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Nanomaterials, Volume 13, Issue 11 (June-1 2023) – 109 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Our study explores the behavior of electrical contacts in one-dimensional CNTs for future nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. Via ab initio modeling the effect of metal deformations on the conductance of metallic armchair and zigzag CNT field effect transistors, we reveal that the current–voltage characteristics differ from those expected for metallic CNTs. Specifically, the conductance of armchair CNTs exhibits an ON/OFF ratio of about two, regardless of temperature, attributed to modifications in the band structure caused by deformation. In contrast, zigzag metallic CNTs experience band crossing without a bandgap opening. These findings help to understand electrical contacts in CNT-based devices. View this paper
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11 pages, 6504 KiB  
Article
Precision Tailoring Quasi-BIC Resonance of a-Si:H Metasurfaces
by Athira Kuppadakkath, Ángela Barreda, Lilit Ghazaryan, Tobias Bucher, Kirill Koshelev, Thomas Pertsch, Adriana Szeghalmi, Duk Choi, Isabelle Staude and Falk Eilenberger
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1810; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111810 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
The capability of tailoring the resonance wavelength of metasurfaces is important as it can alleviate the manufacturing precision required to produce the exact structure according to the design of the nanoresonators. Tuning of Fano resonances by applying heat has been theoretically predicted in [...] Read more.
The capability of tailoring the resonance wavelength of metasurfaces is important as it can alleviate the manufacturing precision required to produce the exact structure according to the design of the nanoresonators. Tuning of Fano resonances by applying heat has been theoretically predicted in the case of silicon metasurfaces. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the permanent tailoring of quasi-bound states in the continuum (quasi-BIC) resonance wavelength in an a-Si:H metasurface and quantitatively analyze the modification in the Q-factor with gradual heating. A gradual increment in temperature leads to a spectral shift in the resonance wavelength. With the support of ellipsometry measurements, the spectral shift resulting from the short-duration (ten minutes) heating is identified to be due to refractive index variations in the material rather than a geometric effect or amorphous/polycrystalline phase transition. In the case of quasi-BIC modes in the near-infrared, resonance wavelength could be adjusted from T = 350 °C to T = 550 °C without affecting the Q-factor considerably. Apart from the temperature-induced resonance trimming, large Q-factors can be attained at the highest analyzed temperature (T = 700 °C) in the near-infrared quasi-BIC modes. Resonance tailoring is just one of the possible applications of our results. We expect that our study is also insightful in the design of a-Si:H metasurfaces where large Q-factors are required at high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metasurfaces for Photonic Devices: Theory and Applications)
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13 pages, 3826 KiB  
Article
Transport Characteristics of Silicon Multi-Quantum-Dot Transistor Analyzed by Means of Experimental Parametrization Based on Single-Hole Tunneling Model
by Youngmin Lee, Hyewon Jun, Seoyeon Park, Deuk Young Kim and Sejoon Lee
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111809 - 5 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
The transport characteristics of a gate-all-around Si multiple-quantum-dot (QD) transistor were studied by means of experimental parametrization using theoretical models. The device was fabricated by using the e-beam lithographically patterned Si nanowire channel, in which the ultrasmall QDs were self-created along the [...] Read more.
The transport characteristics of a gate-all-around Si multiple-quantum-dot (QD) transistor were studied by means of experimental parametrization using theoretical models. The device was fabricated by using the e-beam lithographically patterned Si nanowire channel, in which the ultrasmall QDs were self-created along the Si nanowire due to its volumetric undulation. Owing to the large quantum-level spacings of the self-formed ultrasmall QDs, the device clearly exhibited both Coulomb blockade oscillation (CBO) and negative differential conductance (NDC) characteristics at room temperature. Furthermore, it was also observed that both CBO and NDC could evolve along the extended blockade region within wide gate and drain bias voltage ranges. By analyzing the experimental device parameters using the simple theoretical single-hole-tunneling models, the fabricated QD transistor was confirmed as comprising the double-dot system. Consequently, based on the analytical energy-band diagram, we found that the formation of ultrasmall QDs with imbalanced energetic natures (i.e., imbalanced quantum energy states and their imbalanced capacitive-coupling strengths between the two dots) could lead to effective CBO/NDC evolution in wide bias voltage ranges. Full article
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19 pages, 4685 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Nanocomposite Microbeams Array for Multiple Mass Sensing
by Giovanni Formica, Walter Lacarbonara and Hiroshi Yabuno
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111808 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1165
Abstract
A nonlinear MEMS multimass sensor is numerically investigated, designed as a single input-single output (SISO) system consisting of an array of nonlinear microcantilevers clamped to a shuttle mass which, in turn, is constrained by a linear spring and a dashpot. The microcantilevers are [...] Read more.
A nonlinear MEMS multimass sensor is numerically investigated, designed as a single input-single output (SISO) system consisting of an array of nonlinear microcantilevers clamped to a shuttle mass which, in turn, is constrained by a linear spring and a dashpot. The microcantilevers are made of a nanostructured material, a polymeric hosting matrix reinforced by aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT). The linear as well as the nonlinear detection capabilities of the device are explored by computing the shifts of the frequency response peaks caused by the mass deposition onto one or more microcantilever tips. The frequency response curves of the device are obtained by a pathfollowing algorithm applied to the reduced-order model of the system. The microcantilevers are described by a nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli inextensible beam theory, which is enriched by a meso-scale constitutive law of the nanocomposite. In particular, the microcantilever constitutive law depends on the CNT volume fraction suitably used for each cantilever to tune the frequency bandwidth of the whole device. Through an extensive numerical campaign, the mass sensor sensitivity estimated in the linear and nonlinear dynamic range shows that, for relatively large displacements, the accuracy of the added mass detectability can be improved due to the larger nonlinear frequency shifts at resonance (up to 12%). Full article
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11 pages, 1791 KiB  
Article
Zirconium Component Modified Porous Nanowood for Efficient Removal of Phosphate from Aqueous Solutions
by Zhuangzhuang Chu, Wei Wang, Mengping Yin and Zhuohong Yang
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111807 - 5 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Rapid urban industrialization and agricultural production have led to the discharge of excessive phosphate into aquatic systems, resulting in a rise in water pollution. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore efficient phosphate removal technologies. Herein, a novel phosphate capture nanocomposite (PEI−PW@Zr) [...] Read more.
Rapid urban industrialization and agricultural production have led to the discharge of excessive phosphate into aquatic systems, resulting in a rise in water pollution. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore efficient phosphate removal technologies. Herein, a novel phosphate capture nanocomposite (PEI−PW@Zr) with mild preparation conditions, environmental friendliness, recyclability, and high efficiency has been developed by modifying aminated nanowood with a zirconium (Zr) component. The Zr component imparts the ability to capture phosphate to the PEI−PW@Zr, while the porous structure provides a mass transfer channel, resulting in excellent adsorption efficiency. Additionally, the nanocomposite maintains more than 80% phosphate adsorption efficiency even after ten adsorption–desorption cycles, indicating its recyclability and potential for repeated use. This compressible nanocomposite provides novel insights into the design of efficient phosphate removal cleaners and offers potential approaches for the functionalization of biomass−based composites. Full article
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9 pages, 7365 KiB  
Article
Controllable Synthesis and Charge Density Wave Phase Transitions of Two-Dimensional 1T-TaS2 Crystals
by Xiaoguang Pan, Tianwen Yang, Hangxin Bai, Jiangbo Peng, Lujie Li, Fangli Jing, Hailong Qiu, Hongjun Liu and Zhanggui Hu
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111806 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
1T-TaS2 has attracted much attention recently due to its abundant charge density wave phases. In this work, high-quality two-dimensional 1T-TaS2 crystals were successfully synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition method with controllable layer numbers, confirmed by the structural characterization. Based on [...] Read more.
1T-TaS2 has attracted much attention recently due to its abundant charge density wave phases. In this work, high-quality two-dimensional 1T-TaS2 crystals were successfully synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition method with controllable layer numbers, confirmed by the structural characterization. Based on the as-grown samples, their thickness-dependency nearly commensurate charge density wave/commensurate charge density wave phase transitions was revealed by the combination of the temperature-dependent resistance measurements and Raman spectra. The phase transition temperature increased with increasing thickness, but no apparent phase transition was found on the 2~3 nm thick crystals from temperature-dependent Raman spectra. The transition hysteresis loops due to temperature-dependent resistance changes of 1T-TaS2 can be used for memory devices and oscillators, making 1T-TaS2 a promising material for various electronic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Spintronic and Electronic Nanomaterials)
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12 pages, 5461 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Nitroaromatics by Gold Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon Fabricated Using Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching
by Ling-Yi Liang, Yu-Han Kung, Vincent K. S. Hsiao and Chih-Chien Chu
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1805; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111805 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the use of porous silicon (PSi) fabricated using metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) as a substrate for the deposition of Au nanoparticles (NPs) for the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds. PSi provides a high surface area for the deposition of [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the use of porous silicon (PSi) fabricated using metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) as a substrate for the deposition of Au nanoparticles (NPs) for the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds. PSi provides a high surface area for the deposition of Au NPs, and MACE allows for the fabrication of a well-defined porous structure in a single step. We used the reduction of p-nitroaniline as a model reaction to evaluate the catalytic activity of Au NPs on PSi. The results indicate that the Au NPs on the PSi exhibited excellent catalytic activity, which was affected by the etching time. Overall, our results highlighted the potential of PSi fabricated using MACE as a substrate for the deposition of metal NPs for catalytic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Gold Nanoparticles)
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10 pages, 3421 KiB  
Communication
Green Cleaning of 3D-Printed Polymeric Products by Micro-/Nano-Bubbles
by Haoxiang Gao, Fenghua Zhang, Kangkang Tang, Xianyu Luo, Ziang Pu, Jiuzhou Zhao, Zhiwei Jiao and Weimin Yang
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111804 - 5 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1677
Abstract
3D printing technology has been used to directly produce various actual products, ranging from engines and medicines to toys, especially due to its advantage in producing items of complicated, porous structures, which are inherently difficult to clean. Here, we apply micro-/nano-bubble technology to [...] Read more.
3D printing technology has been used to directly produce various actual products, ranging from engines and medicines to toys, especially due to its advantage in producing items of complicated, porous structures, which are inherently difficult to clean. Here, we apply micro-/nano-bubble technology to the removal of oil contaminants from 3D-printed polymeric products. Micro-/nano-bubbles show promise in the enhancement of cleaning performance with or without ultrasound, which is attributed to their large specific surface area enhancing the adhesion sites of contaminants, and their high Zeta potential which attracts contaminant particles. Additionally, bubbles produce tiny jets and shock waves at their rupture, driven by coupled ultrasound, which can remove sticky contaminants from 3D-printed products. As an effective, efficient, and environmentally friendly cleaning method, micro-/nano-bubbles can be used in a range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanobubbles and Their Applications)
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29 pages, 3803 KiB  
Review
Carbon and Cellulose-Based Nanoparticle-Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites: A Critical Review
by Gopal Yuvaraj, Manickam Ramesh and Lakshminarasimhan Rajeshkumar
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111803 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2397
Abstract
Nanomaterials are currently used for different applications in several fields. Bringing the measurements of a material down to nanoscale size makes vital contributions to the improvement of the characteristics of materials. The polymer composites acquire various properties when added to nanoparticles, increasing characteristics [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials are currently used for different applications in several fields. Bringing the measurements of a material down to nanoscale size makes vital contributions to the improvement of the characteristics of materials. The polymer composites acquire various properties when added to nanoparticles, increasing characteristics such as bonding strength, physical property, fire retardance, energy storage capacity, etc. The objective of this review was to validate the major functionality of the carbon and cellulose-based nanoparticle-filled polymer nanocomposites (PNC), which include fabricating procedures, fundamental structural properties, characterization, morphological properties, and their applications. Subsequently, this review includes arrangement of nanoparticles, their influence, and the factors necessary to attain the required size, shape, and properties of the PNCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites)
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12 pages, 4392 KiB  
Article
Effect of α-Al2O3 Additive on the Surface Micro-Arc Oxidation Coating of Ti6Al4V Alloy
by Yuke Chen and Meini Yuan
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111802 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
α-Al2O3 nanoparticles can enter a micro-arc oxidation coating and participate in the coating-formation process through chemical reaction or physical–mechanical combination in the electrolyte. The prepared coating has high strength, good toughness and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. In this paper, [...] Read more.
α-Al2O3 nanoparticles can enter a micro-arc oxidation coating and participate in the coating-formation process through chemical reaction or physical–mechanical combination in the electrolyte. The prepared coating has high strength, good toughness and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. In this paper, 0, 1, 3 and 5 g/L of α-Al2O3 nanoparticles were added to a Na2SiO3-Na(PO4)6 electrolyte to study the effect on the microstructure and properties of a Ti6Al4V alloy micro-arc oxidation coating. The thickness, microscopic morphology, phase composition, roughness, microhardness, friction and wear properties and corrosion resistance were characterized using a thickness meter, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, laser confocal microscope, microhardness tester and electrochemical workstation. The results show that surface quality, thickness, microhardness, friction and wear properties and corrosion resistance of the Ti6Al4V alloy micro-arc oxidation coating were improved by adding α-Al2O3 nanoparticles to the electrolyte. The nanoparticles enter the coatings by physical embedding and chemical reaction. The coatings’ phase composition mainly includes Rutile-TiO2, Anatase-TiO2, α-Al2O3, Al2TiO5 and amorphous phase SiO2. Due to the filling effect of α-Al2O3, the thickness and hardness of the micro-arc oxidation coating increase, and the surface micropore aperture size decreases. The roughness decreases with the increase of α-Al2O3 additive concentration, while the friction wear performance and corrosion resistance are improved. Full article
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12 pages, 5734 KiB  
Article
Sub-Millisecond Laser-Irradiation-Mediated Surface Restructure Boosts the CO Production Yield of Cobalt Oxide Supported Pd Nanoparticles
by Praveen Kumar Saravanan, Dinesh Bhalothia, Guo-Heng Huang, Amisha Beniwal, Mingxing Cheng, Yu-Chieh Chao, Ming-Wei Lin, Po-Chun Chen and Tsan-Yao Chen
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111801 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
The catalytic conversion of CO2 into valuable commodities has the potential to balance ongoing energy and environmental issues. To this end, the reverse water–gas shift (RWGS) reaction is a key process that converts CO2 into CO for various industrial processes. However, [...] Read more.
The catalytic conversion of CO2 into valuable commodities has the potential to balance ongoing energy and environmental issues. To this end, the reverse water–gas shift (RWGS) reaction is a key process that converts CO2 into CO for various industrial processes. However, the competitive CO2 methanation reaction severely limits the CO production yield; therefore, a highly CO-selective catalyst is needed. To address this issue, we have developed a bimetallic nanocatalyst comprising Pd nanoparticles on the cobalt oxide support (denoted as CoPd) via a wet chemical reduction method. Furthermore, the as-prepared CoPd nanocatalyst was exposed to sub-millisecond laser irradiation with per-pulse energies of 1 mJ (denoted as CoPd-1) and 10 mJ (denoted as CoPd-10) for a fixed duration of 10 s to optimize the catalytic activity and selectivity. For the optimum case, the CoPd-10 nanocatalyst exhibited the highest CO production yield of ∼1667 μmol g−1catalyst, with a CO selectivity of ∼88% at a temperature of 573 K, which is a 41% improvement over pristine CoPd (~976 μmol g−1catalyst). The in-depth analysis of structural characterizations along with gas chromatography (GC) and electrochemical analysis suggested that such a high catalytic activity and selectivity of the CoPd-10 nanocatalyst originated from the sub-millisecond laser-irradiation-assisted facile surface restructure of cobalt oxide supported Pd nanoparticles, where atomic CoOx species were observed in the defect sites of the Pd nanoparticles. Such an atomic manipulation led to the formation of heteroatomic reaction sites, where atomic CoOx species and adjacent Pd domains, respectively, promoted the CO2 activation and H2 splitting steps. In addition, the cobalt oxide support helped to donate electrons to Pd, thereby enhancing its ability of H2 splitting. These results provide a strong foundation to use sub-millisecond laser irradiation for catalytic applications. Full article
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26 pages, 8534 KiB  
Article
Size Matters? A Comprehensive In Vitro Study of the Impact of Particle Size on the Toxicity of ZnO
by Montserrat Mitjans, Laura Marics, Marc Bilbao, Adriana S. Maddaleno, Juan José Piñero and M. Pilar Vinardell
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111800 - 4 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
This study describes a comparative in vitro study of the toxicity behavior of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and micro-sized particles. The study aimed to understand the impact of particle size on ZnO toxicity by characterizing the particles in different media, including cell culture [...] Read more.
This study describes a comparative in vitro study of the toxicity behavior of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and micro-sized particles. The study aimed to understand the impact of particle size on ZnO toxicity by characterizing the particles in different media, including cell culture media, human plasma, and protein solutions (bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen). The particles and their interactions with proteins were characterized in the study using a variety of methods, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Hemolytic activity, coagulation time, and cell viability assays were used to assess ZnO toxicity. The results highlight the complex interactions between ZnO NPs and biological systems, including their aggregation behavior, hemolytic activity, protein corona formation, coagulation effects, and cytotoxicity. Additionally, the study indicates that ZnO nanoparticles are not more toxic than micro-sized particles, and the 50 nm particle results were, in general, the least toxic. Furthermore, the study found that, at low concentrations, no acute toxicity was observed. Overall, this study provides important insights into the toxicity behavior of ZnO particles and highlights that no direct relationship between nanometer size and toxicity can be directly attributed. Full article
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17 pages, 5699 KiB  
Article
Influence of Antimony Species on Electrical Properties of Sb-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition
by Sukittaya Jessadaluk, Narathon Khemasiri, Navaphun Kayunkid, Adirek Rangkasikorn, Supamas Wirunchit, Narin Tammarugwattana, Kitipong Mano, Chanunthorn Chananonnawathorn, Mati Horprathum, Annop Klamchuen, Sakon Rahong and Jiti Nukeaw
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111799 - 4 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
This study systematically investigates the influence of antimony (Sb) species on the electrical properties of Sb-doped zinc oxide (SZO) thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition in an oxygen-rich environment. The Sb species-related defects were controlled through a qualitative change in energy per [...] Read more.
This study systematically investigates the influence of antimony (Sb) species on the electrical properties of Sb-doped zinc oxide (SZO) thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition in an oxygen-rich environment. The Sb species-related defects were controlled through a qualitative change in energy per atom by increasing the Sb content in the Sb2O3:ZnO-ablating target. By increasing the content of Sb2O3 (wt.%) in the target, Sb3+ became the dominant Sb ablation species in the plasma plume. Consequently, n-type conductivity was converted to p-type conductivity in the SZO thin films prepared using the ablating target containing 2 wt.% Sb2O3. The substituted Sb species in the Zn site (SbZn3+ and SbZn+) were responsible for forming n-type conductivity at low-level Sb doping. On the other hand, the Sb–Zn complex defects (SbZn–2VZn) contributed to the formation of p-type conductivity at high-level doping. The increase in Sb2O3 content in the ablating target, leading to a qualitative change in energy per Sb ion, offers a new pathway to achieve high-performing optoelectronics using ZnO-based p–n junctions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanoelectronics, Nanosensors and Devices)
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15 pages, 3708 KiB  
Article
Construction of 2D/2D Mesoporous WO3/CeO2 Laminated Heterojunctions for Optimized Photocatalytic Performance
by Wenjie Wang, Decai Yang, Yifan Mou, Lijun Liao, Shijie Wang, Liping Guo, Xuepeng Wang, Zhenzi Li and Wei Zhou
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111798 - 4 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Photocatalytic elimination of antibiotics from the environment and drinking water is of great significance for human health. However, the efficiency of photoremoval of antibiotics such as tetracycline is severely limited by the prompt recombination of electron holes and slow charge migration efficacy. Fabrication [...] Read more.
Photocatalytic elimination of antibiotics from the environment and drinking water is of great significance for human health. However, the efficiency of photoremoval of antibiotics such as tetracycline is severely limited by the prompt recombination of electron holes and slow charge migration efficacy. Fabrication of low-dimensional heterojunction composites is an efficient method for shortening charge carrier migration distance and enhancing charge transfer efficiency. Herein, 2D/2D mesoporous WO3/CeO2 laminated Z-scheme heterojunctions were successfully prepared using a two-step hydrothermal process. The mesoporous structure of the composites was proved by nitrogen sorption isotherms, in which sorption-desorption hysteresis was observed. The intimate contact and charge transfer mechanism between WO3 nanoplates and CeO2 nanosheets was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, respectively. Photocatalytic tetracycline degradation efficiency was noticeably promoted by the formation of 2D/2D laminated heterojunctions. The improved photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the formation of Z-scheme laminated heterostructure and 2D morphology favoring spatial charge separation, confirmed by various characterizations. The optimized 5WO3/CeO2 (5 wt.% WO3) composites can degrade more than 99% of tetracycline in 80 min, achieving a peak TC photodegradation efficiency of 0.0482 min−1, which is approximately 3.4 times that of pristine CeO2. A Z-scheme mechanism is proposed for photocatalytic tetracycline by from WO3/CeO2 Z-scheme laminated heterojunctions based on the experimental results. Full article
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17 pages, 3345 KiB  
Review
Colloidal 2D Lead Chalcogenide Nanocrystals: Synthetic Strategies, Optical Properties, and Applications
by Anton A. Babaev, Ivan D. Skurlov, Yulia A. Timkina and Anatoly V. Fedorov
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111797 - 3 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Lead chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) are an emerging class of photoactive materials that have become a versatile tool for fabricating new generation photonics devices operating in the near-IR spectral range. NCs are presented in a wide variety of forms and sizes, each of which [...] Read more.
Lead chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) are an emerging class of photoactive materials that have become a versatile tool for fabricating new generation photonics devices operating in the near-IR spectral range. NCs are presented in a wide variety of forms and sizes, each of which has its own unique features. Here, we discuss colloidal lead chalcogenide NCs in which one dimension is much smaller than the others, i.e., two-dimensional (2D) NCs. The purpose of this review is to present a complete picture of today’s progress on such materials. The topic is quite complicated, as a variety of synthetic approaches result in NCs with different thicknesses and lateral sizes, which dramatically change the NCs photophysical properties. The recent advances highlighted in this review demonstrate lead chalcogenide 2D NCs as promising materials for breakthrough developments. We summarized and organized the known data, including theoretical works, to highlight the most important 2D NC features and give the basis for their interpretation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section 2D and Carbon Nanomaterials)
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12 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Laser–Metal Interaction with a Pulse Shorter than the Ion Period: Ablation Threshold, Electron Emission and Ion Explosion
by Eugene G. Gamaly and Saulius Juodkazis
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111796 - 3 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
The laser energy per unit surface, necessary to trigger material removal, decreases with the pulse shortening, becoming pulse–time independent in the sub-picosecond range. These pulses are shorter than the electron-to-ion energy transfer time and electronic heat conduction time, minimising the energy losses. Electrons [...] Read more.
The laser energy per unit surface, necessary to trigger material removal, decreases with the pulse shortening, becoming pulse–time independent in the sub-picosecond range. These pulses are shorter than the electron-to-ion energy transfer time and electronic heat conduction time, minimising the energy losses. Electrons receiving an energy larger than the threshold drag the ions off the surface in the mode of electrostatic ablation. We show that a pulse shorter than the ion period (Shorter-the-Limit (StL)) ejects conduction electrons with an energy larger than the work function (from a metal), leaving the bare ions immobile in a few atomic layers. Electron emission is followed by the bare ion’s explosion, ablation, and THz radiation from the expanding plasma. We compare this phenomenon to the classic photo effect and nanocluster Coulomb explosions, and show differences and consider possibilities for detecting new modes of ablation experimentally via emitted THz radiation. We also consider the applications of high-precision nano-machining with this low intensity irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Optical Nanomaterials)
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15 pages, 6194 KiB  
Article
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles—Solution-Based Synthesis and Characterizations
by Khagendra P. Bhandari, Dhurba R. Sapkota, Manoj K. Jamarkattel, Quenton Stillion and Robert W. Collins
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111795 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3425
Abstract
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have shown great potential because of their versatile and promising applications in different fields, including solar cells. Various methods of synthesizing ZnO materials have been reported. In this work, controlled synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles was achieved via a simple, [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have shown great potential because of their versatile and promising applications in different fields, including solar cells. Various methods of synthesizing ZnO materials have been reported. In this work, controlled synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles was achieved via a simple, cost-effective, and facile synthetic method. Using transmittance spectra and film thickness of ZnO, the optical band gap energies were calculated. For as-synthesized and annealed ZnO films, the bandgap energies were found to be 3.40 eV and 3.30 eV, respectively. The nature of the optical transition indicates that the material is a direct bandgap semiconductor. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) analysis was used to extract dielectric functions where the onset of optical absorption of ZnO was observed at lower photon energy due to annealing of the nanoparticle film. Similarly, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data revealed that the material is pure and crystalline in nature, with the average crystallite size of ~9 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials for Energy and Environmental Applications)
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22 pages, 7173 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of the U(VI) Adsorption by Hybrid Silica-Hyperbranched Poly(ethylene imine) Nanoparticles and Xerogels
by Michael Arkas, Konstantinos Giannakopoulos, Evangelos P. Favvas, Sergios Papageorgiou, George V. Theodorakopoulos, Artemis Giannoulatou, Michail Vardavoulias, Dimitrios A. Giannakoudakis, Konstantinos S. Triantafyllidis, Efthalia Georgiou and Ioannis Pashalidis
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111794 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Two different silica conformations (xerogels and nanoparticles), both formed by the mediation of dendritic poly (ethylene imine), were tested at low pHs for problematic uranyl cation sorption. The effect of crucial factors, i.e., temperature, electrostatic forces, adsorbent composition, accessibility of the pollutant to [...] Read more.
Two different silica conformations (xerogels and nanoparticles), both formed by the mediation of dendritic poly (ethylene imine), were tested at low pHs for problematic uranyl cation sorption. The effect of crucial factors, i.e., temperature, electrostatic forces, adsorbent composition, accessibility of the pollutant to the dendritic cavities, and MW of the organic matrix, was investigated to determine the optimum formulation for water purification under these conditions. This was attained with the aid of UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ-potential, liquid nitrogen (LN2) porosimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results highlighted that both adsorbents have extraordinary sorption capacities. Xerogels are cost-effective since they approximate the performance of nanoparticles with much less organic content. Both adsorbents could be used in the form of dispersions. The xerogels, though, are more practicable materials since they may penetrate the pores of a metal or ceramic solid substrate in the form of a precursor gel-forming solution, producing composite purification devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoscale Materials for Water Purification and Catalysis)
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15 pages, 3945 KiB  
Article
Calculation of Self, Corrected, and Transport Diffusivities of Isopropyl Alcohol in UiO-66
by Chinmay V. Mhatre, Jacob J. Wardzala, Priyanka B. Shukla, Mayank Agrawal and J. Karl Johnson
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111793 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
The UiO-6x family of metal-organic frameworks has been extensively studied for applications in chemical warfare agent (CWA) capture and destruction. An understanding of intrinsic transport phenomena, such as diffusion, is key to understanding experimental results and designing effective materials for CWA capture. However, [...] Read more.
The UiO-6x family of metal-organic frameworks has been extensively studied for applications in chemical warfare agent (CWA) capture and destruction. An understanding of intrinsic transport phenomena, such as diffusion, is key to understanding experimental results and designing effective materials for CWA capture. However, the relatively large size of CWAs and their simulants makes diffusion in the small-pored pristine UiO-66 very slow and hence impractical to study directly with direct molecular simulations because of the time scales required. We used isopropanol (IPA) as a surrogate for CWAs to investigate the fundamental diffusion mechanisms of a polar molecule within pristine UiO-66. IPA can form hydrogen bonds with the μ3-OH groups bound to the metal oxide clusters in UiO-66, similar to some CWAs, and can be studied by direct molecular dynamics simulations. We report self, corrected, and transport diffusivities of IPA in pristine UiO-66 as a function of loading. Our calculations highlight the importance of the accurate modeling of the hydrogen bonding interactions on diffusivities, with about an order of magnitude decrease in diffusion coefficients when the hydrogen bonding between IPA and the μ3-OH groups is included. We found that a fraction of the IPA molecules have very low mobility during the course of a simulation, while a small fraction are highly mobile, exhibiting mean square displacements far greater than the ensemble average. Full article
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16 pages, 6196 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Hybrid Nanopigments with Excellent Environmental Stability, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties Based on Monascus Red and Sepiolite by One-Step Grinding Process
by Shue Li, Penji Yan, Bin Mu, Yuru Kang and Aiqin Wang
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111792 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
This study is focused on the preparation, characterization, and multifunctional properties of intelligent hybrid nanopigments. The hybrid nanopigments with excellent environmental stability and antibacterial and antioxidant properties were fabricated based on natural Monascus red, surfactant, and sepiolite via a facile one-step grinding process. [...] Read more.
This study is focused on the preparation, characterization, and multifunctional properties of intelligent hybrid nanopigments. The hybrid nanopigments with excellent environmental stability and antibacterial and antioxidant properties were fabricated based on natural Monascus red, surfactant, and sepiolite via a facile one-step grinding process. The density functional theory calculations demonstrated that the surfactants loaded on sepiolite were in favor of enhancing the electrostatic, coordination, and hydrogen bonding interactions between Monascus red and sepiolite. Thus, the obtained hybrid nanopigments exhibited excellent antibacterial and antioxidant properties, with an inhibition effect on Gram-positive bacteria that was superior to that of Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the scavenging activity on DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals as well as the reducing power of hybrid nanopigments were higher than those of hybrid nanopigments prepared without the addition of the surfactant. Inspired by nature, gas-sensitive reversible alochroic superamphiphobic coatings with excellent thermal and chemical stability were successfully designed by combining hybrid nanopigments and fluorinated polysiloxane. Therefore, intelligent multifunctional hybrid nanopigments have great application foreground in related fields. Full article
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24 pages, 5450 KiB  
Article
Bioinspired Hierarchical Carbon Structures as Potential Scaffolds for Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration Applications
by Soham D. Parikh, Wenhu Wang, M. Tyler Nelson, Courtney E. W. Sulentic and Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111791 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3424
Abstract
Engineered bio-scaffolds for wound healing provide an attractive treatment option for tissue engineering and traumatic skin injuries since they can reduce dependence on donors and promote faster repair through strategic surface engineering. Current scaffolds present limitations in handling, preparation, shelf life, and sterilization [...] Read more.
Engineered bio-scaffolds for wound healing provide an attractive treatment option for tissue engineering and traumatic skin injuries since they can reduce dependence on donors and promote faster repair through strategic surface engineering. Current scaffolds present limitations in handling, preparation, shelf life, and sterilization options. In this study, bio-inspired hierarchical all-carbon structures comprising carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets covalently bonded to flexible carbon fabric have been investigated as a platform for cell growth and future tissue regeneration applications. CNTs are known to provide guidance for cell growth, but loose CNTs are susceptible to intracellular uptake and are suspected to cause in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity. This risk is suppressed in these materials due to the covalent attachment of CNTs on a larger fabric, and the synergistic benefits of nanoscale and micro-macro scale architectures, as seen in natural biological materials, can be obtained. The structural durability, biocompatibility, tunable surface architecture, and ultra-high specific surface area of these materials make them attractive candidates for wound healing. In this study, investigations of cytotoxicity, skin cell proliferation, and cell migration were performed, and results indicate promise in both biocompatibility and directed cell growth. Moreover, these scaffolds provided cytoprotection against environmental stressors such as Ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. It was seen that cell growth could also be tailored through the control of CNT carpet height and surface wettability. These results support future promise in the design of hierarchical carbon scaffolds for strategic wound healing and tissue regeneration applications. Full article
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18 pages, 7771 KiB  
Article
Illuminating and Radiosensitizing Tumors with 2DG-Bound Gold-Based Nanomedicine for Targeted CT Imaging and Therapy
by Maharajan Sivasubramanian, Chia-Hui Chu, Yu Hsia, Nai-Tzu Chen, Meng-Ting Cai, Lih Shin Tew, Yao-Chen Chuang, Chin-Tu Chen, Bulent Aydogan, Lun-De Liao and Leu-Wei Lo
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111790 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Although radiotherapy is one of the most important curative treatments for cancer, its clinical application is associated with undesired therapeutic effects on normal or healthy tissues. The use of targeted agents that can simultaneously achieve therapeutic and imaging functions could constitute a potential [...] Read more.
Although radiotherapy is one of the most important curative treatments for cancer, its clinical application is associated with undesired therapeutic effects on normal or healthy tissues. The use of targeted agents that can simultaneously achieve therapeutic and imaging functions could constitute a potential solution. Herein, we developed 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG)-labeled poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) gold nanodots (2DG-PEG-AuD) as a tumor-targeted computed tomography (CT) contrast agent and radiosensitizer. The key advantages of the design are its biocompatibility and targeted AuD with excellent sensitivity in tumor detection via avid glucose metabolism. As a consequence, CT imaging with enhanced sensitivity and remarkable radiotherapeutic efficacy could be attained. Our synthesized AuD displayed linear enhancement of CT contrast as a function of its concentration. In addition, 2DG-PEG-AuD successfully demonstrated significant augmentation of CT contrast in both in vitro cell studies and in vivo tumor-bearing mouse models. In tumor-bearing mice, 2DG-PEG-AuD showed excellent radiosensitizing functions after intravenous injection. Results from this work indicate that 2DG-PEG-AuD could greatly potentiate theranostic capabilities by providing high-resolution anatomical and functional images in a single CT scan and therapeutic capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Biophotonics: Prognosis and Therapeutics)
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29 pages, 7227 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Relationship between Gel Polymer Electrolytes and Solid Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Metal Batteries
by Xiaoqi Yu, Zipeng Jiang, Renlu Yuan and Huaihe Song
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111789 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3152
Abstract
Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are a dazzling star in electrochemical energy storage thanks to their high energy density and low redox potential. However, LMBs have a deadly lithium dendrite problem. Among the various methods for inhibiting lithium dendrites, gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) possess [...] Read more.
Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are a dazzling star in electrochemical energy storage thanks to their high energy density and low redox potential. However, LMBs have a deadly lithium dendrite problem. Among the various methods for inhibiting lithium dendrites, gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) possess the advantages of good interfacial compatibility, similar ionic conductivity to liquid electrolytes, and better interfacial tension. In recent years, there have been many reviews of GPEs, but few papers discussed the relationship between GPEs and solid electrolyte interfaces (SEIs). In this review, the mechanisms and advantages of GPEs in inhibiting lithium dendrites are first reviewed. Then, the relationship between GPEs and SEIs is examined. In addition, the effects of GPE preparation methods, plasticizer selections, polymer substrates, and additives on the SEI layer are summarized. Finally, the challenges of using GPEs and SEIs in dendrite suppression are listed and a perspective on GPEs and SEIs is considered. Full article
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19 pages, 5064 KiB  
Article
CoNi Alloys Encapsulated in N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes for Stabilizing Oxygen Electrocatalysis in Zinc–Air Battery
by Yao Nie, Xiaoqin Xu, Xinyu Wang, Mingyang Liu, Ting Gao, Bin Liu, Lixin Li, Xin Meng, Peng Gu and Jinlong Zou
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111788 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
Alloy-based catalysts with high corrosion resistance and less self-aggregation are essential for oxygen reduction/evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Here, via an in situ growth strategy, NiCo alloy-inserted nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes were assembled on a three-dimensional hollow nanosphere (NiCo@NCNTs/HN) using dicyandiamide. NiCo@NCNTs/HN exhibited better ORR activity [...] Read more.
Alloy-based catalysts with high corrosion resistance and less self-aggregation are essential for oxygen reduction/evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Here, via an in situ growth strategy, NiCo alloy-inserted nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes were assembled on a three-dimensional hollow nanosphere (NiCo@NCNTs/HN) using dicyandiamide. NiCo@NCNTs/HN exhibited better ORR activity (half-wave potential (E1/2) of 0.87 V) and stability (E1/2 shift of only −13 mV after 5000 cycles) than commercial Pt/C. NiCo@NCNTs/HN displayed a lower OER overpotential (330 mV) than RuO2 (390 mV). The NiCo@NCNTs/HN-assembled zinc–air battery exhibited high specific-capacity (847.01 mA h g−1) and cycling-stability (291 h). Synergies between NiCo alloys and NCNTs facilitated the charge transfer to promote 4e ORR/OER kinetics. The carbon skeleton inhibited the corrosion of NiCo alloys from surface to subsurface, while inner cavities of CNTs confined particle growth and the aggregation of NiCo alloys to stabilize bifunctional activity. This provides a viable strategy for the design of alloy-based catalysts with confined grain-size and good structural/catalytic stabilities in oxygen electrocatalysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section 2D and Carbon Nanomaterials)
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11 pages, 3704 KiB  
Article
Plasmonic Cu2−xSe Mediated Colorimetric/Photothermal Dual-Readout Detection of Glutathione
by Guojuan Yan, Huanhuan Ni, Xiaoxiao Li, Xiaolan Qi, Xi Yang and Hongyan Zou
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111787 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Plasmonic nanomaterials have attracted great attention in the field of catalysis and sensing for their outstanding electrical and optical properties. Here, a representative type of nonstoichiometric Cu2−xSe nanoparticles with typical near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasma resonance (LSPR) properties originating from their [...] Read more.
Plasmonic nanomaterials have attracted great attention in the field of catalysis and sensing for their outstanding electrical and optical properties. Here, a representative type of nonstoichiometric Cu2−xSe nanoparticles with typical near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasma resonance (LSPR) properties originating from their copper deficiency was applied to catalyze the oxidation of colorless TMB into their blue product in the presence of H2O2, indicating they had good peroxidase-like activity. However, glutathione (GSH) inhibited the catalytic oxidation of TMB, as it can consume the reactive oxygen species. Meanwhile, it can induce the reduction of Cu(II) in Cu2−xSe, resulting in a decrease in the degree of copper deficiency, which can lead to a reduction in the LSPR. Therefore, the catalytic ability and photothermal responses of Cu2−xSe were decreased. Thus, in our work, a colorimetric/photothermal dual-readout array was developed for the detection of GSH. The linear calibration for GSH concentration was in the range of 1–50 μM with the LOD as 0.13 μM and 50–800 μM with the LOD as 39.27 μM. To evaluate the practicability of the assay, tomatoes and cucumbers were selected as real samples, and good recoveries indicated that the developed assay had great potential in real applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructure-Based Plasmonic Sensing and Devices)
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10 pages, 5813 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Recrystallization Channel for Vertical C-Shaped-Channel Nanosheet FETs by Laser Annealing
by Zhuo Chen, Huilong Zhu, Guilei Wang, Qi Wang, Zhongrui Xiao, Yongkui Zhang, Jinbiao Liu, Shunshun Lu, Yong Du, Jiahan Yu, Wenjuan Xiong, Zhenzhen Kong, Anyan Du, Zijin Yan and Yantong Zheng
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111786 - 1 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Transistor scaling has become increasingly difficult in the dynamic random access memory (DRAM). However, vertical devices will be good candidates for 4F2 DRAM cell transistors (F = pitch/2). Most vertical devices are facing some technical challenges. For example, the gate length cannot [...] Read more.
Transistor scaling has become increasingly difficult in the dynamic random access memory (DRAM). However, vertical devices will be good candidates for 4F2 DRAM cell transistors (F = pitch/2). Most vertical devices are facing some technical challenges. For example, the gate length cannot be precisely controlled, and the gate and the source/drain of the device cannot be aligned. Recrystallization-based vertical C-shaped-channel nanosheet field-effect transistors (RC-VCNFETs) were fabricated. The critical process modules of the RC-VCNFETs were developed as well. The RC-VCNFET with a self-aligned gate structure has excellent device performance, and its subthreshold swing (SS) is 62.91 mV/dec. Drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) is 6.16 mV/V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Memory Nanomaterials: Growth, Characterization and Device Fabrication)
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13 pages, 5465 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Remote Plasma Atomic Layer-Deposited HfO2 Thin Films with High Charge Trapping Densities and Their Application in Nonvolatile Memory Devices
by Jae-Hoon Yoo, Won-Ji Park, So-Won Kim, Ga-Ram Lee, Jong-Hwan Kim, Joung-Ho Lee, Sae-Hoon Uhm and Hee-Chul Lee
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111785 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Optimization of equipment structure and process conditions is essential to obtain thin films with the required properties, such as film thickness, trapped charge density, leakage current, and memory characteristics, that ensure reliability of the corresponding device. In this study, we fabricated metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) [...] Read more.
Optimization of equipment structure and process conditions is essential to obtain thin films with the required properties, such as film thickness, trapped charge density, leakage current, and memory characteristics, that ensure reliability of the corresponding device. In this study, we fabricated metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structure capacitors using HfO2 thin films separately deposited by remote plasma (RP) atomic layer deposition (ALD) and direct-plasma (DP) ALD and determined the optimal process temperature by measuring the leakage current and breakdown strength as functions of process temperature. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of the plasma application method on the charge trapping properties of HfO2 thin films and properties of the interface between Si and HfO2. Subsequently, we synthesized charge-trapping memory (CTM) devices utilizing the deposited thin films as charge-trapping layers (CTLs) and evaluated their memory properties. The results indicated excellent memory window characteristics of the RP-HfO2 MIS capacitors compared to those of the DP-HfO2 MIS capacitors. Moreover, the memory characteristics of the RP-HfO2 CTM devices were outstanding as compared to those of the DP-HfO2 CTM devices. In conclusion, the methodology proposed herein can be useful for future implementations of multiple levels of charge-storage nonvolatile memories or synaptic devices that require many states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ferroelectric Nanostructures and Thin Films)
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11 pages, 3015 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Metal/SU-8 Nanocomposites through Photoreduction on SU-8 Substrates
by Yan-Jun Huang, Wen-Huei Chang, Yi-Jui Chen and Chun-Hung Lin
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111784 - 1 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
The paper presents a simple, fast, and cost-effective method for creating metal/SU-8 nanocomposites by applying a metal precursor drop onto the surface or nanostructure of SU-8 and exposing it to UV light. No pre-mixing of the metal precursor with the SU-8 polymer or [...] Read more.
The paper presents a simple, fast, and cost-effective method for creating metal/SU-8 nanocomposites by applying a metal precursor drop onto the surface or nanostructure of SU-8 and exposing it to UV light. No pre-mixing of the metal precursor with the SU-8 polymer or pre-synthesis of metal nanoparticles is required. A TEM analysis was conducted to confirm the composition and depth distribution of the silver nanoparticles, which penetrate the SU-8 film and uniformly form the Ag/SU-8 nanocomposites. The antibacterial properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated. Moreover, a composite surface with a top layer of gold nanodisks and a bottom layer of Ag/SU-8 nanocomposites was produced using the same photoreduction process with gold and silver precursors, respectively. The reduction parameters can be manipulated to customize the color and spectrum of various composite surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Gold Nanoparticles)
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22 pages, 6396 KiB  
Article
Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: Effects on Development and Male Reproductive System
by Elena Maria Scalisi, Roberta Pecoraro, Antonio Salvaggio, Fabiano Capparucci, Cosimo Gianluca Fortuna, Massimo Zimbone, Giuliana Impellizzeri and Maria Violetta Brundo
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111783 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are used intensively. Thanks to their extremely small size (1–100 nm), TiO2-NPs are more absorbable by living organisms; consequently, they can cross the circulatory system and then be distributed in various organs including the reproductive [...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are used intensively. Thanks to their extremely small size (1–100 nm), TiO2-NPs are more absorbable by living organisms; consequently, they can cross the circulatory system and then be distributed in various organs including the reproductive organs. We have evaluated the possible toxic effect of TiO2-NPs on embryonic development and the male reproductive system using Danio rerio as an organism model. TiO2-NPs (P25, Degussa) were tested at concentrations of 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L, and 4 mg/L. TiO2-NPs did not interfere with the embryonic development of Danio rerio, however, in the male gonads the TiO2-NPs caused an alteration of the morphological/structural organization. The immunofluorescence investigation showed positivity for biomarkers of oxidative stress and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), both confirmed by the results of qRT-PCR. In addition, an increased expression of the gene responsible for the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone was found. Since Leydig cells are mainly involved in this activity, an increase in gene activity can be explained by the ability of TiO2-NPs to act as endocrine disruptors, and, therefore, with androgenic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity Evaluation of Nanoparticles)
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23 pages, 5369 KiB  
Article
Tailoring Magnetite-Nanoparticle-Based Nanocarriers for Gene Delivery: Exploiting CRISPRa Potential in Reducing Conditions
by David Arango, Javier Cifuentes, Paola Ruiz Puentes, Tatiana Beltran, Amaury Bittar, Camila Ocasión, Carolina Muñoz-Camargo, Natasha I. Bloch, Luis H. Reyes and Juan C. Cruz
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111782 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Gene delivery has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional treatment approaches, allowing for the manipulation of gene expression through gene insertion, deletion, or alteration. However, the susceptibility of gene delivery components to degradation and challenges associated with cell penetration necessitate the use [...] Read more.
Gene delivery has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional treatment approaches, allowing for the manipulation of gene expression through gene insertion, deletion, or alteration. However, the susceptibility of gene delivery components to degradation and challenges associated with cell penetration necessitate the use of delivery vehicles for effective functional gene delivery. Nanostructured vehicles, such as iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) including magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs), have demonstrated significant potential for gene delivery applications due to their chemical versatility, biocompatibility, and strong magnetization. In this study, we developed an ION-based delivery vehicle capable of releasing linearized nucleic acids (tDNA) under reducing conditions in various cell cultures. As a proof of concept, we immobilized a CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) sequence to overexpress the pink1 gene on MNPs functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG), 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithio]propionic acid (AEDP), and a translocating protein (OmpA). The nucleic sequence (tDNA) was modified to include a terminal thiol group and was conjugated to AEDP’s terminal thiol via a disulfide exchange reaction. Leveraging the natural sensitivity of the disulfide bridge, the cargo was released under reducing conditions. Physicochemical characterizations, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, confirmed the correct synthesis and functionalization of the MNP-based delivery carriers. The developed nanocarriers exhibited remarkable biocompatibility, as demonstrated by the hemocompatibility, platelet aggregation, and cytocompatibility assays using primary human astrocytes, rodent astrocytes, and human fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the nanocarriers enabled efficient cargo penetration, uptake, and endosomal escape, with minimal nucleofection. A preliminary functionality test using RT-qPCR revealed that the vehicle facilitated the timely release of CRISPRa vectors, resulting in a remarkable 130-fold overexpression of pink1. We demonstrate the potential of the developed ION-based nanocarrier as a versatile and promising gene delivery vehicle with potential applications in gene therapy. The developed nanocarrier is capable of delivering any nucleic sequence (up to 8.2 kb) once it is thiolated using the methodology explained in this study. To our knowledge, this represents the first MNP-based nanocarrier capable of delivering nucleic sequences under specific reducing conditions while preserving functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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21 pages, 6166 KiB  
Article
Environmentally Benign pSOFC for Emissions-Free Energy: Assessment of Nickel Network Resistance in Anodic Ni/BCY15 Nanocatalyst
by Margarita Gabrovska, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Hristo Kolev, Daniela Karashanova, Peter Tzvetkov, Blagoy Burdin, Emiliya Mladenova, Daria Vladikova and Tatyana Tabakova
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111781 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Yttrium-doped barium cerate (BCY15) was used as ceramic matrix to obtain Ni/BCY15 anode cermet for application in proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (pSOFC). Ni/BCY15 cermets were prepared in two different types of medium, namely deionized water (W) and anhydrous ethylene glycol (EG) using [...] Read more.
Yttrium-doped barium cerate (BCY15) was used as ceramic matrix to obtain Ni/BCY15 anode cermet for application in proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (pSOFC). Ni/BCY15 cermets were prepared in two different types of medium, namely deionized water (W) and anhydrous ethylene glycol (EG) using wet chemical synthesis by hydrazine. An in-depth analysis of anodic nickel catalyst was made aiming to elucidate the effect of anode tablets’ preparation by high temperature treatment on the resistance of metallic Ni in Ni/BCY15-W and Ni/BCY15-EG anode catalysts. On purpose reoxidation upon high-temperature treatment (1100 °C for 1 h) in air ambience was accomplished. Detailed characterization of reoxidized Ni/BCY15-W-1100 and Ni/BCY15-EG-1100 anode catalysts by means of surface and bulk analysis was performed. XPS, HRTEM, TPR, and impedance spectroscopy measurements experimentally confirmed the presence of residual metallic Ni in the anode catalyst prepared in ethylene glycol medium. These findings were evidence of strong metal Ni network resistance to oxidation in anodic Ni/BCY15-EG. Enhanced resistance of the metal Ni phase contributed to a new microstructure of the Ni/BCY15-EG-1100 anode cermet getting more stable to changes that cause degradation during operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Risk Assessments and Characterization of Nanomaterials)
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