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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 11, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 9 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Myristyltrimethylammonium Bromide (MYTAB) as a Cationic Surface Agent to Inhibit Streptococcus mutans Grown over Dental Resins: An In Vitro Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11010009 - 15 Feb 2020
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Abstract
This in vitro study evaluated the effect of myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MYTAB) on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of an experimental dental resin. The resin was formulated with dental dimetacrylate monomers and a photoinitiator/co-initiator system. MYTAB was added at 0.5 (G0.5%), [...] Read more.
This in vitro study evaluated the effect of myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MYTAB) on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of an experimental dental resin. The resin was formulated with dental dimetacrylate monomers and a photoinitiator/co-initiator system. MYTAB was added at 0.5 (G0.5%), 1 (G1%), and 2 (G2%) wt %, and one group remained without MYTAB and was used as the control (GCtrl). The resins were analyzed for the polymerization kinetics, degree of conversion, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, and cytotoxicity against human keratinocytes. Changes in the polymerization kinetics profiling were observed, and the degree of conversion ranged from 57.36% (±2.50%) for G2% to 61.88% (±1.91%) for G0.5%, without a statistically significant difference among groups (p > 0.05). The UTS values ranged from 32.85 (±6.08) MPa for G0.5% to 35.12 (±5.74) MPa for GCtrl (p > 0.05). MYTAB groups showed antibacterial activity against biofilm formation from 0.5 wt % (p < 0.05) and against planktonic bacteria from 1 wt % (p < 0.05). The higher the MYTAB concentration, the higher the cytotoxic effect, without differences between GCtrl e G0.5% (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the addition of 0.5 wt % of MYTAB did not alter the physical and chemical properties of the dental resin and provided antibacterial activity without cytotoxic effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Interactions with Dental and Medical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Study of Morphological Features of Stem Cells onto Photopatterned Azopolymer Films
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11010008 - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
In the last decade, the use of photolithography for the fabrication of structured substrates with controlled morphological patterns that are able to interact with cells at micrometric and nanometric size scales is strongly growing. A promising simple and versatile microfabrication method is based [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the use of photolithography for the fabrication of structured substrates with controlled morphological patterns that are able to interact with cells at micrometric and nanometric size scales is strongly growing. A promising simple and versatile microfabrication method is based on the physical mass transport induced by visible light in photosensitive azobenzene-containing polymers (or azopolymers). Such light-driven material transport produces a modulation of the surface of the azopolymer film, whose geometry is controlled by the intensity and the polarization distributions of the irradiated light. Herein, two anisotropic structured azopolymer films have been used as substrates to evaluate the effects of topological signals on the in vitro response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The light-induced substrate patterns consist of parallel microgrooves, which are produced in a spatially confined or over large-scale areas of the samples, respectively. The analysis of confocal optical images of the in vitro hMSC cells grown on the patterned films offered relevant information about cell morphology—i.e., nuclei deformation and actin filaments elongation—in relation to the geometry and the spatial extent of the structured area of substrates. The results, together with the possibility of simple, versatile, and cost-effective light-induced structuration of azopolymers, promise the successful use of these materials as anisotropic platforms to study the cell guidance mechanisms governing in vitro tissue formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers and Composites for Medical Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Cerium Dioxide Particles to Tune Radiopacity of Dental Adhesives: Microstructural and Physico-Chemical Evaluation
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11010007 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 159
Abstract
The insufficient radiopacity of dental adhesives applied under composite restorations makes the radiographic diagnosis of recurrent caries challenging. Consequently, the misdiagnosis may lead to unnecessary replacement of restorations. The aims of this study were to formulate experimental dental adhesives containing cerium dioxide (CeO [...] Read more.
The insufficient radiopacity of dental adhesives applied under composite restorations makes the radiographic diagnosis of recurrent caries challenging. Consequently, the misdiagnosis may lead to unnecessary replacement of restorations. The aims of this study were to formulate experimental dental adhesives containing cerium dioxide (CeO2) and investigate the effects of different loadings of CeO2 on their radiopacity and degree of conversion for the first time. CeO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction for particle size analysis. Experimental dental adhesives were formulated with CeO2 as the inorganic filler with loadings ranging from 0.36 to 5.76 vol.%. The unfilled adhesive was used as a control. The studied adhesives were evaluated for dispersion of CeO2 in the polymerized samples, degree of conversion, and radiopacity. CeO2 presented a monoclinic crystalline phase, peaks related to Ce-O bonding, and an average particle size of around 16 µm. CeO2 was dispersed in the adhesive, and the addition of these particles increased the adhesives’ radiopacity (p < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the degree of conversion with CeO2 loadings higher than 1.44 vol.%. However, all materials showed a similar degree of conversion in comparison to commercially available adhesives. CeO2 particles were investigated for the first time as a promising compound to improve the radiopacity of the dental adhesives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Interactions with Dental and Medical Materials)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Functional Biomaterials in 2019
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11010006 - 20 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
In Vitro Evaluation of the Influence of Substrate Mechanics on Matrix-Assisted Human Chondrocyte Transplantation
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11010005 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Matrix-assisted chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) is of great interest for the treatment of patients with cartilage lesions. However, the roles of the matrix properties in modulating cartilage tissue integration during MACT recovery have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
Matrix-assisted chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) is of great interest for the treatment of patients with cartilage lesions. However, the roles of the matrix properties in modulating cartilage tissue integration during MACT recovery have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to uncover the effects of substrate mechanics on the integration of implanted chondrocyte-laden hydrogels with native cartilage tissues. To this end, agarose hydrogels with Young’s moduli ranging from 0.49 kPa (0.5%, w/v) to 23.08 kPa (10%) were prepared and incorporated into an in vitro human cartilage explant model. The hydrogel-cartilage composites were cultivated for up to 12 weeks and harvested for evaluation via scanning electron microscopy, histology, and a push-through test. Our results demonstrated that integration strength at the hydrogel-cartilage interface in the 1.0% (0.93 kPa) and 2.5% (3.30 kPa) agarose groups significantly increased over time, whereas hydrogels with higher stiffness (>8.78 kPa) led to poor integration with articular cartilage. Extensive sprouting of extracellular matrix in the interfacial regions was only observed in the 0.5% to 2.5% agarose groups. Collectively, our findings suggest that while neocartilage development and its integration with native cartilage are modulated by substrate elasticity, an optimal Young’s modulus (3.30 kPa) possessed by agarose hydrogels is identified such that superior quality of tissue integration is achieved without compromising tissue properties of implanted constructs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Materials for Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Fabrication of Polymeric Microparticles by Electrospray: The Impact of Experimental Parameters
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11010004 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Microparticles (MPs) with controlled morphologies and sizes have been investigated by several researchers due to their importance in pharmaceutical, ceramic, cosmetic, and food industries to just name a few. In particular, the electrospray (ES) technique has been shown to be a viable alternative [...] Read more.
Microparticles (MPs) with controlled morphologies and sizes have been investigated by several researchers due to their importance in pharmaceutical, ceramic, cosmetic, and food industries to just name a few. In particular, the electrospray (ES) technique has been shown to be a viable alternative for the development of single particles with different dimensions, multiple layers, and varied morphologies. In order to adjust these properties, it is necessary to optimize different experimental parameters, such as polymer solvent, voltage, flow rate (FR), type of collectors, and distance between the collector and needle tip, which will all be highlighted in this review. Moreover, the influence and contributions of each of these parameters on the design and fabrication of polymeric MPs are described. In addition, the most common configurations of ES systems for this purpose are discussed, for instance, the main configuration of an ES system with monoaxial, coaxial, triaxial, and multi-capillary delivery. Finally, the main types of collectors employed, types of synthesized MPs and their applications specifically in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields will be emphasized. To date, ES is a promising and versatile technology with numerous excellent applications in the pharmaceutical and biomaterials field and such MPs generated should be employed for the improved treatment of cancer, healing of bone, and other persistent medical problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Photoaging Effect of Plant Extract Fermented with Lactobacillus buchneri on CCD-986sk Fibroblasts and HaCaT Keratinocytes
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11010003 - 09 Jan 2020
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) exposure triggers the abnormal production of reactive oxygen (ROS) species and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that are responsible for photoaging. Probiotics are widely used in healthcare and for immune enhancement. One probiotic, Lactobacillus buchneri is found in Kimchi. This [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV) exposure triggers the abnormal production of reactive oxygen (ROS) species and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that are responsible for photoaging. Probiotics are widely used in healthcare and for immune enhancement. One probiotic, Lactobacillus buchneri is found in Kimchi. This study was aimed at assessing the anti-photoaging effect of plant extracts fermented with L. buchneri (PELB) to develop functional cosmetics. We investigated the anti-photoaging effect of PELB in a UVB-induced photoaging in vitro model and selected effective extracts using the elastase inhibition assay, ELISA for Type I procollagen and collagenase-1, and quantitative real time PCR. Normal human dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes were pre-treated with PELB and exposed to UVB. We found that PELB decreased elastase activity and increased type I collagen expression in a UVB-induced photoaging in vitro model. In addition, PELB greatly reduced collagenase activity and MMP mRNA levels in a UVB-induced photoaging in vitro model. Furthermore, PELB promoted the expression of moisture factor and anti-oxidant enzymes in a UVB-induced photoaging in vitro model. These results indicated that the PELB could be potential candidates for the protective effects against UVB-induced photoaging. Overall, these results suggest that PELB might be useful natural components of cosmetic products. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Are Fe-Based Stenting Materials Biocompatible? A Critical Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11010002 - 21 Dec 2019
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Fe-based materials have increasingly been considered for the development of biodegradable cardiovascular stents. A wide range of in vitro and in vivo studies should be done to fully evaluate their biocompatibility. In this review, we summarized and analyzed the findings and the methodologies [...] Read more.
Fe-based materials have increasingly been considered for the development of biodegradable cardiovascular stents. A wide range of in vitro and in vivo studies should be done to fully evaluate their biocompatibility. In this review, we summarized and analyzed the findings and the methodologies used to assess the biocompatibility of Fe materials. The majority of investigators drew conclusions about in vitro Fe toxicity based on indirect contact results. The setup applied in these tests seems to overlook the possible effects of Fe corrosion and does not allow for understanding of the complexity of released chemical forms and their possible impact on tissue. It is in particular important to ensure that test setups or interpretations of in vitro results do not hide some important mechanisms, leading to inappropriate subsequent in vivo experiments. On the other hand, the sample size of existing in vivo implantations is often limited, and effects such as local toxicity or endothelial function are not deeply scrutinized. The main advantages and limitations of in vitro design strategies applied in the development of Fe-based alloys and the correlation with in vivo studies are discussed. It is evident from this literature review that we are not yet ready to define an Fe-based material as safe or biocompatible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Antimicrobial Properties of Novel Dental Polymers Containing Quaternary Ammonium and Trimethoxysilyl Functionalities
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The aims of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical and mechanical properties, antimicrobial (AM) functionality, and cytotoxic potential of novel dental polymers containing quaternary ammonium and trimethoxysilyl functionalities (e.g., N-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propan-1-aminium iodide (AMsil1) and N-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-N, [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical and mechanical properties, antimicrobial (AM) functionality, and cytotoxic potential of novel dental polymers containing quaternary ammonium and trimethoxysilyl functionalities (e.g., N-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propan-1-aminium iodide (AMsil1) and N-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-11-(trimethoxysilyl)undecan-1-aminium bromide (AMsil2)). AMsil1 or AMsil2 were incorporated into light-cured (camphorquinone + ethyl-4-N,N-dimethylamino benzoate) urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)/polyethylene glycol-extended UDMA/ethyl 2-(hydroxymethyl)acrylate (EHMA) resins (hereafter, UPE resin) at 10 or 20 mass %. Cytotoxic potential was assessed by measuring viability and metabolic activity of immortalized mouse connective tissue and human gingival fibroblasts in direct contact with monomers. AMsil–UPE resins were evaluated for wettability by contact angle measurements and degree of vinyl conversion (DVC) by near infra-red spectroscopy analyses. Mechanical property evaluations entailed flexural strength (FS) and elastic modulus (E) testing of copolymer specimens. The AM properties were assessed using Streptococcus mutans (planktonic and biofilm forms) and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm. Neither AMsil exhibited significant toxicity in direct contact with cells at biologically relevant concentrations. Addition of AMsils made the UPE resin more hydrophilic. DVC values for the AMsil–UPE copolymers were 2–31% lower than that attained in the UPE resin control. The mechanical properties (FS and E) of AMsil–UPE specimens were reduced (11–57%) compared to the control. Compared to UPE resin, AMsil1–UPE and AMsil2–UPE (10% mass) copolymers reduced S. mutans biofilm 4.7- and 1.7-fold, respectively (p ≤ 0.005). Although not statistically different, P. gingivalis biofilm biomass on AMsil1–UPE and AM AMsil2–UPE copolymer disks were lower (71% and 85%, respectively) than that observed with a commercial AM dental material. In conclusion, the AM function of new monomers is not inundated by their toxicity towards cells. Despite the reduction in mechanical properties of the AMsil–UPE copolymers, AMsil2 is a good candidate for incorporation into multifunctional composites due to the favorable overall hydrophilicity of the resins and the satisfactory DVC values attained upon light polymerization of AMsil-containing UDMA/PEG-U/EHMA copolymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Interactions with Dental and Medical Materials)
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