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification of Carbon Nanotube Doses in Adherent Cell Culture Assays Using UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1765; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121765 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 178
Abstract
The overt hazard of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is often assessed using in vitro methods, but determining a dose–response relationship is still a challenge due to the analytical difficulty of quantifying the dose delivered to cells. An approach to accurately quantify CNT doses for [...] Read more.
The overt hazard of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is often assessed using in vitro methods, but determining a dose–response relationship is still a challenge due to the analytical difficulty of quantifying the dose delivered to cells. An approach to accurately quantify CNT doses for submerged in vitro adherent cell culture systems using UV-VIS-near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is provided here. Two types of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), Mitsui-7 and Nanocyl, which are dispersed in protein rich cell culture media, are studied as tested materials. Post 48 h of CNT incubation, the cellular fractions are subjected to microwave-assisted acid digestion/oxidation treatment, which eliminates biological matrix interference and improves CNT colloidal stability. The retrieved oxidized CNTs are analyzed and quantified using UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. In vitro imaging and quantification data in the presence of human lung epithelial cells (A549) confirm that up to 85% of Mitsui-7 and 48% for Nanocyl sediment interact (either through internalization or adherence) with cells during the 48 h of incubation. This finding is further confirmed using a sedimentation approach to estimate the delivered dose by measuring the depletion profile of the CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Medicines)
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Open AccessArticle
Guidelines for Selecting Interlayer Spacers in Synthetic 2D-Based Antiferromagnets from First-Principles Simulations
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121764 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Following the recent synthesis of graphene–based antiferromagnetic ultrathin heterostructures made of Co and Fe, we analyse the effect of the spacer between both ferromagnetic materials. Using density functional calculations, we carried out an exhaustive study of the geometric, electronic and magnetic properties for [...] Read more.
Following the recent synthesis of graphene–based antiferromagnetic ultrathin heterostructures made of Co and Fe, we analyse the effect of the spacer between both ferromagnetic materials. Using density functional calculations, we carried out an exhaustive study of the geometric, electronic and magnetic properties for intercalated single Co MLs on top of Ir(111) coupled to monolayered Fe through n graphene layers (n = 1, 2, 3) or monolayered h-BN. Different local atomic arrangements have been considered to model the Moiré patterns expected in these heterostructures. The magnetic exchange interactions between both ferromagnets ( J C o - F e ) are computed from explicit calculations of parallel and anti-parallel Fe/Co inter–layer alignments, and discussed in the context of recent experiments. Our analysis confirms that the robust antiferromagnetic superexchange–coupling between Fe and Co layers is mediated by the graphene spacer through the hybridization of C’s p z orbitals with Fe and Co’s 3d states. The hybridization is substantially suppressed for multilayered graphene spacers, for which the magnetic coupling between ferromagnets is critically reduced, suggesting the need for ultrathin (monolayer) spacers in the design of synthetic graphene-based antiferromagnets. In the case of h–BN, p z orbitals also mediate d(Fe/Co) coupling. However, there is a larger contribution of local ferromagnetic interactions. Magnetic anisotropy energies were also calculated using a fully relativistic description, and show out–of–plane easy axis for all the configurations, with remarkable net values in the range from 1 to 4 meV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposite Thin Films and 2D Materials)
Open AccessArticle
Core Nanoparticle Engineering for Narrower and More Intense Band-Edge Emission from AgInS2/GaSx Core/Shell Quantum Dots
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1763; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121763 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Highly luminescent silver indium sulfide (AgInS2) nanoparticles were synthesized by dropwise injection of a sulfur precursor solution into a cationic metal precursor solution. The two-step reaction including the formation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanoparticles as an intermediate and their [...] Read more.
Highly luminescent silver indium sulfide (AgInS2) nanoparticles were synthesized by dropwise injection of a sulfur precursor solution into a cationic metal precursor solution. The two-step reaction including the formation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanoparticles as an intermediate and their conversion to AgInS2 nanoparticles, occurred during the dropwise injection. The crystal structure of the AgInS2 nanoparticles differed according to the temperature of the metal precursor solution. Specifically, the tetragonal crystal phase was obtained at 140 °C, and the orthorhombic crystal phase was obtained at 180 °C. Furthermore, when the AgInS2 nanoparticles were coated with a gallium sulfide (GaSx) shell, the nanoparticles with both crystal phases emitted a spectrally narrow luminescence, which originated from the band-edge transition of AgInS2. Tetragonal AgInS2 exhibited narrower band-edge emission (full width at half maximum, FWHM = 32.2 nm) and higher photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) (49.2%) than those of the orthorhombic AgInS2 nanoparticles (FWHM = 37.8 nm, QY = 33.3%). Additional surface passivation by alkylphosphine resulted in higher PL QY (72.3%) with a narrow spectral shape. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nitridation Temperature Effect on Carbon Vanadium Oxynitrides for a Symmetric Supercapacitor
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121762 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 136
Abstract
In this work, porous carbon-vanadium oxynitride (C-V2NO) nanostructures were obtained at different nitridation temperature of 700, 800 and 900 °C using a thermal decomposition process. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of all the nanomaterials showed a C-V2NO single-phase cubic [...] Read more.
In this work, porous carbon-vanadium oxynitride (C-V2NO) nanostructures were obtained at different nitridation temperature of 700, 800 and 900 °C using a thermal decomposition process. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of all the nanomaterials showed a C-V2NO single-phase cubic structure. The C-V2NO obtained at 700 °C had a low surface area (91.6 m2 g−1), a moderate degree of graphitization, and a broader pore size distribution. The C-V2NO obtained at 800 °C displayed an interconnected network with higher surface area (121.6 m2 g−1) and a narrower pore size distribution. In contrast, at 900 °C, the C-V2NO displayed a disintegrated network and a decrease in the surface area (113 m2 g−1). All the synthesized C-V2NO yielded mesoporous oxynitride nanostructures which were evaluated in three-electrode configuration using 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte as a function of temperature. The C-V2[email protected] °C electrode gave the highest electrochemical performance as compared to its counterparts due to its superior properties. These results indicate that the nitridation temperature not only influences the morphology, structure and surface area of the C-V2NO but also their electrochemical performance. Additionally, a symmetric device fabricated from the C-V2[email protected] °C displayed specific energy and power of 38 W h kg−1 and 764 W kg−1, respectively, at 1 A g−1 in a wide operating voltage of 1.8 V. In terms of stability, it achieved 84.7% as capacity retention up to 10,000 cycles which was confirmed through the floating/aging measurement for up to 100 h at 10 A g−1. This symmetric capacitor is promising for practical applications due to the rapid and easy preparation of the carbon-vanadium oxynitride materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Upgrading the Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Produced by Thermal Reduction toward Efficient ORR Electrocatalysts
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121761 - 11 Dec 2019
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Abstract
N-doped (NrGO) and non-doped (rGO) graphenic materials are prepared by oxidation and further thermal treatment under ammonia and inert atmospheres, respectively, of natural graphites of different particle sizes. An extensive characterization of graphene materials points out that the physical properties of synthesized materials, [...] Read more.
N-doped (NrGO) and non-doped (rGO) graphenic materials are prepared by oxidation and further thermal treatment under ammonia and inert atmospheres, respectively, of natural graphites of different particle sizes. An extensive characterization of graphene materials points out that the physical properties of synthesized materials, as well as the nitrogen species introduced, depend on the particle size of the starting graphite, the reduction atmospheres, and the temperature conditions used during the exfoliation treatment. These findings indicate that it is possible to tailor properties of non-doped and N-doped reduced graphene oxide, such as the number of layers, surface area, and nitrogen content, by using a simple strategy based on selecting adequate graphite sizes and convenient experimental conditions during thermal exfoliation. Additionally, the graphenic materials are successfully applied as electrocatalysts for the demanding oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Nitrogen doping together with the starting graphite of smaller particle size (NrGO325-4) resulted in a more efficient ORR electrocatalyst with more positive onset potentials (Eonset = 0.82 V versus RHE), superior diffusion-limiting current density (jL, 0.26V, 1600rpm = −4.05 mA cm−2), and selectivity to the direct four-electron pathway. Moreover, all NrGOm-4 show high tolerance to methanol poisoning in comparison with the state-of-the-art ORR electrocatalyst Pt/C and good stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of New Nanoparticle Structures as Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle
Single-Source Vapor-Deposited Cs2AgBiBr6 Thin Films for Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121760 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 115
Abstract
Lead-free double perovskites have been considered as a potential environmentally friendly photovoltaic material for substituting the hybrid lead halide perovskites due to their high stability and nontoxicity. Here, lead-free double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 films are initially fabricated by single-source evaporation deposition [...] Read more.
Lead-free double perovskites have been considered as a potential environmentally friendly photovoltaic material for substituting the hybrid lead halide perovskites due to their high stability and nontoxicity. Here, lead-free double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 films are initially fabricated by single-source evaporation deposition under high vacuum condition. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy characterization show that the high crystallinity, flat, and pinhole-free double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 films were obtained after post-annealing at 300 °C for 15 min. By changing the annealing temperature, annealing time, and film thickness, perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 solar cells with planar heterojunction structure of FTO/TiO2/Cs2AgBiBr6/Spiro-OMeTAD/Ag achieve an encouraging power conversion efficiency of 0.70%. Our preliminary work opens a feasible approach for preparing high-quality double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 films wielding considerable potential for photovoltaic application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Facile Synthesis of Mn4+-Activated Double Perovskite Germanate Phosphors with Near-Infrared Persistent Luminescence
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121759 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 105
Abstract
Tetravalent manganese doped phosphors are emerging as a new class of efficient near-infrared emitters for applications in a variety of areas, such as bioimaging and night-vision surveillance. Novel double perovskite-type La2MgGeO6:Mn4+ phosphors were successfully prepared using a microwave-assisted [...] Read more.
Tetravalent manganese doped phosphors are emerging as a new class of efficient near-infrared emitters for applications in a variety of areas, such as bioimaging and night-vision surveillance. Novel double perovskite-type La2MgGeO6:Mn4+ phosphors were successfully prepared using a microwave-assisted energy-saving solid state method. This simple technique involving the use of a microwave susceptor allows for a reduction of the preparation time compared to a conventional solid state reaction. The samples were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, as well as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping, photoluminescence excitation/emission spectroscopy, persistent luminescence decay and temperature-dependent photoluminescence analysis. Substitution between isovalent Mn4+ and Ge4+ can be achieved without additional charge compensators in this germanate-based phosphor, which provides strong emission in the near-infrared spectral region, assigned to the characteristic transitions of tetravalent manganese ions. Additionally, the double perovskite-type germanate phosphor exhibits excellent luminescence thermal stability. Moreover, the spectroscopic properties, excitation wavelength-dependent and temperature-dependent persistent luminescence were studied. A series of thermoluminescence measurements were presented trying to give clear information on the charging process, afterglow behavior and the nature of the traps responsible for the persistent luminescence. The present investigation expands the range of available promising near-infrared emitting persistent phosphors for medical imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessReview
Graphenic Materials for Biomedical Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121758 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Graphene-based nanomaterials have been intensively studied for their properties, modifications, and application potential. Biomedical applications are one of the main directions of research in this field. This review summarizes the research results which were obtained in the last two years (2017–2019), especially those [...] Read more.
Graphene-based nanomaterials have been intensively studied for their properties, modifications, and application potential. Biomedical applications are one of the main directions of research in this field. This review summarizes the research results which were obtained in the last two years (2017–2019), especially those related to drug/gene/protein delivery systems and materials with antimicrobial properties. Due to the large number of studies in the area of carbon nanomaterials, attention here is focused only on 2D structures, i.e. graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Photoluminescence Quenching in Donor–Acceptor PCE11:PPCBMB Films through the Optimization of Film Microstructure
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121757 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 170
Abstract
We show that a precise control of deposition speed during the fabrication of polyfullerenes and donor polymer films by convective self-assembly leads to an optimized film microstructure comprised of interconnected crystalline polymer domains comparable to molecular dimensions intercalated with similar polyfullerene domains. Moreover, [...] Read more.
We show that a precise control of deposition speed during the fabrication of polyfullerenes and donor polymer films by convective self-assembly leads to an optimized film microstructure comprised of interconnected crystalline polymer domains comparable to molecular dimensions intercalated with similar polyfullerene domains. Moreover, in blended films, we have found a correlation between deposition speed, the resulting microstructure, and photoluminescence quenching. The latter appeared more intense for lower deposition speeds due to a more favorable structuring at the nanoscale of the two donor and acceptor systems in the resulting blend films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoscale Self-Assembly: Nanopatterning and Metrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Polymer Graphite Pencil Lead as a Cheap Alternative for Classic Conductive SPM Probes
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121756 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 144
Abstract
This paper presents polymer graphite (PG) as a novel material for the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) probe. Conductive PG is a relatively modern nanocomposite material used for micro-pencil refills containing a polymer-based binding agent and graphite flakes. Its high conductivity and immunity against [...] Read more.
This paper presents polymer graphite (PG) as a novel material for the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) probe. Conductive PG is a relatively modern nanocomposite material used for micro-pencil refills containing a polymer-based binding agent and graphite flakes. Its high conductivity and immunity against surface contamination, with a low price, make it seem like a highly suitable material for electrode manufacturing in general. For the tip production, three methods were developed and are further described in the paper. For the production, three commercially available polymer graphite rods were used. Each has been discussed in terms of performance within the tunneling microscope and within other potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanophotonics, Characterization, Modelling, and Nanodevices)
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Open AccessArticle
Upgrading of Extra-Heavy Crude Oils by Dispersed Injection of NiO–PdO/CeO2±δ Nanocatalyst-Based Nanofluids in the Steam
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1755; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121755 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 152
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the injection of a dispersed nanocatalyst-based nanofluid in a steam stream for in situ upgrading and oil recovery during a steam injection process. The nanocatalyst was selected through adsorption and thermogravimetric experiments. Two nanoparticles [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the injection of a dispersed nanocatalyst-based nanofluid in a steam stream for in situ upgrading and oil recovery during a steam injection process. The nanocatalyst was selected through adsorption and thermogravimetric experiments. Two nanoparticles were proposed, ceria nanoparticles (CeO2±δ), with and without functionalization with nickel, and palladium oxides (CeNi0.89Pd1.1). Each one was employed for static tests of adsorption and subsequent decomposition using a model solution composed of n-C7 asphaltenes (A) and resins II (R) separately and for different R:A ratios of 2:8, 1:1, and 8:2. Then, a displacement test consisting of three main stages was successfully developed. At the beginning, steam was injected into the porous media at a temperature of 210 °C, the pore and overburden pressure were fixed at 150 and 800 psi, respectively, and the steam quality was 70%. This was followed by CeNi0.89Pd1.1 dispersed injection in the steam stream. Finally, the treatment was allowed to soak for 12 h, and the steam flooding was carried out again until no more oil production was observed. Among the most relevant results, functionalized nanoparticles achieved higher adsorption of both fractions as well as a lower decomposition temperature. The presence of resins did not affect the amount of asphaltene adsorption over the evaluated materials. The catalytic activity suggests that the increase in resin content promotes a higher conversion in a shorter period of time. Also, for the different steps of the dynamic test, increases of 25% and 42% in oil recovery were obtained for the dispersed injection of the nanofluid in the steam stream and after a soaking time of 12 h, compared with the base curve with only steam injection, respectively. The upgraded crude oil reached an API gravity level of 15.9°, i.e., an increase in 9.0° units in comparison with the untreated extra-heavy crude oil, which represents an increase of 130%. Also, reductions of up to 71% and 85% in the asphaltene content and viscosity were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nano-Technology for Oil Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Deposition of Silicon-Carbon Films: A Study on the Nucleation and Growth Mechanism
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121754 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 177
Abstract
Silicon-carbon films have been deposited on silicon and Al2O3/Cr-Cu substrates, making use of the electrolysis of methanol/dimethylformamide-hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) solutions. The electrodeposited films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Moreover, the nucleation and growth mechanism of [...] Read more.
Silicon-carbon films have been deposited on silicon and Al2O3/Cr-Cu substrates, making use of the electrolysis of methanol/dimethylformamide-hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) solutions. The electrodeposited films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Moreover, the nucleation and growth mechanism of the films were studied from the experimental current transients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photo-Induced Doping in a Graphene Field-Effect Transistor with Inkjet-Printed Organic Semiconducting Molecules
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121753 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 159
Abstract
In this work, we report a novel method of maskless doping of a graphene channel in a field-effect transistor configuration by local inkjet printing of organic semiconducting molecules. The graphene-based transistor was fabricated via large-scale technology, allowing for upscaling electronic device fabrication and [...] Read more.
In this work, we report a novel method of maskless doping of a graphene channel in a field-effect transistor configuration by local inkjet printing of organic semiconducting molecules. The graphene-based transistor was fabricated via large-scale technology, allowing for upscaling electronic device fabrication and lowering the device’s cost. The altering of the functionalization of graphene was performed through local inkjet printing of N,N′-Dihexyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PDI-C6) semiconducting molecules’ ink. We demonstrated the high resolution (about 50 µm) and accurate printing of organic ink on bare chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene. PDI-C6 forms nanocrystals onto the graphene’s surface and transfers charges via π–π stacking to graphene. While the doping from organic molecules was compensated by oxygen molecules under normal conditions, we demonstrated the photoinduced current generation at the PDI-C6/graphene junction with ambient light, a 470 nm diode, and 532 nm laser sources. The local (in the scale of 1 µm) photoresponse of 0.5 A/W was demonstrated at a low laser power density. The methods we developed open the way for local functionalization of an on-chip array of graphene by inkjet printing of different semiconducting organic molecules for photonics and electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Nanostructures and Optoelectronic Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials as Alternative Control Means Against Postharvest Diseases in Fruit Crops
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121752 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 173
Abstract
Post-harvest diseases of fruit and vegetables have to be controlled because of the high added value of commodities and the great economic loss related to spoilage. Synthetic fungicides are the first choice worldwide to control post-harvest diseases of fruit and vegetables. However, several [...] Read more.
Post-harvest diseases of fruit and vegetables have to be controlled because of the high added value of commodities and the great economic loss related to spoilage. Synthetic fungicides are the first choice worldwide to control post-harvest diseases of fruit and vegetables. However, several problems and constraints related to their use have forced scientists to develop alternatives control means to prevent post-harvest diseases. Physical and biological means, resistance inducers, and GRAS (generally recognized as safe) compounds are the most important alternatives used during the last 20 years. Recently, nanomaterial treatments have demonstrated promising results and they are being investigated to reduce the utilization of synthetic fungicides to control post-harvest rot in fruit and vegetables. The collective information in this review article covers a wide range of nanomaterials used to control post-harvest decays related to each selected fruit crop including grape, citrus, banana, apple, mango, peach, and nectarine. Other examples also used are apricot, guava, avocado, papaya, dragon, pear, longan, loquat, jujubes, and pomegranate fruits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Controllable Synthesis of All Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals with Various Appearances in Multiligand Reaction System
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121751 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 177
Abstract
All inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) exhibit promising applications in light-emitting devices due to their excellent photophysical properties. Herein, we developed a low-cost and convenient method for the preparation of CsPbX3 PNCs [...] Read more.
All inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) exhibit promising applications in light-emitting devices due to their excellent photophysical properties. Herein, we developed a low-cost and convenient method for the preparation of CsPbX3 PNCs in a multiligand-assisted reaction system where peanut oil is applied as a ligand source. The mixed-halide PNCs with tunable optical-band gap were prepared by mixing the single-halide perovskite solutions at room temperature. The resulting PNCs had good monodispersity, with dimensions of 8–10 nm, high photoluminescence quantum yield (96.9%), narrow emission widths (15–34 nm), and tunable emission wavelength (408–694 nm), covering the entire visible spectrum. Additionally, various morphologies of PNCs, such as nanospheres, nanocubes, and nanowires, were obtained by controlling reaction temperature and time, and the amount of oleamine with multiple ligands in peanut oil potentially playing a dominant role in the nucleation/growth processes of our PNCs. Finally, the resulting CsPbBr3 PNCs were employed to develop a white light-emitting diode (WLED), demonstrating the potential lighting applications for our method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Synthesis, Interfaces, and Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Ag Nanostructures with Spikes on Adhesive Tape as a Flexible Sers-Active Substrate for In Situ Trace Detection of Pesticides on Fruit Skin
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121750 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 180
Abstract
Nanostructures with spikes (NSPs) have been a subject of several surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications owing to their significant Raman signal enhancement brought about by the combined effects of interspike coupling and the accumulated induction on the tips of spikes. Thus, NSPs offer [...] Read more.
Nanostructures with spikes (NSPs) have been a subject of several surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications owing to their significant Raman signal enhancement brought about by the combined effects of interspike coupling and the accumulated induction on the tips of spikes. Thus, NSPs offer great potential as a SERS-active substrate for relevant applications that require a high density of enhanced “hot spots”. In this study, Ag NSPs were synthesized in varying degrees of agglomeration and were thereafter deposited onto a transparent adhesive tape as a flexible substrate for SERS applications, specifically, in the detection of trace amounts of pesticides. These flexible substrates were referred to as Ag NSPs/tape and optimized with an enhancement factor (EF) of ca. 1.7 × 107. A strong resulting signal enhancement could be attributed to an optimal degree of agglomeration and, consequently, the distances among/between spikes. Long spikes on the synthesized core of Ag NSPs tend to be loosely spaced, which are suitable in detecting relatively large molecules that could access the spaces among the spikes where “hot spots” are generally formed. Since one side of the transparent tape is adhesive, the paste-and-peel off method was successful in obtaining phosmet and carbaryl residues from apple peels as reflected in the acquired SERS spectra. In situ trace detection of the pesticides at low concentrations down to 10−7 M could be demonstrated. In situ trace detection of mixed pesticides was possible as the characteristic peaks of both pesticides were observed in equimolar mixtures of the analytes at 10−2 to 10−4 M. This study is, thus, premised upon applying for in situ trace detection on e.g., fruit skin. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Applications of Nanomaterials in Leishmaniasis: A Focus on Recent Advances and Challenges
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121749 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 208
Abstract
Leishmaniasis is a widely distributed protozoan vector-born disease affecting almost 350 million people. Initially, chemotherapeutic drugs were employed for leishmania treatment but they had toxic side effects. Various nanotechnology-based techniques and products have emerged as anti-leishmanial drugs, including liposomes, lipid nano-capsules, metal and [...] Read more.
Leishmaniasis is a widely distributed protozoan vector-born disease affecting almost 350 million people. Initially, chemotherapeutic drugs were employed for leishmania treatment but they had toxic side effects. Various nanotechnology-based techniques and products have emerged as anti-leishmanial drugs, including liposomes, lipid nano-capsules, metal and metallic oxide nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanovaccines, due to their unique properties, such as bioavailability, lowered toxicity, targeted drug delivery, and biodegradability. Many new studies have emerged with nanoparticles serving as promising therapeutic agent for anti-leishmanial disease treatment. Liposomal Amphotericin B (AmB) is one of the successful nano-based drugs with high efficacy and negligible toxicity. A new nanovaccine concept has been studied as a carrier for targeted delivery. This review discusses different nanotechnology-based techniques, materials, and their efficacies in leishmaniasis treatment and their futuristic improvements. Full article
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