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Nanomaterials, Volume 12, Issue 1 (January-1 2022) – 176 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Artificial intelligence (AI) approaches continue to spread in almost every branch of research and technology. Accelerating the discovery of new functional materials in chemical self-driving laboratories is essential because of the experience of previous experimenters. Self-driving laboratories help automate and intellectualize processes involved in discovering nanomaterials with required parameters that are difficult to transfer to AI-driven systems straightforwardly. In this case, the most appropriate way to implement is by creating and customizing a specific adaptive digital-centric automated laboratory with a data fusion approach that can reproduce the behavior of a real experimenter. A novel data-centric research strategy has been proposed for the autonomous self-driving laboratory. View this paper
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Article
Lignin Nanoparticles and Alginate Gel Beads: Preparation, Characterization and Removal of Methylene Blue
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010176 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
A novel and effective green system consisting of deep eutectic solvent (DES) was proposed to prepare lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) without any lignin modification. The LNPs are obtained through the dialysis of the kraft lignin-DES solution. The particle size distribution, Zeta potential and morphology [...] Read more.
A novel and effective green system consisting of deep eutectic solvent (DES) was proposed to prepare lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) without any lignin modification. The LNPs are obtained through the dialysis of the kraft lignin-DES solution. The particle size distribution, Zeta potential and morphology of the LNPs are characterized by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter of LNPs is in the range 123.6 to 140.7 nm, and the LNPs show good stability and dispersibility in water. The composite beads composed of LNPs and sodium alginate (SA) are highly efficient (97.1%) at removing methylene blue (MB) from the aqueous solution compared to 82.9% and 77.4% by the SA/bulk kraft lignin composite and pure SA, respectively. Overall, the LNPs-SA bio-nanocomposite with high adsorption capacity (258.5 mg/g) could be useful in improving water quality and other related applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications)
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Review
Advances in Polyhydroxyalkanoate Nanocarriers for Effective Drug Delivery: An Overview and Challenges
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010175 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural polymers produced under specific conditions by certain organisms, primarily bacteria, as a source of energy. These up-and-coming bioplastics are an undeniable asset in enhancing the effectiveness of drug delivery systems, which demand characteristics like non-immunogenicity, a sustained and controlled [...] Read more.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural polymers produced under specific conditions by certain organisms, primarily bacteria, as a source of energy. These up-and-coming bioplastics are an undeniable asset in enhancing the effectiveness of drug delivery systems, which demand characteristics like non-immunogenicity, a sustained and controlled drug release, targeted delivery, as well as a high drug loading capacity. Given their biocompatibility, biodegradability, modifiability, and compatibility with hydrophobic drugs, PHAs often provide a superior alternative to free drug therapy or treatments using other polymeric nanocarriers. The many formulation methods of existing PHA nanocarriers, such as emulsion solvent evaporation, nanoprecipitation, dialysis, and in situ polymerization, are explained in this review. Due to their flexibility that allows for a vessel tailormade to its intended application, PHA nanocarriers have found their place in diverse therapy options like anticancer and anti-infective treatments, which are among the applications of PHA nanocarriers discussed in this article. Despite their many positive attributes, the advancement of PHA nanocarriers to clinical trials of drug delivery applications has been stunted due to the polymers’ natural hydrophobicity, controversial production materials, and high production costs, among others. These challenges are explored in this review, alongside their existing solutions and alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Advanced Biological Applications)
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Review
Current Understanding of Water Properties inside Carbon Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010174 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Confined water inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, amassing as a result a very large number of dedicated studies, both theoretical and experimental. This exceptional scientific interest can be understood in terms of the exotic properties [...] Read more.
Confined water inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, amassing as a result a very large number of dedicated studies, both theoretical and experimental. This exceptional scientific interest can be understood in terms of the exotic properties of nanoconfined water, as well as the vast array of possible applications of CNTs in a wide range of fields stretching from geology to medicine and biology. This review presents an overreaching narrative of the properties of water in CNTs, based mostly on results from systematic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular dynamics (MD) studies, which together allow the untangling and explanation of many seemingly contradictory results present in the literature. Further, we identify still-debatable issues and open problems, as well as avenues for future studies, both theoretical and experimental. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Carbon Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites)
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Review
Recent Trends in Nano-Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture under Climate Change for Global Food Security
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010173 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5497
Abstract
Nano-fertilizers (NFs) significantly improve soil quality and plant growth performance and enhance crop production with quality fruits/grains. The management of macro-micronutrients is a big task globally, as it relies predominantly on synthetic chemical fertilizers which may not be environmentally friendly for human beings [...] Read more.
Nano-fertilizers (NFs) significantly improve soil quality and plant growth performance and enhance crop production with quality fruits/grains. The management of macro-micronutrients is a big task globally, as it relies predominantly on synthetic chemical fertilizers which may not be environmentally friendly for human beings and may be expensive for farmers. NFs may enhance nutrient uptake and plant production by regulating the availability of fertilizers in the rhizosphere; extend stress resistance by improving nutritional capacity; and increase plant defense mechanisms. They may also substitute for synthetic fertilizers for sustainable agriculture, being found more suitable for stimulation of plant development. They are associated with mitigating environmental stresses and enhancing tolerance abilities under adverse atmospheric eco-variables. Recent trends in NFs explored relevant agri-technology to fill the gaps and assure long-term beneficial agriculture strategies to safeguard food security globally. Accordingly, nanoparticles are emerging as a cutting-edge agri-technology for agri-improvement in the near future. Interestingly, they do confer stress resistance capabilities to crop plants. The effective and appropriate mechanisms are revealed in this article to update researchers widely. Full article
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Article
Investigation on Transparent, Conductive ZnO:Al Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition Process
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010172 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1310
Abstract
Transparent electrodes are a core component for transparent electron devices, photoelectric devices, and advanced displays. In this work, we fabricate fully-transparent, highly-conductive Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) system method of repeatedly stacking ZnO and Al2O3 [...] Read more.
Transparent electrodes are a core component for transparent electron devices, photoelectric devices, and advanced displays. In this work, we fabricate fully-transparent, highly-conductive Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) system method of repeatedly stacking ZnO and Al2O3 layers. The influences of Al cycle ratio (0, 2, 3, and 4%) on optical property, conductivity, crystallinity, surface morphology, and material components of the AZO films are examined, and current conduction mechanisms of the AZO films are analyzed. We found that Al doping increases electron concentration and optical bandgap width, allowing the AZO films to excellently combine low resistivity with high transmittance. Besides, Al doping induces preferred-growth-orientation transition from (002) to (100), which improves surface property and enhances current conduction across the AZO films. Interestingly, the AZO films with an Al cycle ratio of 3% show preferable film properties. Transparent ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) with AZO electrodes are fabricated, and the ZnO TFTs exhibit superior transparency and high performance. This work accelerates the practical application of the ALD process in fabricating transparent electrodes. Full article
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Article
Facile Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Preparation of Conductive Ink
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010171 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
In the scientific industry, sustainable nanotechnology has attracted great attention and has been successful in facilitating solutions to challenges presented in various fields. For the present work, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared using a chemical reduction synthesis method. Then, a low-temperature sintering process [...] Read more.
In the scientific industry, sustainable nanotechnology has attracted great attention and has been successful in facilitating solutions to challenges presented in various fields. For the present work, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared using a chemical reduction synthesis method. Then, a low-temperature sintering process was deployed to obtain an Ag-conductive ink preparation which could be applied to a flexible substrate. The size and shape of the AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experiments indicated that the size and agglomeration of the AgNPs could be well controlled by varying the reaction time, reaction temperature, and pH value. The rate of nanoparticle generation was the highest when the reaction temperature was 100 °C within the 40 min reaction time, achieving the most satisfactorily dispersed nanoparticles and nanoballs with an average size of 60.25 nm at a pH value of 8. Moreover, the electrical resistivity of the obtained Ag-conductive ink is controllable, under the optimal sintering temperature and time (85 °C for 5 min), leading to an optimal electrical resistivity of 9.9 × 10−6 Ω cm. The results obtained in this study, considering AgNPs and Ag-conductive ink, may also be extended to other metals in future research. Full article
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Article
Artificial Neural Network Modelling for Optimizing the Optical Parameters of Plasmonic Paired Nanostructures
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010170 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has become an attractive approach in Machine Learning (ML) to analyze a complex data-driven problem. Due to its time efficient findings, it has became popular in many scientific fields such as physics, optics, and material science. This paper [...] Read more.
The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has become an attractive approach in Machine Learning (ML) to analyze a complex data-driven problem. Due to its time efficient findings, it has became popular in many scientific fields such as physics, optics, and material science. This paper presents a new approach to design and optimize the electromagnetic plasmonic nanostructures using a computationally efficient method based on the ANN. In this work, the nanostructures have been simulated by using a Finite Element Method (FEM), then Artificial Intelligence (AI) is used for making predictions of associated sensitivity (S), Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM), Figure of Merit (FOM), and Plasmonic Wavelength (PW) for different paired nanostructures. At first, the computational model is developed by using a Finite Element Method (FEM) to prepare the dataset. The input parameters were considered as the Major axis, a, the Minor axis, b, and the separation gap, g, which have been used to calculate the corresponding sensitivity (nm/RIU), FWHM (nm), FOM, and plasmonic wavelength (nm) to prepare the dataset. Secondly, the neural network has been designed where the number of hidden layers and neurons were optimized as part of a comprehensive analysis to improve the efficiency of ML model. After successfully optimizing the neural network, this model is used to make predictions for specific inputs and its corresponding outputs. This article also compares the error between the predicted and simulated results. This approach outperforms the direct numerical simulation methods for predicting output for various input device parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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Review
Molecular Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer with an Emphasis on Recent Advances in Biomarkers, as Well as Nanotechnology-Based Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010169 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2886
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious disease that affects millions of people throughout the world, despite considerable advances in therapy. The formation of colorectal adenomas and invasive adenocarcinomas is the consequence of a succession of genetic and epigenetic changes in the normal colonic [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious disease that affects millions of people throughout the world, despite considerable advances in therapy. The formation of colorectal adenomas and invasive adenocarcinomas is the consequence of a succession of genetic and epigenetic changes in the normal colonic epithelium. Genetic and epigenetic processes associated with the onset, development, and metastasis of sporadic CRC have been studied in depth, resulting in identifying biomarkers that might be used to predict behaviour and prognosis beyond staging and influence therapeutic options. A novel biomarker, or a group of biomarkers, must be discovered in order to build an accurate and clinically useful test that may be used as an alternative to conventional methods for the early detection of CRC and to identify prospective new therapeutic intervention targets. To minimise the mortality burden of colorectal cancer, new screening methods with higher accuracy and nano-based diagnostic precision are needed. Cytotoxic medication has negative side effects and is restricted by medication resistance. One of the most promising cancer treatment techniques is the use of nano-based carrier system as a medication delivery mechanism. To deliver cytotoxic medicines, targeted nanoparticles might take advantage of differently expressed molecules on the surface of cancer cells. The use of different compounds as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with cancer cells, enabling the efficient delivery of antitumor medicines. Formulations based on nanoparticles might aid in early cancer diagnosis and help to overcome the limitations of traditional treatments, including low water solubility, nonspecific biodistribution, and restricted bioavailability. This article addresses about the molecular pathogenesis of CRC and highlights about biomarkers. It also provides conceptual knowledge of nanotechnology-based diagnostic techniques and therapeutic approaches for malignant colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications)
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Article
Enhancement of Sensitivity with High−Reflective−Index Guided−Wave Nanomaterials for a Long−Range Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010168 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
A guided−wave long−range surface plasmon resonance (GW−LRSPR) sensor was proposed in this investigation. In the proposed sensor, high−refractive−index (RI) dielectric films (i.e., CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite, silicon) served as the guided−wave (GW) layer, which was combined with the long−range surface [...] Read more.
A guided−wave long−range surface plasmon resonance (GW−LRSPR) sensor was proposed in this investigation. In the proposed sensor, high−refractive−index (RI) dielectric films (i.e., CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite, silicon) served as the guided−wave (GW) layer, which was combined with the long−range surface plasmon resonance (LRSPR) structure to form the GW−LRSPR sensing structure. The theoretical results based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) demonstrated that the LRSPR signal was enhanced by the additional high#x2212;RI GW layer, which was called the GW−LRSPR signal. The achieved GW−LRSPR signal had a strong ability to perceive the analyte. By optimizing the low− and high−RI dielectrics in the GW−LRSPR sensing structure, we obtained the highest sensitivity (S) of 1340.4 RIU−1 based on a CH3NH3PbBr3 GW layer, and the corresponding figure of merit (FOM) was 8.16 × 104 RIU−1 deg−1. Compared with the conventional LRSPR sensor (S = 688.9 RIU−1), the sensitivity of this new type of sensor was improved by nearly 94%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xene-Related Nanostructures for Versatile Applications)
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Editorial
Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Detection, Characterization and Assessment in Environment
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010167 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
The number of studies on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has risen in recent years due to the increase in their use in different commercial products, the concerns regarding their release in the environment, as well as their toxicological effects [...] Full article
Article
Detection of Oenological Polyphenols via QCM-D Measurements
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010166 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Polyphenols are a family of compounds present in grapes, musts, and wines. Their dosage is associated with the grape ripening, correct must fermentation, and final wine properties. Owing to their anti-inflammatory properties, they are also relevant for health applications. To date, such compounds [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are a family of compounds present in grapes, musts, and wines. Their dosage is associated with the grape ripening, correct must fermentation, and final wine properties. Owing to their anti-inflammatory properties, they are also relevant for health applications. To date, such compounds are detected mainly via standard chemical analysis, which is costly for constant monitoring and requires a specialized laboratory. Cheap and portable sensors would be desirable to reduce costs and speed up measurements. This paper illustrates the development of strategies for sensor surface chemical functionalization for polyphenol detection. We perform measurements by using a commercial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring apparatus. Chemical functionalizations are based on proteins (bovine serum albumin and gelatin type A) or customized peptides derived from istatine-5 and murine salivary protein-5. Commercial oenological additives containing pure gallic tannins or proanthocyanidins, dissolved in water or commercial wine, are used for the analysis. Results indicate that selected functionalizations enable the detection of the two different tannin families, suggesting a relationship between the recorded signal and concentration. Gelatin A also demonstrates the ability to discriminate gallic tannins from proanthocyanidins. Outcomes are promising and pave the way for the exploitation of such devices for precision oenology. Full article
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Article
Enhanced Field Emission of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Cathode Prepared by Screen Printing with a Silver Paste Buffer Layer
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010165 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
A high emission current with relatively low operating voltage is critical for field emission cathodes in vacuum electronic devices (VEDs). This paper studied the field emission performance of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) cold cathodes prepared by screen printing with a silver paste buffer [...] Read more.
A high emission current with relatively low operating voltage is critical for field emission cathodes in vacuum electronic devices (VEDs). This paper studied the field emission performance of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) cold cathodes prepared by screen printing with a silver paste buffer layer. The buffer layer can both enforce the adhesion between the SWCNTs and substrate, and decrease their contact resistance, so as to increase emission current. Compared with paste mixing CNTs and screen printed cathodes, the buffer layer can avoid excessive wrapping of CNTs in the silver slurry and increase effective emission area to reduce the operating voltage. The experimental results show that the turn-on field of the screen-printed SWCNT cathodes is 0.9 V/μm, which is lower than that of electrophoretic SWCNT cathodes at 2.0 V/μm. Meanwhile, the maximum emission current of the screen-printed SWCNT cathodes reaches 5.55 mA at DC mode and reaches 10.4 mA at pulse mode, which is an order magnitude higher than that of electrophoretic SWCNTs emitters. This study also shows the application insight of small or medium-power VEDs. Full article
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Communication
Surface Charge Transfer Doping of MoS2 Monolayer by Molecules with Aggregation-Induced Emission Effect
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010164 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Surface charge transfer doping has attracted much attention in modulating the optical and electrical behavior of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), where finding controllable and efficient dopants is crucial. Here, 1,1,2,2-tetraphenylethylene (TPE) derivative molecules with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect were selected as adjustable [...] Read more.
Surface charge transfer doping has attracted much attention in modulating the optical and electrical behavior of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), where finding controllable and efficient dopants is crucial. Here, 1,1,2,2-tetraphenylethylene (TPE) derivative molecules with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect were selected as adjustable dopants. By designing nitro and methoxyl functional groups and surface coating, controlled p/n-type doping can be achieved on a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown monolayer, MoS2. We investigated the electron transfer behavior between these two dopants and MoS2 with fluorescence, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectra and transient absorption spectra. 1,1,2,2-Tetrakis(4-nitrophenyl)ethane (TPE-4NO2) with a negative charge aggregation can be a donor to transfer electrons to MoS2, while 1,1,2,2-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane (TPE-4OCH3) is the opposite and electron-accepting. Density functional theory calculations further explain and confirm these experimental results. This work shows a new way to select suitable dopants for TMDCs, which is beneficial for a wide range of applications in optoelectronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Plasmonic Nanostructures)
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Article
Liposomal PHD2 Inhibitors and the Enhanced Efficacy in Stabilizing HIF-1α
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010163 - 03 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2) inhibition, which stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and thus triggers adaptation responses to hypoxia in cells, has become an important therapeutic target. Despite the proven high potency, small-molecule PHD2 inhibitors such as IOX2 may require a nanoformulation for [...] Read more.
Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2) inhibition, which stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and thus triggers adaptation responses to hypoxia in cells, has become an important therapeutic target. Despite the proven high potency, small-molecule PHD2 inhibitors such as IOX2 may require a nanoformulation for favorable biodistribution to reduce off-target toxicity. A liposome formulation for improving the pharmacokinetics of an encapsulated drug while allowing a targeted delivery is a viable option. This study aimed to develop an efficient loading method that can encapsulate IOX2 and other PHD2 inhibitors with similar pharmacophore features in nanosized liposomes. Driven by a transmembrane calcium acetate gradient, a nearly 100% remote loading efficiency of IOX2 into liposomes was achieved with an optimized extraliposomal solution. The electron microscopy imaging revealed that IOX2 formed nanoprecipitates inside the liposome’s interior compartments after loading. For drug efficacy, liposomal IOX2 outperformed the free drug in inducing the HIF-1α levels in cell experiments, especially when using a targeting ligand. This method also enabled two clinically used inhibitors—vadadustat and roxadustat—to be loaded into liposomes with a high encapsulation efficiency, indicating its generality to load other heterocyclic glycinamide PHD2 inhibitors. We believe that the liposome formulation of PHD2 inhibitors, particularly in conjunction with active targeting, would have therapeutic potential for treating more specifically localized disease lesions. Full article
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Article
Coconut Carbon Dots: Progressive Large-Scale Synthesis, Detailed Biological Activities and Smart Sensing Aptitudes towards Tyrosine
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010162 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
In the recent era, carbon dots (C-dots) have been extensively considered as a potential tool in drug delivery analysis. However, there have been fewer reports in the literature on their application in the sensing of amino acids. As part of our ongoing research [...] Read more.
In the recent era, carbon dots (C-dots) have been extensively considered as a potential tool in drug delivery analysis. However, there have been fewer reports in the literature on their application in the sensing of amino acids. As part of our ongoing research on coconut-husk-derived C-dots, we synthesized C-dots under different temperature conditions and utilized them in the field of amino acid sensing and found them to be highly selective and sensitive towards tyrosine. The detailed characterization of the prepared C-dots was carried out. The developed C-dots exhibit good values of quantum yield. BSA, HSA and glutamic acid were utilized to explore the binding efficiency of C-dots with biologically active components. Hemolysis, blood clotting index activity and cell viability assays using the prepared C-dots were evaluated and they were found to be biocompatible. Therefore, the C-dots described in this work have high potential to be utilized in the field of amino acid sensing, especially L-tyrosine. The limit of detection and the binding constant for the developed C-dots in the presence of tyrosine were found to be 0.96 nM and 296.38 nM−1, respectively. The efficiency of the developed C-dots was also investigated in the presence of various other amino acids and different water mediums in order to enhance the working scope of the developed sensors. Full article
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Article
Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Liver Carcinoma Cells Induced by Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Using Schinus molle Extract
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010161 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is ranked as the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Schinus molle (S. mole) L. is an important medicinal plant that contains many bioactive compounds with pharmacological properties. [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is ranked as the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Schinus molle (S. mole) L. is an important medicinal plant that contains many bioactive compounds with pharmacological properties. The role of S. molle leaf extract in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was determined. The biosynthesized AgNPs were thoroughly characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs using S. molle (SMAgNPs) against HepG2 liver cancer cells was investigated. Reactive oxygen species generation, apoptosis induction, DNA damage, and autophagy activity were analyzed. The results clearly showed that the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 by significantly (p < 0.05) inducing oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, DNA damage, apoptosis, and autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These findings may encourage integrating the potential of natural products and the efficiency of silver nanoparticles for the fabrication of safe, environmentally friendly, and effective anticancer agents. Full article
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Article
Nanoarchitectonics for High Adsorption Capacity Carboxymethyl Cellulose Nanofibrils-Based Adsorbents for Efficient Cu2+ Removal
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010160 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
In the present study, carboxymethyl cellulose nanofibrils (CMCNFs) with different carboxyl content (0.99–2.01 mmol/g) were prepared via controlling the ratio of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) and sodium hydroxide to Eucalyptus bleached pulp (EBP). CMCFs-PEI aerogels were obtained using the crosslinking reaction of polyethyleneimine (PEI) [...] Read more.
In the present study, carboxymethyl cellulose nanofibrils (CMCNFs) with different carboxyl content (0.99–2.01 mmol/g) were prepared via controlling the ratio of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) and sodium hydroxide to Eucalyptus bleached pulp (EBP). CMCFs-PEI aerogels were obtained using the crosslinking reaction of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and CMCNFs with the aid of glutaraldehyde (GA). The effects of pH, contact time, temperature, and initial Cu2+ concentration on the Cu2+ removal performance of CMCNFs-PEI aerogels was highlighted. Experimental data showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of CMCNF30-PEI for Cu2+ was 380.03 ± 23 mg/g, and the adsorption results were consistent with Langmuir isotherm (R2 > 0.99). The theoretical maximum adsorption capacity was 616.48 mg/g. After being treated with 0.05 M EDTA solution, the aerogel retained an 85% removal performance after three adsorption–desorption cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results demonstrated that complexation was the main Cu2+ adsorption mechanism. The excellent Cu2+ adsorption capacity of CMCNFs-PEI aerogels provided another avenue for the utilization of cellulose nanofibrils in the wastewater treatment field. Full article
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Article
Machine Learning-Assisted Computational Screening of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Atmospheric Water Harvesting
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010159 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Atmospheric water harvesting by strong adsorbents is a feasible method of solving the shortage of water resources, especially for arid regions. In this study, a machine learning (ML)-assisted high-throughput computational screening is employed to calculate the capture of H2O from N [...] Read more.
Atmospheric water harvesting by strong adsorbents is a feasible method of solving the shortage of water resources, especially for arid regions. In this study, a machine learning (ML)-assisted high-throughput computational screening is employed to calculate the capture of H2O from N2 and O2 for 6013 computation-ready, experimental metal-organic frameworks (CoRE-MOFs) and 137,953 hypothetical MOFs (hMOFs). Through the univariate analysis of MOF structure-performance relationships, Qst is shown to be a key descriptor. Moreover, three ML algorithms (random forest, gradient boosted regression trees, and neighbor component analysis (NCA)) are applied to hunt for the complicated interrelation between six descriptors and performance. After the optimizing strategy of grid search and five-fold cross-validation is performed, three ML can effectively build the predictive model for CoRE-MOFs, and the accuracy R2 of NCA can reach 0.97. In addition, based on the relative importance of the descriptors by ML, it can be quantitatively concluded that the Qst is dominant in governing the capture of H2O. Besides, the NCA model trained by 6013 CoRE-MOFs can predict the selectivity of hMOFs with a R2 of 0.86, which is more universal than other models. Finally, 10 CoRE-MOFs and 10 hMOFs with high performance are identified. The computational screening and prediction of ML could provide guidance and inspiration for the development of materials for water harvesting in the atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal-Organic Frameworks)
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Article
A Water-Stable 2-Fold Interpenetrating cds Net as a Bifunctional Fluorescence-Responsive Sensor for Selective Detection of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) Ions
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010158 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
Reactions of ZnSO4∙7H2O, N-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-4-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,8-naphthalimide (NI-mbpy-34), and 5-bromobenzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (Br-1,3-H2bdc) afforded a luminescent coordination polymer, [Zn(Br-1,3-bdc)(NI-mbpy-34)]n (1), under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed that 1 features a three-dimensional (3-D) 2-fold interpenetrating cds [...] Read more.
Reactions of ZnSO4∙7H2O, N-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-4-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,8-naphthalimide (NI-mbpy-34), and 5-bromobenzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (Br-1,3-H2bdc) afforded a luminescent coordination polymer, [Zn(Br-1,3-bdc)(NI-mbpy-34)]n (1), under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed that 1 features a three-dimensional (3-D) 2-fold interpenetrating cds (or CdSO4) net topology with the point symbol of (65·8), where the Zn(II) centers are considered as 4-connected square-planar nodes. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) patterns and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis confirmed that 1 shows high chemical and thermal stabilities. Notably, 1 displayed solvent dependent photoluminescence properties; the fluorescence intensity and emission maximum of 1 in different solvent suspensions varied when a solvent was changed. Furthermore, the H2O suspension of 1 exhibited blue fluorescence emission and thus can be treated as a selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for turn-on detection of Cr3+ cations through absorbance caused enhancement (ACE) mechanism and turn-off detection of Cr2O72−/CrO42− anions through collaboration of the absorption competition and energy transfer process, with limit of detection (LOD) as low as μM scale. Full article
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Article
Properties of Halide Perovskite Photodetectors with Little Rubidium Incorporation
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010157 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
This study investigates the effects of Rb doping on the Rb-formamidinium-methylammonium-PbI3 based perovskite photodetectors. Rb was incorporated in the perovskite films with different contents, and the corresponding photo-response properties were studied. Doping of few Rb (~2.5%) was found to greatly increase the [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of Rb doping on the Rb-formamidinium-methylammonium-PbI3 based perovskite photodetectors. Rb was incorporated in the perovskite films with different contents, and the corresponding photo-response properties were studied. Doping of few Rb (~2.5%) was found to greatly increase the grain size and the absorbance of the perovskite. However, when the Rb content was greater than 2.5%, clustering of the Rb-rich phases emerged, the band gap decreased, and additional absorption band edge was found. The excess Rb-rich phases were the main cause that degraded the performance of the photodetectors. By space charge limit current analyses, the Rb was found to passivate the defects in the perovskite, lowering the leakage current and reducing the trap densities of carriers. This fact was used to explain the increase in the detectivity. To clarify the effect of Rb, the photovoltaic properties were measured. Similarly, h perovskite with 2.5% Rb doping increased the short-circuit current, revealing the decline of the internal defects. The 2.5% Rb doped photodetector showed the best performance with responsivity of 0.28 AW−1 and ~50% quantum efficiency. Detectivity as high as 4.6 × 1011 Jones was obtained, owing to the improved crystallinity and reduced defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stable Perovskite Materials: From Synthesis to Optoelectronic Devices)
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Article
Effects of Mg Doping at Different Positions in Li-Rich Mn-Based Cathode Material on Electrochemical Performance
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010156 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1519
Abstract
Li-rich Mn-based layered oxides are among the most promising cathode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries, yet they suffer from capacity fading and voltage decay during cycling. The electrochemical performance of the material can be improved by doping with Mg. However, the effect of [...] Read more.
Li-rich Mn-based layered oxides are among the most promising cathode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries, yet they suffer from capacity fading and voltage decay during cycling. The electrochemical performance of the material can be improved by doping with Mg. However, the effect of Mg doping at different positions (lithium or transition metals) remains unclear. Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 (LR) was synthesized by coprecipitation followed by a solid-state reaction. The coprecipitation stage was used to introduce Mg in TM layers (sample LR-Mg), and the solid-state reaction (st) was used to dope Mg in Li layers (LR-Mg(st)). The presence of magnesium at different positions was confirmed by XRD, XPS, and electrochemical studies. The investigations have shown that the introduction of Mg in TM layers is preferable in terms of the electrochemical performance. The sample doped with Mg at the TM positions shows better cyclability and higher discharge capacity than the undoped sample. The poor electrochemical properties of the sample doped with Mg at Li positions are due to the kinetic hindrance of oxidation of the manganese-containing species formed after activation of the Li2MnO3 component of the composite oxide. The oxide LR-Mg(st) demonstrates the lowest lithium-ion diffusion coefficient and the greatest polarization resistance compared to LR and LR-Mg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Catalysis)
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Review
The Impact of the Surface Modification on Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Nanocomposite Properties
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010155 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
This review provides an analysis of the theoretical methods to study the effects of surface modification on structural properties of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO), mainly by organic compounds. The computational data are compared with experimental data such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic [...] Read more.
This review provides an analysis of the theoretical methods to study the effects of surface modification on structural properties of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO), mainly by organic compounds. The computational data are compared with experimental data such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data with the focus on optoelectronic and electrocatalytic properties of the surface to investigate potential relations of these properties and applications of ITO in fields such as biosensing and electronic device fabrication. Our analysis shows that the change in optoelectronic properties of the surface is mainly due to functionalizing the surface with organic molecules and that the electrocatalytic properties vary as a function of size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanostructured Semiconductors and Heterojunctions)
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Article
Solution-Processed Smooth Copper Thiocyanate Layer with Improved Hole Injection Ability for the Fabrication of Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010154 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Copper thiocyanate (CuSCN) has been gradually utilized as the hole injection layer (HIL) within optoelectronic devices, owing to its high transparency in the visible range, moderate hole mobility, and desirable environmental stability. In this research, we demonstrate quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) with [...] Read more.
Copper thiocyanate (CuSCN) has been gradually utilized as the hole injection layer (HIL) within optoelectronic devices, owing to its high transparency in the visible range, moderate hole mobility, and desirable environmental stability. In this research, we demonstrate quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) with high brightness and current efficiency by doping 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) in CuSCN as the HIL. The experimental results indicated a smoother surface of CuSCN upon F4TCNQ doping. The augmentation in hole mobility of CuSCN and carrier injection to reach balanced charge transport in QLEDs were confirmed. A maximum brightness of 169,230 cd m−2 and a current efficiency of 35.1 cd A−1 from the optimized device were received by adding 0.02 wt% of F4TCNQ in CuSCN, revealing promising use in light-emitting applications. Full article
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Article
Enhancement of Luminous Intensity Emission from Incoherent LED Light Sources within the Detection Angle of 10° Using Metalenses
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010153 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
In this work, we present metalenses (MLs) designed to enhance the luminous intensity of incoherent light-emitting diodes (LEDs) within the detection angles of 0° and 10°. The detection angle of 0° refers to the center of the LED. Because the light emitted from [...] Read more.
In this work, we present metalenses (MLs) designed to enhance the luminous intensity of incoherent light-emitting diodes (LEDs) within the detection angles of 0° and 10°. The detection angle of 0° refers to the center of the LED. Because the light emitted from LEDs is incoherent and expressed as a surface light source, they are numerically described as a set of point sources and calculated using incoherent summation. The titanium dioxide (TiO2) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) nanohole meta-atoms are designed; however, the full 2π phase coverage is not reached. Nevertheless, because the phase modulation at the edge of the ML is important, an ML is successfully designed. The typical phase profile of the ML enhances the luminous intensity at the center, and the phase profile is modified to increase the luminous intensity in the target detection angle region. Far field simulations are conducted to calculate the luminous intensity after 25 m of propagation. We demonstrate an enhancement of the luminous intensity at the center by 8551% and 2115% using TiO2 and a-Si MLs, respectively. Meanwhile, the TiO2 and a-Si MLs with the modified phase profiles enhance the luminous intensity within the detection angle of 10° by 263% and 30%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metalens: Applications and Manufacturing)
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Article
Tailoring the Nonlinear Optical Response of Some Graphene Derivatives by Ultraviolet (UV) Irradiation
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010152 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
In the present work the impact of in situ photoreduction, by means of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, on the nonlinear optical response (NLO) of some graphene oxide (GO), fluorographene (GF), hydrogenated fluorographene (GFH) and graphene (G) dispersions is studied. In situ UV photoreduction allowed [...] Read more.
In the present work the impact of in situ photoreduction, by means of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, on the nonlinear optical response (NLO) of some graphene oxide (GO), fluorographene (GF), hydrogenated fluorographene (GFH) and graphene (G) dispersions is studied. In situ UV photoreduction allowed for the extended modification of the degree of functionalization (i.e., oxidization, fluorination and hydrogenation), leading to the effective tuning of the corresponding sp2/sp3 hybridization ratios. The nonlinear optical properties of the studied samples prior to and after UV irradiation were determined by means of the Z-scan technique using visible (532 nm), 4 ns laser excitation, and were found to change significantly. More specifically, while GO’s nonlinear optical response increases with irradiation time, GF and GFH present a monotonic decrease. The graphene dispersions’ nonlinear optical response remains unaffected after prolonged UV irradiation for more than an hour. The present findings demonstrate that UV photoreduction can be an effective and simple strategy for tuning the nonlinear optical response of these graphene derivatives in a controllable way, resulting in derivatives with custom-made responses, thus more suitable for different photonic and optoelectronic applications. Full article
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Article
Improved One- and Multiple-Photon Excited Photoluminescence from Cd2+-Doped CsPbBr3 Perovskite NCs
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010151 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) attract much attention for light-emitting applications due to their exceptional optical properties. More recently, perovskite NCs have begun to be considered a promising material for nonlinear optical applications. Numerous strategies have recently been developed to improve the properties [...] Read more.
Metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) attract much attention for light-emitting applications due to their exceptional optical properties. More recently, perovskite NCs have begun to be considered a promising material for nonlinear optical applications. Numerous strategies have recently been developed to improve the properties of metal halide perovskite NCs. Among them, B-site doping is one of the most promising ways to enhance their brightness and stability. However, there is a lack of study of the influence of B-site doping on the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic perovskite NCs. Here, we demonstrate that Cd2+ doping simultaneously improves both the linear (higher photoluminescence quantum yield, larger exciton binding energy, reduced trap states density, and faster radiative recombination) and nonlinear (higher two- and three-photon absorption cross-sections) optical properties of CsPbBr3 NCs. Cd2+ doping results in a two-photon absorption cross-section, reaching 2.6 × 106 Goeppert-Mayer (GM), which is among the highest reported for CsPbBr3 NCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Colloidal Nanocrystals)
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Article
Mass Production of 3D Connective Graphene Networks by Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition and Its Application in High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010150 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Three−dimensional (3D) graphene with novel nano−architectures exhibits many excellent properties and is promising for energy storage and conversion applications. Herein, a new strategy based on the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FB−CVD) process was proposed to prepare 3D graphene networks (3DGNs) with various [...] Read more.
Three−dimensional (3D) graphene with novel nano−architectures exhibits many excellent properties and is promising for energy storage and conversion applications. Herein, a new strategy based on the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FB−CVD) process was proposed to prepare 3D graphene networks (3DGNs) with various nano−architectures. Specially designed SiC−[email protected] core/shell nanoparticles were prepared taking the advantages of the FB−CVD system, and 3DGNs with hierarchical nanostructures were obtained after removing the SiC core. The 3DGNs performed well as electrodes of lithium–sulfur batteries. The C–S cathode showed good rate performance at the current density of 0.1–2.0 C, and an initial discharge capacity of 790 mAhg−1 cathode was achieved at a current density of 0.2 C. The Li−S batteries showed stabilized coulombic efficiency as high as 94% and excellent cyclic performance with an ultra low cyclic fading rate of 0.075% for the initial 280 cycles at a current density of 1.0 C. The improved electrochemical performance was ascribed to the enhanced conductivity by the connective graphene networks and the weakened shuttle effect by the special outer graphene layers. Mass production of the products was realized by the continuous FB−CVD process, which opens up new perspectives for large scale application of 3D graphene materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances and Applications of 2D Materials)
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Article
Microwave-Assisted Vacuum Synthesis of TiO2 Nanocrystalline Powders in One-Pot, One-Step Procedure
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010149 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
A new method for fast and simple synthesis of crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles with photocatalytic activity was developed by carrying out a classic sol–gel reaction directly under vacuum. The use of microwaves for fast heating of the reaction medium further reduces synthesis times. [...] Read more.
A new method for fast and simple synthesis of crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles with photocatalytic activity was developed by carrying out a classic sol–gel reaction directly under vacuum. The use of microwaves for fast heating of the reaction medium further reduces synthesis times. When the solvent is completely removed by vacuum, the product is obtained in the form of a powder that can be easily redispersed in water to yield a stable nanoparticle suspension, exhibiting a comparable photocatalytic activity with respect to a commercial product. The present methodology can, therefore, be considered a process intensification procedure for the production of nanotitania. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Microwave-Assisted Technology in Nanomaterials)
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Article
Preparation and Characterization of a Glycyrrhizic Acid-Based Drug Delivery System for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010148 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
The most effective method of treating allergic diseases, aimed not at relieving symptoms, but at eliminating the cause of the disease, is allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). To reduce the risk of side effects and improve the delivery of allergens to the mucosa, various delivery [...] Read more.
The most effective method of treating allergic diseases, aimed not at relieving symptoms, but at eliminating the cause of the disease, is allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). To reduce the risk of side effects and improve the delivery of allergens to the mucosa, various delivery systems, such as liposomes, dendrimers, nanoparticles, etc., can be used. To date, there are data on the creation of delivery systems based on glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and its derivatives, but such a delivery system has not been used for allergen-specific therapy until now. It is also known that GA has an anti-inflammatory effect, shifts the balance towards Th1, and increases the number of Treg cells, meaning that it could potentially enhance the anti-allergic effect of AIT and reduce the risk of unwanted side effects. Thus, the study of the immunomodulatory effect of the supramolecular complexes (micelles) of GA with extracts of allergens holds promise for the development of new drugs for AIT. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Metal-Based Nanoparticles and Nanowires: Solubility, Reactivity, Bioavailability and Cellular Toxicity
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010147 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
While the toxicity of metal-based nanoparticles (NP) has been investigated in an increasing number of studies, little is known about metal-based fibrous materials, so-called nanowires (NWs). Within the present study, the physico-chemical properties of particulate and fibrous nanomaterials based on Cu, CuO, Ni, [...] Read more.
While the toxicity of metal-based nanoparticles (NP) has been investigated in an increasing number of studies, little is known about metal-based fibrous materials, so-called nanowires (NWs). Within the present study, the physico-chemical properties of particulate and fibrous nanomaterials based on Cu, CuO, Ni, and Ag as well as TiO2 and CeO2 NP were characterized and compared with respect to abiotic metal ion release in different physiologically relevant media as well as acellular reactivity. While none of the materials was soluble at neutral pH in artificial alveolar fluid (AAF), Cu, CuO, and Ni-based materials displayed distinct dissolution under the acidic conditions found in artificial lysosomal fluids (ALF and PSF). Subsequently, four different cell lines were applied to compare cytotoxicity as well as intracellular metal ion release in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Both cytotoxicity and bioavailability reflected the acellular dissolution rates in physiological lysosomal media (pH 4.5); only Ag-based materials showed no or very low acellular solubility, but pronounced intracellular bioavailability and cytotoxicity, leading to particularly high concentrations in the nucleus. In conclusion, in spite of some quantitative differences, the intracellular bioavailability as well as toxicity is mostly driven by the respective metal and is less modulated by the shape of the respective NP or NW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials Toxicity)
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