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Nanomaterials, Volume 12, Issue 20 (October-2 2022) – 166 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Liposomal formulations were loaded with a new eugenol derivative with insecticidal activity. Molecular modelling has revealed that this compound can form a stable complex with insect odorant binding proteins and/or acetylcholinesterase. A compound-loaded nanoliposome formulation made of natural constituents (egg lecithin and cholesterol) has shown a strong activity against Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) insect cells and a reduced toxicity in human (HaCaT) keratinocytes. Considering the usual routes of pesticide poisoning, specifically skin, these results are very promising for a future application of this nanoformulation as insecticide in crops. View this paper
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Article
Threshold Voltage Adjustment by Varying Ge Content in SiGe p-Channel for Single Metal Shared Gate Complementary FET (CFET)
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3712; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203712 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 671
Abstract
We have demonstrated the method of threshold voltage (VT) adjustment by controlling Ge content in the SiGe p-channel of N1 complementary field-effect transistor (CFET) for conquering the work function metal (WFM) filling issue on highly scaled MOSFET. Single WFM shared gate [...] Read more.
We have demonstrated the method of threshold voltage (VT) adjustment by controlling Ge content in the SiGe p-channel of N1 complementary field-effect transistor (CFET) for conquering the work function metal (WFM) filling issue on highly scaled MOSFET. Single WFM shared gate N1 CFET was used to study and emphasize the VT tunability of the proposed Ge content method. The result reveals that the Ge mole fraction influences VTP of 5 mV/Ge%, and a close result can also be obtained from the energy band configuration of Si1-xGex. Additionally, the single WFM shared gate N1 CFET inverter with VT adjusted by the Ge content method presents a well-designed voltage transfer curve, and its inverter transient response is also presented. Furthermore, the designed CFET inverter is used to construct a well-behaved 6T-SRAM with a large SNM of ~120 mV at VDD of 0.5 V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Electron Devices)
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Article
Electronic Transport in Weyl Semimetals with a Uniform Concentration of Torsional Dislocations
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3711; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203711 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 463
Abstract
In this article, we consider a theoretical model for a type I Weyl semimetal, under the presence of a diluted uniform concentration of torsional dislocations. By means of a mathematical analysis for partial wave scattering (phase-shift) for the T-matrix, we obtain the corresponding [...] Read more.
In this article, we consider a theoretical model for a type I Weyl semimetal, under the presence of a diluted uniform concentration of torsional dislocations. By means of a mathematical analysis for partial wave scattering (phase-shift) for the T-matrix, we obtain the corresponding retarded and advanced Green’s functions that include the effects of multiple scattering events with the ensemble of randomly distributed dislocations. Combining this analysis with the Kubo formalism, and including vertex corrections, we calculate the electronic conductivity as a function of temperature and concentration of dislocations. We further evaluate our analytical formulas to predict the electrical conductivity of several transition metal monopnictides, i.e., TaAs, TaP, NbAs, and NbP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theoretical Calculation and Molecular Modeling of Nanomaterials)
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Article
Biomass-Derived Porous Carbon Materials for Li-Ion Battery
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3710; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203710 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 539
Abstract
Biomass-based carbon nanofibers (CNF) were synthesized using lignin extracted from sawdust and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) (30:70) with the help of the electrospinning method and subsequent stabilization at 220 °C and carbonization at 800, 900, and 1000 °C. The synthesized CNFs were studied by scanning [...] Read more.
Biomass-based carbon nanofibers (CNF) were synthesized using lignin extracted from sawdust and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) (30:70) with the help of the electrospinning method and subsequent stabilization at 220 °C and carbonization at 800, 900, and 1000 °C. The synthesized CNFs were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. The temperature effect shows that CNF carbonized at 800 °C has excellent stability at different current densities and high capacitance. CNF 800 in the first test cycle at a current density of 100 mA/g shows an initial capacity of 798 mAh/g and an initial coulomb efficiency of 69.5%. The CNF 900 and 1000 show an initial capacity of 668 mAh/g and 594 mAh/g, and an initial Coulomb efficiency of 52% and 51%. With a long cycle (for 500 cycles), all three samples at a current density of 500 mA/g show stable cycling in different capacities (CNF 800 in the region of 300–400 mAh/g, CNF 900 and 1000 in the region of 100–200 mAh/g). Full article
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Article
Flexible Threshold-Type Switching Devices with Low Threshold and High Stability Based on Silkworm Hemolymph
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3709; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203709 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 373
Abstract
In this paper, a floating-gate flexible nonvolatile memory is reported that is composed of natural biological materials, namely, silkworm hemolymph, graphene quantum dots as the floating-gate layer, and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as the insulating layer. The device has a high ON/OFF current ratio [...] Read more.
In this paper, a floating-gate flexible nonvolatile memory is reported that is composed of natural biological materials, namely, silkworm hemolymph, graphene quantum dots as the floating-gate layer, and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as the insulating layer. The device has a high ON/OFF current ratio (4.76 × 106), a low setting voltage (<−1.75 V), and good durability and retention ability. The device has two storage characteristics, namely, Flash and WORM, which can be effectively and accurately controlled by adjusting the limiting current during device setting. The resistance switching characteristics are the result of the formation and fracture of conductive filaments. The floating-gate flexible bioresistive random access memory prepared in this paper provides a new idea for the development of multifunctional and biocompatible flexible memory. Full article
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Review
Recent Advanced Supercapacitor: A Review of Storage Mechanisms, Electrode Materials, Modification, and Perspectives
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3708; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203708 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 958
Abstract
In recent years, the development of energy storage devices has received much attention due to the increasing demand for renewable energy. Supercapacitors (SCs) have attracted considerable attention among various energy storage devices due to their high specific capacity, high power density, long cycle [...] Read more.
In recent years, the development of energy storage devices has received much attention due to the increasing demand for renewable energy. Supercapacitors (SCs) have attracted considerable attention among various energy storage devices due to their high specific capacity, high power density, long cycle life, economic efficiency, environmental friendliness, high safety, and fast charge/discharge rates. SCs are devices that can store large amounts of electrical energy and release it quickly, making them ideal for use in a wide range of applications. They are often used in conjunction with batteries to provide a power boost when needed and can also be used as a standalone power source. They can be used in various potential applications, such as portable equipment, smart electronic systems, electric vehicles, and grid energy storage systems. There are a variety of materials that have been studied for use as SC electrodes, each with its advantages and limitations. The electrode material must have a high surface area to volume ratio to enable high energy storage densities. Additionally, the electrode material must be highly conductive to enable efficient charge transfer. Over the past several years, several novel materials have been developed which can be used to improve the capacitance of the SCs. This article reviews three types of SCs: electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), pseudocapacitors, and hybrid supercapacitors, their respective development, energy storage mechanisms, and the latest research progress in material preparation and modification. In addition, it proposes potentially feasible solutions to the problems encountered during the development of supercapacitors and looks forward to the future development direction of SCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Reinforced Multifunctional Nanocomposites and Applications)
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Article
The Nature of Ferromagnetism in a System of Self-Ordered α-FeSi2 Nanorods on a Si(111)-4° Vicinal Surface: Experiment and Theory
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3707; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203707 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 499
Abstract
In this study, the appearance of magnetic moments and ferromagnetism in nanostructures of non-magnetic materials based on silicon and transition metals (such as iron) was considered experimentally and theoretically. An analysis of the related literature shows that for a monolayer iron coating on [...] Read more.
In this study, the appearance of magnetic moments and ferromagnetism in nanostructures of non-magnetic materials based on silicon and transition metals (such as iron) was considered experimentally and theoretically. An analysis of the related literature shows that for a monolayer iron coating on a vicinal silicon surface with (111) orientation after solid-phase annealing at 450–550 °C, self-ordered two-dimensional islands of α-FeSi2 displaying superparamagnetic properties are formed. We studied the transition to ferromagnetic properties in a system of α-FeSi2 nanorods (NRs) in the temperature range of 2–300 K with an increase in the iron coverage to 5.22 monolayers. The structure of the NRs was verified along with distortions in their lattice parameters due to heteroepitaxial growth. The formation of single-domain grains in α-FeSi2 NRs with a cross-section of 6.6 × 30 nm2 was confirmed by low-temperature and field studies and FORC (first-order magnetization reversal curves) diagrams. A mechanism for maintaining ferromagnetic properties is proposed. Ab initio calculations in freestanding α-FeSi2 nanowires revealed the formation of magnetic moments for some surface Fe atoms only at specific facets. The difference in the averaged magnetic moments between theory and experiments can confirm the presence of possible contributions from defects on the surface of the NRs and in the bulk of the α-FeSi2 NR crystal lattice. The formed α-FeSi2 NRs with ferromagnetic properties up to 300 K are crucial for spintronic device development within planar silicon technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Synthesis and Applications of Nanowires)
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Review
Gold-Nanoparticle Hybrid Nanostructures for Multimodal Cancer Therapy
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3706; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203706 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 752
Abstract
With the urgent need for bio-nanomaterials to improve the currently available cancer treatments, gold nanoparticle (GNP) hybrid nanostructures are rapidly rising as promising multimodal candidates for cancer therapy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been hybridized with several nanocarriers, including liposomes and polymers, to achieve [...] Read more.
With the urgent need for bio-nanomaterials to improve the currently available cancer treatments, gold nanoparticle (GNP) hybrid nanostructures are rapidly rising as promising multimodal candidates for cancer therapy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been hybridized with several nanocarriers, including liposomes and polymers, to achieve chemotherapy, photothermal therapy, radiotherapy, and imaging using a single composite. The GNP nanohybrids used for targeted chemotherapy can be designed to respond to external stimuli such as heat or internal stimuli such as intratumoral pH. Despite their promise for multimodal cancer therapy, there are currently no reviews summarizing the current status of GNP nanohybrid use for cancer theragnostics. Therefore, this review fulfills this gap in the literature by providing a critical analysis of the data available on the use of GNP nanohybrids for cancer treatment with a specific focus on synergistic approaches (i.e., triggered drug release, photothermal therapy, and radiotherapy). It also highlights some of the challenges that hinder the clinical translation of GNP hybrid nanostructures from bench to bedside. Future studies that could expedite the clinical progress of GNPs, as well as the future possibility of improving GNP nanohybrids for cancer theragnostics, are also summarized. Full article
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Article
A Study of Magnetic Properties in a 2D Ferromagnetic Nanolattice through Computer Simulation
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3705; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203705 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
This article investigated the magnetic properties of a 2D nanolattice through computer modeling. A square antidote nanolattice in thin films was considered. For our computer simulation, we used the Heisenberg model. Ferromagnetic phase transition was studied for lattices with pores of various sizes. [...] Read more.
This article investigated the magnetic properties of a 2D nanolattice through computer modeling. A square antidote nanolattice in thin films was considered. For our computer simulation, we used the Heisenberg model. Ferromagnetic phase transition was studied for lattices with pores of various sizes. We determined the Curie temperature based on the finite-dimensional scaling theory. Using Wolf’s algorithm, we simulated the behavior of the system. The dependence of the phase transition temperature on the density of spins was found to be power. Using Metropolis’ algorithm, we calculated a hysteresis loop for an antidote lattice film. The hysteresis loop narrowed as the pore sizes increased. The dependence of coercive force on the size of the nanolattice obeyed the logarithmic law. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Nano-Lattice)
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Article
Effects of Silica Shell Encapsulated Nanocrystals on Active χ-Fe5C2 Phase and Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203704 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Among various iron carbide phases, χ-Fe5C2, a highly active phase in Fischer–Tropsch synthesis, was directly synthesized using a wet-chemical route, which makes a pre-activation step unnecessary. In addition, χ-Fe5C2 nanoparticles were encapsulated with mesoporous silica for [...] Read more.
Among various iron carbide phases, χ-Fe5C2, a highly active phase in Fischer–Tropsch synthesis, was directly synthesized using a wet-chemical route, which makes a pre-activation step unnecessary. In addition, χ-Fe5C2 nanoparticles were encapsulated with mesoporous silica for protection from deactivation. Further structural analysis showed that the protective silica shell had a partially ordered mesoporous structure with a short range. According to the XRD result, the sintering of χ-Fe5C2 crystals did not seem to be significant, which was believed to be the beneficial effect of the protective shell providing restrictive geometrical space for nanoparticles. More interestingly, the protective silica shell was also found to be effective in maintaining the phase of χ-Fe5C2 against re-oxidation and transformation to other iron carbide phases. Fischer–Tropsch activity of χ-Fe5C2 in this study was comparable to or higher than those from previous reports. In addition, CO2 selectivity was found to be very low after stabilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nano-Catalysts for Conversion of Cx Molecules)
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Article
Physico-Chemical Transformation and Toxicity of Multi-Shell InP Quantum Dots under Simulated Sunlight Irradiation, in an Environmentally Realistic Scenario
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3703; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203703 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in optoelectronics, lighting, and photovoltaics leading to their potential release into the environment. The most promising alternative to the highly toxic cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs are indium phosphide (InP) QDs, which show reduced toxicity and comparable optical [...] Read more.
Quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in optoelectronics, lighting, and photovoltaics leading to their potential release into the environment. The most promising alternative to the highly toxic cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs are indium phosphide (InP) QDs, which show reduced toxicity and comparable optical and electronic properties. QD degradation leads to the release of toxic metal ions into the environment. Coating the QD core with robust shell(s) composed of another semi-conductor material enhances their properties and protects the QD from degradation. We recently developed double-shelled InP QDs, which proved to be less toxic than single-shell QDs. In the present study, we confirm their reduced cytotoxicity, with an LC50 at 77 nM for pristine gradient shell QDs and >100 nM for pristine thin and thick shell QDs. We also confirm that these three QDs, when exposed to simulated sunlight, show greater cytotoxicity compared to pristine ones, with LC50 ranging from 15 to 23 nM. Using a combination of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, we characterize the degradation kinetics and transformation products of single- and double-shell QDs, when exposed to solar light at high temperature, simulating environmental conditions. Non-toxic pristine QDs degrade to form toxic In–phosphate, In–carboxylate, Zn–phosphate, and oxidized Se, all of which precipitate as heterogeneous deposits. Comparison of their degradation kinetics highlights that the QDs bearing the thickest ZnS outer shell are, as expected, the most resistant to photodegradation among the three tested QDs, as gradient shell, thin shell, and thick shell QDs lose their optical properties in less than 15 min, 60 min, and more than 90 min, respectively. They exhibit the highest photoluminescence efficiency, i.e., the best functionality, with a photoluminescence quantum yield in aqueous solution of 24%, as compared to 18% for the gradient shell and thin shell QDs. Therefore, they can be considered as safer-by-design QDs. Full article
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Editorial
Advances in Nanomaterials for Photovoltaic Applications
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3702; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203702 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 548
Abstract
The development of novel nanomaterials became a subject of intensive research, due to high market needs for innovative applications in virtually all aspects of life [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials for Photovoltaic Applications)
Article
Cooling a Rotating Mirror Coupled to a Single Laguerre–Gaussian Cavity Mode Using Parametric Interactions
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3701; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203701 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 488
Abstract
We study the cooling of a rotating mirror coupled to a Laguerre–Gaussian (L–G) cavity mode, which is assisted by an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). It is shown that the presence of the OPA can significantly lower the temperature of the rotating mirror, which [...] Read more.
We study the cooling of a rotating mirror coupled to a Laguerre–Gaussian (L–G) cavity mode, which is assisted by an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). It is shown that the presence of the OPA can significantly lower the temperature of the rotating mirror, which is very critical in the application of quantum physics. We also find that the increase in angular momentum has an influence on the cooling of the rotating mirror. Our results may provide a potential application in the determination of the orbital angular momentum of light fields and precision measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber Laser)
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Article
Design of A-D-A-Type Organic Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials Based on Benzodithiophene: A DFT Study
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3700; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203700 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 480
Abstract
The acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) type conjugated organic molecule has been widely applied in the organic optoelectronics field. A total of Nine compounds (19) were designed under the A-D-A framework, with the electron donor benzodithiophene as the core and dicyanomethylene as [...] Read more.
The acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) type conjugated organic molecule has been widely applied in the organic optoelectronics field. A total of Nine compounds (19) were designed under the A-D-A framework, with the electron donor benzodithiophene as the core and dicyanomethylene as the acceptor moiety, modifying the benzodithiophene with the phenyl, naphthyl, and difluorinated phenyl groups. The conjugation length can be changed by introducing a thiophene π-conjugated bridge. The geometric structures, electronic structure, excited state properties, aromaticity, and the static- and frequency-dependent second hyperpolarizabilities were investigated by employing high-precision density functional theory (DFT) calculations with an aug-cc-pVDZ basis set. As a result, the three compounds with the longest conjugation length exhibit a smaller energy gap (Egap), larger UV-vis absorption coefficient, and response range, which are the three strongest third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response properties in this work. This work systematically explored the connection between molecular structure and NLO response, which provides a rational design strategy for high-performance organic NLO materials. Full article
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Article
Lightweight Chain-Typed Magnetic Fe3O4@rGO Composites with Enhanced Microwave-Absorption Properties
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203699 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2168
Abstract
A lightweight microwave-absorbing material with a strong electromagnetic-absorption capability of practical significance in the field of electromagnetic compatibility was obtained by adjusting the ratio of Fe3O4 and rGO. A nanoparticle material with a chain-typed structure consisting of a combination of [...] Read more.
A lightweight microwave-absorbing material with a strong electromagnetic-absorption capability of practical significance in the field of electromagnetic compatibility was obtained by adjusting the ratio of Fe3O4 and rGO. A nanoparticle material with a chain-typed structure consisting of a combination of Fe3O4 and rGO was produced by a hydrothermal method under an applied magnetic field. The electromagnetic loss property of the Fe3O4@rGO composites is studied in the frequency range from 2 to 18 GHz. In addition, the reflection loss and the mechanism of microwave absorption are explored. By changing the amounts of rGO, the electromagnetic loss of the Fe3O4@rGO composites can be effectively regulated, which obtain better reflection loss. The minimum reflection loss of the Fe3O4@rGO composites is −49.4 dB at 16.2 GHz only with a thickness of 1.75 mm. Thus, the Fe3O4@rGO composites have an extremely thin thickness and a strong electromagnetic wave absorption capacity, which is a candidate for the development of lightweight magnetic absorbing materials. Full article
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Article
Criterion for Selective Area Growth of III-V Nanowires
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3698; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203698 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 462
Abstract
A model for the nucleation of vertical or planar III-V nanowires (NWs) in selective area growth (SAG) on masked substrates with regular arrays of openings is developed. The optimal SAG zone, with NW nucleation within the openings and the absence of parasitic III-V [...] Read more.
A model for the nucleation of vertical or planar III-V nanowires (NWs) in selective area growth (SAG) on masked substrates with regular arrays of openings is developed. The optimal SAG zone, with NW nucleation within the openings and the absence of parasitic III-V crystallites or group III droplets on the mask, is established, taking into account the minimum chemical potential of the III-V pairs required for nucleation on different surfaces, and the surface diffusion of the group III adatoms. The SAG maps are plotted in terms of the material fluxes versus the temperature. The non-trivial behavior of the SAG window, with the opening size and pitch, is analyzed, depending on the direction of the diffusion flux of the group III adatoms into or from the openings. A good correlation of the model with the data on the SAG of vertical GaN NWs and planar GaAs and InAs NWs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is demonstrated. Full article
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Article
Nanowires-Assembled TiO2 Nanorods Anchored on Multilayer Graphene for High-Performance Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3697; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203697 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Multilayer graphene (MLG) prepared via ultrasonic exfoliation has many advantages such as its low-cost and defect-free nature, high electronic conductivity, and large specific surface area, which make it an apt conductive substrate for TiO2 composites. To synthesize graphene/TiO2 hybrids, traditional methods [...] Read more.
Multilayer graphene (MLG) prepared via ultrasonic exfoliation has many advantages such as its low-cost and defect-free nature, high electronic conductivity, and large specific surface area, which make it an apt conductive substrate for TiO2 composites. To synthesize graphene/TiO2 hybrids, traditional methods that greatly depend on the chemical bond of oxygen-containing functional groups on graphene with titanium cations are not applicable due to the absence of these functional groups on MLG. In this work, a facile chemical method is developed to directly deposit TiO2 on the MLG surface without the introduction of chemically active groups. With this method, four types of TiO2 materials, that is pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, a mixture of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles and rutile TiO2 nanoflowers, pure rutile TiO2 nanoflowers, and pure rutile TiO2 nanorods, are homogeneously anchored on the MLG surface by controlling the amount of HCl in the reactant. Interestingly, the rutile TiO2 nanorods in the TiO2/MLG composite are assembled by many TiO2 nanowires with an ultra-small diameter and ultra-long length, which provides a better synergetic effect for high performances as LIB anodes than other composites. A specific capacity of 631.4 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g−1 is delivered, indicating it to be a valuable LIB anode material with low cost and high electrochemical performances. Full article
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Article
Eco-Friendly Sustainable Synthesis of Graphene Quantum Dots from Biowaste as a Highly Selective Sensor
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203696 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have generated a great deal of scientific interest due to their bright fluorescence, good biocompatibility, minimal toxicity and fascinating physicochemical features. However, the ultimate issues regarding the acidic contaminations and high synthesis cost of GQDs remain open challenges for [...] Read more.
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have generated a great deal of scientific interest due to their bright fluorescence, good biocompatibility, minimal toxicity and fascinating physicochemical features. However, the ultimate issues regarding the acidic contaminations and high synthesis cost of GQDs remain open challenges for their real-world applications. Herein, we report an eco-friendly, acid-free and sustainable method for the preparation of GQDs using a cost-efficient, and renewable carbon source, ‘biomass-waste’, which simultaneously solves the risk of contamination from strong acids and high expenditure initiated by expensive precursors. The results demonstrate that GQDs possess a size range of 1–5 nm with an average size of ~3 ± 0.4 nm and a thickness of ~1 nm consisting of 1–3 layers of graphene. As-prepared GQDs demonstrate fascinating size-dependent optical properties and considerable surface grafting. Due to their intriguing optical properties, these GQDs are employed as fluorescence probes to detect ferric ions. A focused and sensitive sensor is developed with a detection limit down to 0.29 µM. This study emphasizes the need for using a reasonably green process and an inexpensive biomass precursor to create high-value GQDs that hold great potential for use in photocatalytic, bioimaging and real-world sensing applications. Full article
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Article
Piezoresistive Properties of Natural Hydraulic Lime Binary Pastes with Incorporated Carbon-Based Nanomaterials under Cyclic Compressive Loadings
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203695 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Natural Hydraulic Limes (NHL) are extensively used for the restoration of Monuments of Cultural Heritage, often combined with pozzolanic materials, such as natural pozzolans and metakaolin etc. In the present study, five (5) different cases of binary lime-based pastes composed of a specific [...] Read more.
Natural Hydraulic Limes (NHL) are extensively used for the restoration of Monuments of Cultural Heritage, often combined with pozzolanic materials, such as natural pozzolans and metakaolin etc. In the present study, five (5) different cases of binary lime-based pastes composed of a specific type of NHL (NHL5) and metakaolin as pozzolanic addition were examined, that were reinforced with carbon nanostructures, namely graphene and carbon nanotubes. For the first time in restoration mortars, the incorporation of carbon nanostructures was investigated, aiming to produce materials with adequate piezoresistive response, so that they have the potential to be exploited for in situ structural health monitoring. The compressive strength, flexural strength, electrical resistance and piezoresistive response of the composite pastes was examined. The results showed that all modified carbon nanostructures lead to a significant reduction in electrical resistance. The pastes reinforced with 2D nanostructures (graphene family) displayed up to 30% increase in compressive strength and the pastes reinforced with 1D nanostructures (carbon nanotubes) displayed enhanced flexural strength (up to 100% increase). Piezoresistivity was attained for almost all investigated pastes, nevertheless the graphene oxide (GO) was considered as optimal reinforcement as the sensing ability of such pastes was found to be almost proportional to the applied compressive load level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section 2D and Carbon Nanomaterials)
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Article
Design of Reflective Polarization Rotator in Silicon Waveguide
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3694; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203694 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 529
Abstract
In this work, we investigate theoretically the reflective polarization rotator in a silicon waveguide formed by periodically arranged rectangular air holes. The etched air holes generate the large birefringence for the waveguide. The effective refractive index of the non-etched waveguide is isotropic. The [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigate theoretically the reflective polarization rotator in a silicon waveguide formed by periodically arranged rectangular air holes. The etched air holes generate the large birefringence for the waveguide. The effective refractive index of the non-etched waveguide is isotropic. The structure can be regarded as a stack of alternating birefringent waveplates and isotropic material similar to the folded Šolc filter. The band structure of the stack of birefringent waveplates with isotropic background is calculated to confirm the fact that high reflection peaks in the reflection spectra of the waveguide result from the photonic bandgap. The polarization extinction ratio for the reflected light is 15.8 dB. The highest reflectivity of the device is 93.1%, and the device length is 9.21 μm. An ultra-wide operation bandwidth from 1450.3 to 1621.8 nm can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanophotonics and Integrated Optics Devices)
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Article
Conquering Cancer Multi-Drug Resistance Using Curcumin and Cisplatin Prodrug-Encapsulated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Synergistic Chemo- and Photodynamic Therapies
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3693; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203693 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Recently, the development of anti-cancer approaches using different physical or chemical pathways has shifted from monotherapy to synergistic therapy, which can enhance therapeutic effects. As a result, enormous efforts have been devoted to developing various delivery systems encapsulated with dual agents for synergistic [...] Read more.
Recently, the development of anti-cancer approaches using different physical or chemical pathways has shifted from monotherapy to synergistic therapy, which can enhance therapeutic effects. As a result, enormous efforts have been devoted to developing various delivery systems encapsulated with dual agents for synergistic effects and to combat cancer cells acquired drug resistance. In this study, we show how to make Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN)-1-based mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for multifunctional drug delivery to overcome drug resistance cancer therapy. Initially, curcumin (Cur)-embedded IBN-1 nanocomposites (IBN-1-Cur) are synthesized in a simple one-pot co-condensation and then immobilized with the prodrug of Cisplatin (CP) on the carboxylate-modified surface (IBN-1-Cur-CP) to achieve photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy in one platform, respectively, in the fight against multidrug resistance (MDR) of MES-SA/DX5 cancer cells. The Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer, as the structure-directing agent, in nanoparticles acts as a p-glycoprotein (p-gp) inhibitor. These designed hybrid nanocomposites with excellent structural properties are efficiently internalized by the endocytosis and successfully deliver Cur and CP molecules into the cytosol. Furthermore, the presence of Cur photosensitizer in the nanochannels of MSNs resulted in increased levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light irradiation. Thus, IBN-1-Cur-CP showed excellent anti-cancer therapy in the face of MES-SA/DX5 resistance cancer cells, owing to the synergistic effects of chemo- and photodynamic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Nanomaterials for Photodynamic Therapy)
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Article
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Analysis of Ultrafine Au Nanoparticles Supported over Reactively Sputtered TiO2 Films
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3692; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203692 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
The impact of a titania (TiO2) support film surface on the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (Au NP) was investigated. Using the reactive dc-magnetron sputtering technique, TiO2 films with an amorphous, anatase, and nitrogen-doped anatase crystal structure were produced for [...] Read more.
The impact of a titania (TiO2) support film surface on the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (Au NP) was investigated. Using the reactive dc-magnetron sputtering technique, TiO2 films with an amorphous, anatase, and nitrogen-doped anatase crystal structure were produced for a subsequent role as a support material for Au NP. Raman spectra of these TiO2 films revealed that both vacuum and NH3 annealing treatments promoted amorphous to anatase phase transformation through the presence of a peak in the 513–519 cm−1 spectral regime. Furthermore, annealing under NH3 flux had an associated blue shift and broadening of the Raman active mode at 1430 cm−1, characteristic of an increase in the oxygen vacancies (VO). For a 3 to 15 s sputter deposition time, the Au NP over TiO2 support films were in the 6.7–17.1 nm size range. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analysis, the absence of any shift in the Au 4f core level peak implied that there was no change in the electronic properties of Au NP. On the other hand, spontaneous hydroxyl (–OH) group adsorption to anatase TiO2 support was instantly detected, the magnitude of which was found to be enhanced upon increasing the Au NP loading. Nitrogen-doped anatase TiO2 supporting Au NP with ~21.8 nm exhibited a greater extent of molecular oxygen adsorption. The adsorption of both –OH and O2 species is believed to take place at the perimeter sites of the Au NP interfacing with the TiO2 film. XPS analyses and discussions about the tentative roles of O2 and –OH adsorbent species toward Au/TiO2 systems corroborate very well with interpretations of density functional theory simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research on Surface and Interface in Nanosystems)
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Article
Assessment of New Strategies to Improve the Performance of Antimicrobial Peptides
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203691 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 573
Abstract
In this research, we constructed a novel engineered tripeptide modified with lipoic acid (LA-RWR), followed by crosslinking of lipoic acid to form nanoparticles (c-LA-RWR). LA-RWR was also modified with phenethylamine (PEA) on the C-terminus to achieve better antibacterial activities. The as-prepared c-LA-RWR and [...] Read more.
In this research, we constructed a novel engineered tripeptide modified with lipoic acid (LA-RWR), followed by crosslinking of lipoic acid to form nanoparticles (c-LA-RWR). LA-RWR was also modified with phenethylamine (PEA) on the C-terminus to achieve better antibacterial activities. The as-prepared c-LA-RWR and LA-RWR-PEA were effective against E.coli, S.aureus, C.albicans, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 2 to 16 µg/mL, which greatly improved the performance of LA-RWR. Similar antibacterial activities were demonstrated in anti-biofilm activity; there was no matter on the biofilm that was already established or forming. Moreover, c-LA-RWR/LA-RWR-PEA remarkably induced cytoplasmic membrane depolarization and outer membrane permeabilization, resulting in varying degrees of damage to the bacterial morphology, which were consistent with the results obtained via electron microscopy. Thus, our results show that c-LA-RWR/LA-RWR-PEA exhibited excellent efficacy against a variety of microorganisms with good biosafety, providing new strategies by which to improve the performance of antimicrobial peptides. Full article
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Article
Exciton States and Optical Absorption in CdSe and PbS Nanoplatelets
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3690; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203690 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 642
Abstract
The exciton states and their influence on the optical absorption spectrum of CdSe and PbS nanoplatelets (NPLs) are considered theoretically in this paper. The problem is discussed in cases of strong, intermediate, and weak size quantization regimes of charge carrier motion in NPLs. [...] Read more.
The exciton states and their influence on the optical absorption spectrum of CdSe and PbS nanoplatelets (NPLs) are considered theoretically in this paper. The problem is discussed in cases of strong, intermediate, and weak size quantization regimes of charge carrier motion in NPLs. For each size quantization regime, the corresponding potential that adequately describes the electron–hole interaction in this mode of space quantization of charge carriers is chosen. The single-particle energy spectra and corresponding wave functions for strong intermediate and weak size quantization regimes have been revealed. The dependence of material parameters on the number of monolayers in the sample has been considered. The related selection rules and the dependence of the absorption coefficient on the frequency and polarization direction of the incident light wave were obtained. The interband transition threshold energy dependencies were obtained for each size quantization regime. The effect of dielectric coefficient mismatch and different models of electron–hole interaction potentials have been studied in CdSe and PbS NPLs. It is also shown that with an increase in the linear dimensions of the structure, the threshold frequency of absorption decreases. The binding energies and absorption coefficient results for NPL with different thicknesses agree with the experimental data. The values of the absorption exciton peaks measured experimentally are close to our calculated values for CdSe and PbS samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Theory and Simulation of Nanostructures)
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Article
Synthesis of LiDAR-Detectable True Black Core/Shell Nanomaterial and Its Practical Use in LiDAR Applications
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3689; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203689 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 851
Abstract
Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors utilize a near-infrared (NIR) laser with a wavelength of 905 nm. However, LiDAR sensors have weakness in detecting black or dark-tone materials with light-absorbing properties. In this study, SiO2/black TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles (SBT CSNs) [...] Read more.
Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors utilize a near-infrared (NIR) laser with a wavelength of 905 nm. However, LiDAR sensors have weakness in detecting black or dark-tone materials with light-absorbing properties. In this study, SiO2/black TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles (SBT CSNs) were designed as LiDAR-detectable black materials. The SBT CSNs, with sizes of 140, 170, and 200 nm, were fabricated by a series of Stöber, TTIP sol-gel, and modified NaBH4 reduction methods. These SBT CSNs are detectable by a LiDAR sensor and, owing to their core/shell structure with intrapores on the shell (ca. 2–6 nm), they can effectively function as both color and NIR-reflective materials. Moreover, the LiDAR-detectable SBT CSNs exhibited high NIR reflectance (28.2 R%) in a monolayer system and true blackness (L* < 20), along with ecofriendliness and hydrophilicity, making them highly suitable for use in autonomous vehicles. Full article
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Article
Heat Transport during Colloidal Mixture of Water with Al2O3-SiO2 Nanoparticles within Porous Medium: Semi-Analytical Solutions
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3688; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203688 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 472
Abstract
In recent years, energy consumption has become an essential aspect in the manufacturing industry, and low heat transfer is one of the obstacles that affect the quality of the final product. This situation can be managed by suspending nanoparticles into ordinary heat transferring [...] Read more.
In recent years, energy consumption has become an essential aspect in the manufacturing industry, and low heat transfer is one of the obstacles that affect the quality of the final product. This situation can be managed by suspending nanoparticles into ordinary heat transferring fluid (the base fluid). This newly prepared colloidal suspension has better heat transport capabilities. Keeping such usage of nanofluids in mind, this research was performed to better understand the heat transport characteristics during flow analysis saturated in porous media subject to Al2O3-SiO2/water hybrid nanofluids. This flow problem was generated by a stretching/shrinking surface. The surface of the sheet was under the influence of mass suction and second-order partial slip. The boundary layer flow was formulated in a system of partial differential equations by utilizing basic conservation laws in conjunction with the Tiwari and Das nanofluid model. Then, the appropriate form of the similarity transformation was adapted to transform the model into a system of ordinary differential equations. The built-in function, i.e., the bvp4c function in the MATLAB software, solved the reduced form of the boundary layer model. The novelty of this study lay in the predicting of two different exact and numerical solutions for both the flow and temperature fields. The computed results showed that the medium porosity as well as the nanoparticle volume fraction widened the existence range of the dual solutions. In addition, the investigational output exposed the fact that the temperature fields were significantly enhanced by the higher nanoparticle volume fraction. Moreover, the outcomes of this study showed a superb correlation with existing works. The present results can be utilized in various branches of science and engineering such as the polymer industry and in the treatment of different diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research on Heat Transfer with Properties of Nanofluids)
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Article
Effect of Cu Intercalation Layer on the Enhancement of Spin-to-Charge Conversion in Py/Cu/Bi2Se3
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3687; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203687 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The spin-to-charge conversion in Permalloy (Py)/Cu/Bi2Se3 is tunable by changing the Cu layer thickness. The conversion rate was studied using the spin pumping technique. The inverse Edelstein effect (IEE) length λIEE is found to increase up to ~2.7 nm [...] Read more.
The spin-to-charge conversion in Permalloy (Py)/Cu/Bi2Se3 is tunable by changing the Cu layer thickness. The conversion rate was studied using the spin pumping technique. The inverse Edelstein effect (IEE) length λIEE is found to increase up to ~2.7 nm when a 7 nm Cu layer is introduced. Interestingly, the maximized λIEE is obtained when the effective spin-mixing conductance (and thus Js) is decreased due to Cu insertion. The monotonic increase in λIEE with decreasing Js suggests that the IEE relaxation time (τ) is enhanced due to the additional tunnelling barrier (Cu layer) that limits the interfacial transmission rate. The results demonstrate the importance of interface engineering in the magnetic heterostructure of Py/topological insulators (TIs), the key factor in optimizing spin-to-charge conversion efficiency. Full article
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Review
SPIONs Conjugate Supported Anticancer Drug Doxorubicin’s Delivery: Current Status, Challenges, and Prospects
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3686; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203686 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
Considerable efforts have been directed towards development of nano-structured carriers to overcome the limitations of anticancer drug, doxorubicin’s, delivery to various cancer sites. The drug’s severe toxicity to cardio and hepatic systems, low therapeutic outcomes, inappropriate dose–demands, metastatic and general resistance, together with [...] Read more.
Considerable efforts have been directed towards development of nano-structured carriers to overcome the limitations of anticancer drug, doxorubicin’s, delivery to various cancer sites. The drug’s severe toxicity to cardio and hepatic systems, low therapeutic outcomes, inappropriate dose–demands, metastatic and general resistance, together with non-selectivity of the drug have led to the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)-based drug delivery modules. Nano-scale polymeric co-encapsulation of the drug, doxorubicin, with SPIONs, the SPIONs surface end-groups’ cappings with small molecular entities, as well as structural modifications of the SPIONs’ surface-located functional end-groups, to attach the doxorubicin, have been achieved through chemical bonding by conjugation and cross-linking of natural and synthetic polymers, attachments of SPIONs made directly to the non-polymeric entities, and attachments made through mediation of molecular-spacer as well as non-spacer mediated attachments of several types of chemical entities, together with the physico-chemical bondings of the moieties, e.g., peptides, proteins, antibodies, antigens, aptamers, glycoproteins, and enzymes, etc. to the SPIONs which are capable of targeting multiple kinds of cancerous sites, have provided stable and functional SPIONs–based nano-carriers suitable for the systemic, and in vitro deliveries, together with being suitable for other biomedical/biotechnical applications. Together with the SPIONs inherent properties, and ability to respond to magnetic resonance, fluorescence-directed, dual-module, and molecular-level tumor imaging; as well as multi-modular cancer cell targeting; magnetic-field-inducible drug-elution capacity, and the SPIONs’ magnetometry-led feasibility to reach cancer action sites have made sensing, imaging, and drug and other payloads deliveries to cancerous sites for cancer treatment a viable option. Innovations in the preparation of SPIONs-based delivery modules, as biocompatible carriers; development of delivery route modalities; approaches to enhancing their drug delivery-cum-bioavailability have explicitly established the SPIONs’ versatility for oncological theranostics and imaging. The current review outlines the development of various SPIONs-based nano-carriers for targeted doxorubicin delivery to different cancer sites through multiple methods, modalities, and materials, wherein high-potential nano-structured platforms have been conceptualized, developed, and tested for, both, in vivo and in vitro conditions. The current state of the knowledge in this arena have provided definite dose-control, site-specificity, stability, transport feasibility, and effective onsite drug de-loading, however, with certain limitations, and these shortcomings have opened the field for further advancements by identifying the bottlenecks, suggestive and plausible remediation, as well as more clear directions for future development. Full article
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Article
A Study of the Synthesis and Characterization of New Acrylamide Derivatives for Use as Corrosion Inhibitors in Nitric Acid Solutions of Copper
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3685; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203685 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
The objective of this research was to explore the impact of corrosion inhibition of some synthetic acrylamide derivatives 2-cyano-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)acrylamide (ACR-2) and 2-cyano-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylacrylamide (ACR-3) on copper in 1.0 M nitric acid solution using chemical and electrochemical methods, including mass loss [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to explore the impact of corrosion inhibition of some synthetic acrylamide derivatives 2-cyano-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)acrylamide (ACR-2) and 2-cyano-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylacrylamide (ACR-3) on copper in 1.0 M nitric acid solution using chemical and electrochemical methods, including mass loss as a chemical method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP) as electrochemical methods. By Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), and mass spectroscopy (MS) methods, the two compounds were verified and characterized. There is evidence that both compounds were effective corrosion inhibitors for copper in 1.0 M nitric acid (HNO3) solutions, as indicated by the PP curves, which show that these compounds may be considered mixed-type inhibitors. With the two compounds added, the value of the double-layer capacitance was reduced. In the case of 20 × 10−5 M, they reached maximum efficiencies of 84.5% and 86.1%, respectively. Having studied its behavior during adsorption on copper, it was concluded that it follows chemical adsorption and Langmuir isotherm. The theoretical computations and the experimental findings were compared using density functional theory (DFT) and Monte Carlo simulations (MC). Full article
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Article
Weft-Knitted Spacer Fabric for Highly Stretchable–Compressible Strain Sensor, Supercapacitor, and Joule Heater
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203684 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
The development of wearable electronic devices has greatly stimulated the research interest of textile-based strain sensors, which can effectively combine functionality with wearability. In this work, the fabrication of highly stretchable and compressible strain sensors from weft-knitted spacer fabric was reported. Carbon nanotubes [...] Read more.
The development of wearable electronic devices has greatly stimulated the research interest of textile-based strain sensors, which can effectively combine functionality with wearability. In this work, the fabrication of highly stretchable and compressible strain sensors from weft-knitted spacer fabric was reported. Carbon nanotubes and polypyrrole were deposited on the surface of fabric via an in situ polymerization approach to reduce the electrical resistance. The as-fabricated WSP-CNT-PPy strain sensor exhibits high electrical conductivity and stable strain-sensing performance under different stretching deformations. The WSP-CNT-PPy strain sensor can be stretched up to 450% and compressed to 60% with a pressure of less than 50 KPa, which can be attributed to the unique loop and interval filament structures. The distinguishing response efficiency of WSP-CNT-PPy can effectively detect faint and strenuous body movements. In addition, the electrochemical behavior of WSP-CNT-PPy was also characterized to study the comprehensive properties. The electro-heating performance was also evaluated for feasible Joule heater applications. This work demonstrates the practicability of WSP-CNT-PPy strain sensor fabric for real-time monitoring in promising wearable garments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Electrospun Nanofibers in Sensors and Devices)
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Article
Changes in Mechanical Properties of Vesicles by Mucin in Aqueous Solution
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203683 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 395
Abstract
The mechanical properties of vesicles were investigated as they were prepared, according to the ratio of mucin to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), using an atomic force microscope (AFM). After the confirmation of the vesicle adsorption on a mica surface, an AFM-tip deflection, caused by the [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of vesicles were investigated as they were prepared, according to the ratio of mucin to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), using an atomic force microscope (AFM). After the confirmation of the vesicle adsorption on a mica surface, an AFM-tip deflection, caused by the interaction between the tip and the vesicle, was measured. The deflection showed that the tip broke through into the vesicle twice. Each break meant a tip-penetration into the upper and lower portion of the vesicle. Only the first penetration allowed the Hertzian model available to estimate the vesicle mechanical moduli. Two moduli reduced as the ratio of mucin to DPPC increased to 0.5, but the moduli were little changed above the 0.5 ratio. These results seem to be a platform for the effect of the mucin on the plasma-membrane anchoring and cellular signaling. Full article
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