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Adm. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Recent social changes have brought new challenges to contemporary organizations, such as appropriately managing the work–family/family–work dyad and promoting task performance. We studied the relationship between conflict (work–family and family–work) and task performance moderated by well-being. Work–family–work conflict negatively affected task performance. Work–family conflict established a negative relationship with well-being. Well-being improved performance and moderated the relationship between conflict and task performance. Organizations should provide employees with situations that promote their well-being, especially in Portugal with its relationship culture, which means that considerable additional time should be devoted to personal and family matters for people to fit in and be accepted harmoniously. View this paper
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13 pages, 1414 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Occupational Stress, Mental Health and COVID-19-Related Stress: Mediation Analysis Results
by Giulia Foti, Giorgia Bondanini, Georgia Libera Finstad, Federico Alessio and Gabriele Giorgi
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040116 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3116
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic led to serious psychological consequences that negatively affect workers’ mental health, leading to post-traumatic symptoms. In this scenario, employees may be exposed to multiple stressors that ultimately drain their resources. Drawing on the Conservation of Resources Theory (COR) and the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic led to serious psychological consequences that negatively affect workers’ mental health, leading to post-traumatic symptoms. In this scenario, employees may be exposed to multiple stressors that ultimately drain their resources. Drawing on the Conservation of Resources Theory (COR) and the stress–strain perspective, we analyzed the relationship between different dimensions of work-related stress and psychological distress in a sample of 294 workers in the industrial sector. Specifically, we hypothesized a series of mediation models in which the dimensions of work-related stress are associated with a lower level of mental health directly and indirectly through higher levels of COVID-19-related post-traumatic symptoms. The results partially support the hypotheses, showing that COVID-19-related trauma plays a mediating role between the stress experienced and the resulting decrease in mental health, except in the case of job control and colleague support. These results will hopefully offer insights into possible organizational interventions for the promotion of workers’ well-being in the postpandemic setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19-Related Mental Health Effects in the Workplace)
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21 pages, 1296 KiB  
Article
Examining the Perspectives of Gender Development and Inequality: A Tale of Selected Asian Economies
by Wajid Ali, Ambiya and Devi Prasad Dash
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040115 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3991
Abstract
The rising concern about gender inequality among the economies in South, South-East, and Eastern Asia motivates us to study the context of gender development in terms of bridging gender disparity. To show the impact, the data has been extracted from various authentic sources- [...] Read more.
The rising concern about gender inequality among the economies in South, South-East, and Eastern Asia motivates us to study the context of gender development in terms of bridging gender disparity. To show the impact, the data has been extracted from various authentic sources- Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem), World Bank Development Indicators database, Sustainable Development Index, The Observatory of Economic Complexity and Human Development Reports of the 24 South, South-East, and East Asian economies from period 2000–2020. This research was carried out empirically using various techniques such as the Ordinary Least Squared Method (OLS), Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM), and Generalised Quantile Regression. The findings of the research show a significant impact of FDI and Economic Complexity in the reduction of gender inequality. Along with this, access to justice and electoral democracy will be providing more representation to women by reducing the gender gaps. Several policy implications have been proposed following the results of the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Development)
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20 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Conceptual Model for Assessing Logistics Maturity in Smart City Dimensions
by Glauber Ruan Barbosa Pereira, Luciana Gondim de Almeida Guimarães, Yan Cimon, Lais Karla Da Silva Barreto and Cristine Hermann Nodari
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040114 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
The advancement of new technologies and the increasingly inseparable presence of logistics systems in the daily life of cities, industries, companies, and society has been modifying how logistics processes are implemented in these environments based on technological innovations, internet, virtual businesses, mobility, and [...] Read more.
The advancement of new technologies and the increasingly inseparable presence of logistics systems in the daily life of cities, industries, companies, and society has been modifying how logistics processes are implemented in these environments based on technological innovations, internet, virtual businesses, mobility, and the use of multi-channel distribution. Together with these changes, urban centers have been connecting to the smart city concept as the understanding of this theme advances into the debate and improvements in the agendas of either public or private management. This research proposes a conceptual model for evaluating logistics maturity in the smart city dimensions. The method has a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive approach, supported by the Delphi method, which uses a questionnaire and interview as a data collection instrument with specialists on the subject. We identified that qualifying logistics in the urban environment is complex and requires a specialized look at identifying cities’ structural, geographic, regional, social, and environmental characteristics. As a social–technological contribution, the proposition of the logistics maturity assessment scale in smart city dimensions can serve as an evaluative model of logistics, which means helping in urban planning and strategic management of cities, offering smarter solutions to the realities of urban spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Strategic Management)
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24 pages, 1072 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of Eco-Innovation Capabilities among Small and Medium Enterprises in Malaysia
by Najahul Kamilah Aminy Sukri, Siti Nur ‘Atikah Zulkiffli, Nik Hazimah Nik Mat, Khatijah Omar, Mukhammad Kholid Mawardi and Nur Farah Zafira Zaidi
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040113 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
The objective of this study is to look at how Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are applying eco-innovation capabilities in order to sustain their business performance. Eco-innovation capabilities are represented in this study by five different types of practices, with the indication [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to look at how Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are applying eco-innovation capabilities in order to sustain their business performance. Eco-innovation capabilities are represented in this study by five different types of practices, with the indication of unexpected circumstances: eco-product innovation, eco-process innovation, eco-organisational innovation, eco-marketing innovation, and eco-technology innovation. The qualitative research approach was used in the study, and the content analysis was based on in-depth interviews with six top-level managers/owners of Malaysian manufacturing SMEs. According to the data, more than half of SMEs acquired eco-innovation capabilities in order to continue their business performance and thrive in the business sector, while having to confront certain hurdles due to unforeseen situations. According to the findings, eco-innovation capabilities encourage SMEs to engage in waste management, recycling or reusing resources, research and development, sustainable goods that utilize customer requests, and the use of environment management machines. Thus, the findings of this study may aid the efforts of government agencies, policymakers, and top-tier manufacturing SMEs in building an exceptional innovation platform on which SMEs may rely for assistance and support in preserving their business performance in the future and beyond. Full article
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14 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Psychological Contracts and Organizational Commitment: The Positive Impact of Relational Contracts on Call Center Operators
by Stefania Fantinelli, Teresa Galanti, Gloria Guidetti, Federica Conserva, Veronica Giffi, Michela Cortini and Teresa Di Fiore
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040112 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3615
Abstract
With the increasing complexity and dynamism of the modern work experience, the importance of the psychological contract has become increasingly clear. Organizations and researchers alike have recognized the implications of this contract for employee performance, satisfaction and well-being. However, certain work contexts can [...] Read more.
With the increasing complexity and dynamism of the modern work experience, the importance of the psychological contract has become increasingly clear. Organizations and researchers alike have recognized the implications of this contract for employee performance, satisfaction and well-being. However, certain work contexts can increase psychosocial risks, making it crucial to investigate the individual and contextual characteristics that can promote well-being and mitigate risks. In this study, we examined the impact of psychological contract types and task repetitiveness on organizational commitment among call center employees. By conducting a cross-sectional study involving 201 call center employees working in-person and administering an ad hoc questionnaire, we aimed to enrich the scientific literature on the psychological contract and its implications for the call center work environment. Our findings revealed that a transactional psychological contract has a negative impact on affective and normative commitment, potentially undermining employees’ sense of obligation and responsibility towards these organizations. To promote healthy work relationships and well-being among call center employees, we suggest the importance of a relational psychological contract. By highlighting the role of psychological contract types in organizational commitment, our study offers valuable insights for both researchers and practitioners. Full article
20 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Women Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Perspectives of an Emerging Economy
by Bardhyl Ahmetaj, Alba Demneri Kruja and Eglantina Hysa
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040111 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 9596
Abstract
Women entrepreneurship is considered by many researchers as an imminent phenomenon of the 21st century, especially for developing countries. Due to its contribution to the economy and society, recent studies have focused on investigating its motivational factors, as well as achievements. Moreover, researchers [...] Read more.
Women entrepreneurship is considered by many researchers as an imminent phenomenon of the 21st century, especially for developing countries. Due to its contribution to the economy and society, recent studies have focused on investigating its motivational factors, as well as achievements. Moreover, researchers have come up with different entrepreneurial perspectives in different societies and cultures and have called for further analysis. In this context, the main purpose of this research was to assess the driving factors, challenges, and perspectives of woman entrepreneurship in a post-communist country context. As part of the data collection process, a survey was conducted with 36 female entrepreneurs operating in the capital city of Albania, Tirana. The study results reveal that, even though there are no significant differences between the percentage of women who feel that they are being discriminated against and percentage of female entrepreneurs who perceive that their gender has positively affected the business growth, there is a positive significant difference regarding the percentages of women entrepreneurs who have been supported by their families and partners and those who have received heritage from their families. Special attention is addressed to the different factors that women experience in terms of entrepreneurial development. Another aim of this research is to provide different recommendations to be taken into consideration by the policymakers to improve the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Albania. Full article
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42 pages, 1993 KiB  
Article
When the Going Gets Tough, Leaders Use Metaphors and Storytelling: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study on Communication in the Context of COVID-19 and Ukraine Crises
by Katerina Gkalitsiou and Dimosthenis Kotsopoulos
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040110 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6384
Abstract
Metaphors and storytelling are important communication tools that play a significant role in leadership and organizational life. Leaders have used metaphors and storytelling to enhance their written and verbal communication from ancient times, since Aristotle, to the modern age. In the present research, [...] Read more.
Metaphors and storytelling are important communication tools that play a significant role in leadership and organizational life. Leaders have used metaphors and storytelling to enhance their written and verbal communication from ancient times, since Aristotle, to the modern age. In the present research, we focus on the use of storytelling and metaphors by leaders in times of crisis. We perform a qualitative analysis of the public statements and addresses of the leaders of two different countries in the context of recent worldwide crises: The prime minister of Greece during the COVID-19 health crisis and the president of Ukraine during the outbreak of the conflict with Russia in 2022. Based on existing evidence, their effectiveness in convincing their subordinates and conveying their intended meaning either nationally or internationally during the aforementioned crises has been widely recognized. Our analysis reveals that both leaders have consistently utilized metaphors and storytelling in their efforts to be more convincing and empowering. We also find that the higher the intensity of the crisis, the more pronounced the use of metaphors and stories. We accordingly provide an analysis of the types and frequency of use of the aforementioned communication tools. Reflecting on our findings, we provide specific insight for practice by leaders, discuss theoretical implications, and suggest directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leadership)
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16 pages, 1600 KiB  
Article
Green Human Resource Management and Brand Citizenship Behavior in the Hotel Industry: Mediation of Organizational Pride and Individual Green Values as a Moderator
by Ibrahim A. Elshaer, Alaa M. S. Azazz, Chokri Kooli and Sameh Fayyad
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040109 - 8 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3309
Abstract
In recent years, there has been growing awareness of the need for sustainability in the hospitality industry. The hotel industry, in particular, has been identified as a significant contributor to environmental degradation. To address this issue, hotel managers have begun to adopt green [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been growing awareness of the need for sustainability in the hospitality industry. The hotel industry, in particular, has been identified as a significant contributor to environmental degradation. To address this issue, hotel managers have begun to adopt green human resource management (GHRM) practices to promote sustainable behavior among employees. This research paper explores the relationship between GHRM practices, brand citizenship behavior (BCBs), organizational pride, and individual green values in the hotel industry. The study examines how GHRM practices influence BCB through the mediation of organizational pride and the moderation of individual green values. A survey was conducted with 328 employees from five-star hotels and the obtained data were analyzed using PLS-SEM. The results indicate that GHRM practices positively affect BCB and that this relationship is partially mediated by organizational pride. Furthermore, individual green values were found to moderate the relationship between GHRM practices and BCB, indicating that employees with stronger green values are more likely to exhibit BCB. These findings contribute to the literature on GHRM and BCB and offer insights for hotel managers on how to enhance their sustainability efforts through effective GHRM practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Human Resource Management: Challenges and a Path Forward)
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21 pages, 1435 KiB  
Article
Is Customer Satisfaction Achieved Only with Good Hotel Facilities? A Moderated Mediation Model
by Asier Baquero
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040108 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7399
Abstract
Modern hotel business models tend to split ownership of the property and its business operations. It can be assumed that a good-quality hotel facility per se can easily achieve high customer satisfaction. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of [...] Read more.
Modern hotel business models tend to split ownership of the property and its business operations. It can be assumed that a good-quality hotel facility per se can easily achieve high customer satisfaction. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of customer perception of hotel facilities on customer satisfaction by integrating the mediating effect of customer perception of the personnel and business organization and the moderating effect of the customers’ family income. Three-hundred and seventy-six surveys were completed in two four-star Spanish hotels in June 2022. The PROCESS macro for SPSS was used to test the hypothesis in a moderated mediation model, using a bootstrapping method. The results showed that customer perceptions of facilities had a positive effect on their overall satisfaction, which was partially mediated by both personnel and business organization. Family income moderated the relationship between the perception of facilities and satisfaction in such a way that it was more intense in high-income customers. Medium-income customers had a more intense relationship with the perception of the personnel and business organization, together with the hotel facilities being to their satisfaction. Therefore, not only facilities, but also personnel and business organizations are important key players for achieving customer satisfaction in hotels, and family income should also be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Global Perspective on the Hospitality and Tourism Industry)
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13 pages, 1051 KiB  
Article
Empirical Research on Early Internationalization of Firms in Sufficiently-Sized Domestic Market Country
by Saki Otomo, Shuichi Ishida and Mariko Yang-Yoshihara
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040107 - 5 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2365
Abstract
Early internationalization and success in foreign markets play an important role in both a firm’s growth and its impact on the global economy. We conducted a study on Japanese high-tech startups to investigate the factors that derive early internationalization in firms founded in [...] Read more.
Early internationalization and success in foreign markets play an important role in both a firm’s growth and its impact on the global economy. We conducted a study on Japanese high-tech startups to investigate the factors that derive early internationalization in firms founded in countries with a large domestic market, despite the absence of strong incentives to operate overseas. Quantitative data were collected from 71 startups and analyzed with PLS-SEM (Partial least squares path modeling). Our result showed that the factors we extracted from the previous studies on the internationalization process in small-size markets would also apply in countries with large domestic markets. In addition, considerations and the types of technology, which we extracted from qualitative research, verified the effect. According to our mediator analysis, an entrepreneur’s international orientation explains certain conditions related to a domestic market that affect a firms’ decision to pursue early internationalization. Our study makes contributions at multiple levels, benefiting entrepreneurs who are considering overseas expansion as well as policymakers who aim to promote early internationalization efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organizational Behavior: Strategic Management and Innovation)
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15 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
Interrelationship between Share of Women in Parliament and Gender and Development: A Critical Analysis
by Subrat Sarangi, R. K. Renin Singh and Barun Kumar Thakur
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040106 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3576
Abstract
Gender and development are among the two most important components of any economy to sustain its perpetual and sustainable economic growth in both the long as well as short run. The role of women in parliament and the interrelationship between gender and development [...] Read more.
Gender and development are among the two most important components of any economy to sustain its perpetual and sustainable economic growth in both the long as well as short run. The role of women in parliament and the interrelationship between gender and development is critically analysed. Women’s representation in parliament is the dependent variable and the predictor variables considered are gender development index, female access to assets, female labour force, and country GDP per capita. Data were collected from the UNDP human development report for the period 2015 to 2021–2022 and World Bank for 188 countries of which finally 159 were considered to develop the model based on data availability. We have used the theoretical lens of social stratification theory and gender role theory to frame the hypothesis. A random effects model-based panel regression analysis of the data indicated a strong positive relationship between gender development index and the dependent variable, but no relationship between female labour force, and access to assets. The study addresses a critical gap in policy and development of the literature on gender, politics, and development using a global data set, establishing the importance of indicators such as gender development index, and laying down the path for future research on the subject. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Development)
27 pages, 1169 KiB  
Article
Responsible Tourism and Hospitality: The Intersection of Altruistic Values, Human Emotions, and Corporate Social Responsibility
by Naveed Ahmad, Aqeel Ahmad and Irfan Siddique
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040105 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2834
Abstract
The burgeoning tourism and hospitality industry is plagued by numerous challenges that pose significant hurdles to its long-term success and sustainability. These challenges encompass a range of factors, including fierce competitive convergence, rapid obsolescence of innovative strategies, and the relentless pursuit of ever-greater [...] Read more.
The burgeoning tourism and hospitality industry is plagued by numerous challenges that pose significant hurdles to its long-term success and sustainability. These challenges encompass a range of factors, including fierce competitive convergence, rapid obsolescence of innovative strategies, and the relentless pursuit of ever-greater competitiveness in the marketplace. In such a service-oriented industry, where customer satisfaction is the sine qua non of success, the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in shaping consumer attitudes and behavior cannot be overstated. Despite this, the empirical evidence on the impact of CSR on brand advocacy behavior among hospitality consumers (BADB) remains somewhat underdeveloped and incomplete. In light of this knowledge gap, the basic objective of our study is to examine the complex interplay between CSR and BADB in the context of a developing country’s hospitality sector. The authors place a particular emphasis on the mediating role of consumer emotions and the moderating influence of altruistic values (ALVS) in shaping this relationship. Through rigorous empirical analysis, the authors demonstrate that CSR positively and significantly impacts BADB, with consumer engagement (CENG) serving as a crucial mediating variable that facilitates this relationship. These findings have significant theoretical and practical implications for the tourism and hospitality industry. Specifically, the authors show that the judicious deployment of CSR initiatives in a hospitality context can foster a positive behavioral psychology among consumers and, in turn, enhance their advocacy intentions towards the brand. This underscores the importance of carefully crafted CSR strategies to secure a competitive advantage in this dynamic and rapidly evolving sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Global Perspective on the Hospitality and Tourism Industry)
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18 pages, 2015 KiB  
Article
Social Entrepreneurship, Complex Thinking, and Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy: Correlational Study in a Sample of Mexican Students
by José Carlos Vázquez-Parra, Patricia Esther Alonso-Galicia, Marco Cruz-Sandoval, Paloma Suárez-Brito and Martina Carlos-Arroyo
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040104 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1966
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study conducted on a sample population of students attending a technological university in western Mexico. The development of the entrepreneurial self-efficacy competency was evaluated within a process of ideation of social entrepreneurship projects to develop social [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a study conducted on a sample population of students attending a technological university in western Mexico. The development of the entrepreneurial self-efficacy competency was evaluated within a process of ideation of social entrepreneurship projects to develop social entrepreneurship and complex thinking competencies. A multivariate descriptive analysis was implemented to demonstrate possible statistically significant correlations between the competencies of social entrepreneurship, complex thinking, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. The results confirm the correlations between the competencies of social entrepreneurship, complex thinking, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy, concluding that there is statistically significant information to indicate that the complex thinking competency positively impacts not only the process of generating social entrepreneurship projects but also the scaling of entrepreneurs’ perceptions about their capabilities at the time of entrepreneurship. At a practical level, this study presents results that argue for the need to develop complex thinking in students in social entrepreneurship programs, both in universities and in organizations that promote entrepreneurship. It confirms that complex thinking is a valuable competency in the ideation and generation of entrepreneurial proposals. Full article
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23 pages, 405 KiB  
Article
Distance Learning of Financial Accounting: Mature Undergraduate Students’ Perceptions
by Isabel Maldonado, Ana Paula Silva, Miguel Magalhães, Carlos Pinho, Manuel Sousa Pereira and Lígia Torre
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040103 - 2 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
This research sought to explore self-reported satisfaction levels of mature students enrolled in the virtual financial accounting course of the first online-only bachelor’s degree in Portugal. While doing so, it attempted to generate understanding of which factors may affect undergraduate mature students’ engagement—herein [...] Read more.
This research sought to explore self-reported satisfaction levels of mature students enrolled in the virtual financial accounting course of the first online-only bachelor’s degree in Portugal. While doing so, it attempted to generate understanding of which factors may affect undergraduate mature students’ engagement—herein measured in terms of overall satisfaction—with online learning, particularly, of financial accounting. Thereby, this research addresses several research gaps. First, unlike most recent empirical research, it provides evidence from a post-pandemic period, in 2022. Second, responding to calls for further education research in different contexts, Portugal poses a highly relevant, unexplored research setting since it was only in 2019 that the Portuguese government approved a legal regime to frame distance education at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Third, this research focuses on the overlooked, and yet growing, population of adult mature students. The research evidence emerges from 32 valid responses to a structured electronic questionnaire circulated to students at the end of a financial accounting module (in July 2022). Satisfaction rates from students’ own perspectives were derived in terms of (i) overall satisfaction, (ii) learning outcomes, (iii) e-learning process, and (iv) pedagogical practices adopted. The assessment of satisfaction levels was determined through Likert-type items with responses ranging from a minimum score of 1 to the highest score of 5. Data gathered were subject to quantitative analysis: descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, statistical tests, principal component analysis, and linear regression. High levels of satisfaction with distance education were uncovered. We found that pedagogical practices constitute the dimension that contributed the least (though, still importantly) to overall satisfaction as compared with learning outcomes and e-learning process. The results of this research offer the potential to contribute to the implementation of training offerings of online courses at other Portuguese HEIs as well as abroad. Full article
10 pages, 416 KiB  
Concept Paper
Islamic Social Funds to Foster Yunusian Social Business and Conventional Social Enterprises
by Reazul Islam, Mustaffa Omar and Mahfuzur Rahman
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040102 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2323
Abstract
This paper proposes an integrated, comprehensive financial model that can provide startup capital to socially committed business ventures, such as social enterprises and Yunus Social Business (YSB), by using Islamic social funds (ISFs), Zakat (almsgiving), Waqf (endowments), Sadaqat (charity), and Qard Hasan (interest-free [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an integrated, comprehensive financial model that can provide startup capital to socially committed business ventures, such as social enterprises and Yunus Social Business (YSB), by using Islamic social funds (ISFs), Zakat (almsgiving), Waqf (endowments), Sadaqat (charity), and Qard Hasan (interest-free benevolent loans). The literature review method was adopted to explain this model’s architecture, applications, implications, and viability. On the basis of logical reasoning, it concludes that ISFs can yield greater social wellbeing if utilised in SEs and YSB than in unconditional charity because both business models work for social betterment in entrepreneurial ways while remaining operationally self-reliant and economically sustainable. Additionally, ISFs can complement Yunus Social Business’s zero-return investment approach to make it more robust towards social contributions. The implementation of the model orchestrated in this paper would enhance societal business practices and, hence, scale up social wellbeing while helping rejuvenate pandemic-stricken economies. It paves the way for new research too. Full article
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17 pages, 1182 KiB  
Article
Role of Organizational Justice in Linking Leadership Styles and Academics’ Performance in Higher Education
by Irfan Ullah Khan, Gerald Goh Guan Gan, Mohammad Tariqul Islam Khan and Naveed Saif
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040101 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
Leadership is vital for all organizations, including higher education institutions (HEIs). Based on this, this study aimed to examine department heads’ leadership styles concerning employee performance as well as nurturing the culture of justice. For this purpose, the leadership styles (transformational and transactional [...] Read more.
Leadership is vital for all organizations, including higher education institutions (HEIs). Based on this, this study aimed to examine department heads’ leadership styles concerning employee performance as well as nurturing the culture of justice. For this purpose, the leadership styles (transformational and transactional leadership) relationship is examined with employee performance through the mediating role of organizational justice. Data were collected from academicians working in the HEIs located in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan using a convenience sampling approach to obtain the targeted sample. Data were analyzed through a symmetric approach and after conducting confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using AMOS, mediation models were assessed by following the Hayes process model procedure. The results indicate that organizational justice partially mediates the direct relationship between transformational and transactional leadership with employee performance in the HEIs sector of Pakistan. It is recommended that institutions need to take action to ensure that just and fair transformational leadership behavior is practiced to attain the desired employee performance in the HEIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leadership in the Public Sector: From an International Perspective)
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26 pages, 856 KiB  
Article
Defining the Climate for Inclusiveness and Multiculturalism: Linking to Context
by John Barton Cunningham
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040100 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3856
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to develop a better understanding of how to define a positive climate for inclusiveness that recognizes the context and social environment of participants. In order to study employees working with Indigenous people and minorities in four organizations, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a better understanding of how to define a positive climate for inclusiveness that recognizes the context and social environment of participants. In order to study employees working with Indigenous people and minorities in four organizations, we used a grounded research approach to define what an inclusive environment might look like. The interview questions gathered examples of experiences which employees valued because they felt more included and not excluded from people they worked with. The experiences fell into four categories, as follows: (i) leadership engaged in supporting inclusiveness within the organization; (ii) leadership engaged in seeking inclusiveness within the community; (iii) being involved in multicultural practices within the organization and community; and (iv) participating in initiatives which encourage engagement and involvement. This paper’s conceptualization of a climate of inclusion is different from other studies, possibly because of the unique context in which service organizations are placed, as such organizations typically work with Indigenous people and minorities. Although we are especially mindful of the danger of generalizing our findings without further research, the scope of this paper might provide some direction for future studies of other organizations. We suggest that there is also a need to be open to methods which allow individuals and groups to define a climate of inclusivity that is relevant to their context; this is because context may be essential for recognizing certain groups of people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Ways To Address Diversity Issues)
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13 pages, 533 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Changes in the Business Environment, Innovation Strategy Selection and Firm’s Performance: Empirical Evidence from Slovenia
by Dušan Gošnik, Klemen Kavčič, Maja Meško and Franko Milost
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040099 - 27 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2575
Abstract
This article studies the relationship between changes in the external business environment, a firm’s innovation strategies towards customers, and performance. A model of relations was developed, as well as a hypothesis: “The use of the differentiation strategy has a positive effect on firm’s [...] Read more.
This article studies the relationship between changes in the external business environment, a firm’s innovation strategies towards customers, and performance. A model of relations was developed, as well as a hypothesis: “The use of the differentiation strategy has a positive effect on firm’s performance. SMEs that use the differentiation strategy achieve better performance than those who use one of the other strategies (low-cost strategy, focus strategy, or an overtaking strategy)”. The empirical study includes a population of 3007 SMEs and a sample of 163 SMEs. The firm’s performance was measured using financial measures such as return on equity (ROE) and return on assets (ROA), operational measures such as economic value added (EVA) and comprehensive measures such as credit rating (CR). The structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was used for data analysis. Based on the results, we can confirm that changes in a firm’s external environment affect the firm’s strategy towards customers, which influences the performance of a firm. The empirical study confirmed that firms using the differentiation strategy indicate higher performances (ROA, EVA, and CR) than those using any other strategy. Results also show that high-performance SMEs incorporate customer perspectives into strategy selection. The most significant influence on the firm’s selection of the differentiation strategy was found in cases when the firm cooperates with new customers with whom it has not collaborated thus far. SMEs that use a low-cost strategy, focus strategy, or overtaking strategy are less successful than companies that use a differentiation strategy. The developed model of relations in this research has special meaning for researchers and managers in the field of strategic management, strategy selection and implementation, as well as performance of SMEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behavior)
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16 pages, 989 KiB  
Article
An Explorative Factor Analysis of Competency Mapping for IT Professionals
by Jaskiran Kaur, Geetika Madaan, Sayeeduzzafar Qazi and Pretty Bhalla
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040098 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Purpose: The current research aimed to evaluate IT personnel proficiency levels at various management levels. This study aimed to learn how competency mapping is used to analyse the blend of skills among various people to create the most cohesive team and deliver higher-quality [...] Read more.
Purpose: The current research aimed to evaluate IT personnel proficiency levels at various management levels. This study aimed to learn how competency mapping is used to analyse the blend of skills among various people to create the most cohesive team and deliver higher-quality work. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 548 IT workers participated in the research, which looked at how competence mapping influences various HR processes, including talent acquisition, induction, training and development, assessment, etc. This research used reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, linear regression, and the t-test to reach its results. Findings: This research made use of reliability statistics, regression analysis, correlation analysis, ANOVA analysis, the t-test, and descriptive statistics to reach its results. The research discovered that medium-level managers’ talents were greater than anticipated when comparing lower and higher levels of management. Additionally, there were significant differences among employees at different levels of management. Communication and training may help reduce competence gaps. Practical implications: In comparing other levels of management, this article may help HR practitioners identify which abilities are more relevant to a certain management level. It can provide more insight into using a competence mapping approach to improve performance. Originality/value: The outputs of the competency mapping approach are essential because they can help individuals and businesses gain a better comprehension of the knowledge, abilities, and skills required to accomplish a job. Full article
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17 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
A Decision-Making Model for Selecting Product Suppliers in Crop Protection Retail Sector
by Byungok Ahn and Boyoung Kim
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040097 - 25 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
This study aims to determine the importance of factors affecting supplier selection in the pesticide distribution sector as a global emerging market and present a decision-making model for the corporate marketing strategy. Specifically, a comparative study between suppliers and retail distribution experts was [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the importance of factors affecting supplier selection in the pesticide distribution sector as a global emerging market and present a decision-making model for the corporate marketing strategy. Specifically, a comparative study between suppliers and retail distribution experts was conducted to compare differences in the perception of supplier selection factors according to organizational characteristics. Based on previous studies, a decision-making model based on the AHP methodology was constructed with a total of 20 factors in five areas: product quality, price, flexibility, promotion support, and brand. Then, 42 Korean experts were surveyed to measure the importance of these factors. The results showed that product quality is the most critical factor in supplier selection, followed by price, brand, promotional support, and flexibility, in that order. Manufacturers consider product quality as the most important factor, while retailers consider price as the most important factor. Among the 20 factors, ‘quality excellence’, ‘expected return’, and ‘technological competitiveness’ were found to be the most important factors. In addition, while manufacturers considered factors such as ‘corporate reputation’ and ‘corporate trust’ as more important, retailers considered factors related to product characteristics, such as ‘product awareness’ and ‘brand reputation’ as more important. Full article
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13 pages, 963 KiB  
Article
Coping with Dark Leadership: Examination of the Impact of Psychological Capital on the Relationship between Dark Leaders and Employees’ Basic Need Satisfaction in the Workplace
by Alina Elbers, Stephan Kolominski and Pablo Salvador Blesa Aledo
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040096 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3816
Abstract
In leadership research, the Dark Triad of personality has become a topic of great interest. This construct includes the personality traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and subclinical psychopathy and is associated with several negative outcomes for organizations and followers’ satisfaction. In contrast, the construct [...] Read more.
In leadership research, the Dark Triad of personality has become a topic of great interest. This construct includes the personality traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and subclinical psychopathy and is associated with several negative outcomes for organizations and followers’ satisfaction. In contrast, the construct of psychological capital, which includes hope, resilience, self-efficacy, and optimism, is positively related to extra-role organizational citizenship behaviors and employee performance. Therefore, the question arises whether people can benefit from psychological capital when confronted with a manager that exhibits dark personality traits. Subsequently, the purpose of this study is to examine the potential impact of psychological capital on the relationship between the Dark Triad traits of managers and the work-related basic need satisfaction of employees. Thus, a dataset of 469 employees was analyzed. Regression analyses demonstrated that the Dark Triad of personality and psychological capital both work as predictors of work-related basic need satisfaction. When controlling for mediating effects, psychological capital appeared as a partial mediator of the relationship between the managers’ dark traits and the employees’ basic need satisfaction in the workplace. The theoretical and practical implications of the results, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 1546 KiB  
Review
A Categorization of Resilience: A Scoping Review
by Alexander Nieuwborg, Suzanne Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, Marijke Melles, Jan Zekveld and Sicco Santema
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040095 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic exposed the existential public health and economic fragilities of the civil aviation industry. To prevent future public health disruptions, the civil aviation industry is gaining interest in becoming more “resilient” but rarely elaborates on its meaning, hampering decision-making and strategy [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic exposed the existential public health and economic fragilities of the civil aviation industry. To prevent future public health disruptions, the civil aviation industry is gaining interest in becoming more “resilient” but rarely elaborates on its meaning, hampering decision-making and strategy development. When looking into the academic literature it seems that a proliferation of resilience-related concepts occurred. Although enriching resilience, it also dilutes its meaning and reduces its use for practice. This paper aims to create concept clarity regarding resilience by proposing a categorization of resilience. Based upon a scoping review, this categorization dissects resilience into four reoccurring aspects: fragility, robustness, adaptation, and transformation. This categorization is expected to support sensemaking in disruptive times while assisting decision-making and strategy development on resilience. When applying this categorization in the civil aviation and public health context, the transformative aspect seems underused. Further research will focus on maturing the categorization of resilience and its use as a sensemaking tool. Full article
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21 pages, 4345 KiB  
Article
Conflict (Work-Family and Family-Work) and Task Performance: The Role of Well-Being in This Relationship
by Ana Moreira, Tiago Encarnação, João Viseu and Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13040094 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4605
Abstract
Recent societal changes have brought new challenges to contemporary organisations, e.g., how to properly manage the work-family/family-work dyad and, thus, promote adequate task performance. This paper aimed to study the relationship between conflict (work-family and family-work) and task performance, and whether this relationship [...] Read more.
Recent societal changes have brought new challenges to contemporary organisations, e.g., how to properly manage the work-family/family-work dyad and, thus, promote adequate task performance. This paper aimed to study the relationship between conflict (work-family and family-work) and task performance, and whether this relationship was moderated by well-being. Thus, the following hypotheses were formulated: (1) conflict (work-family and family-work) is negatively associated with task performance; (2) conflict (work-family and family-work) is negatively associated with well-being; (3) well-being is positively associated with task performance; and (4) well-being moderates the relationship between conflict (work-family and family-work) and task performance. A total of 596 subjects participated in this study, all employed in Portuguese organisations. The results underlined that only family-work conflict was negatively and significantly associated with task performance. Work-family conflict established a negative and significant relationship with well-being. Well-being was positively and significantly associated with performance and moderated the relationship between conflict (work-family and family-work) and task performance. These results show that organisations should provide employees with situations that promote their well-being, especially in Portugal, where a relationship culture exists (rather than task culture, which is predominant in the USA and Canada, for example) which means that additional and considerable time must be dedicated to personal and family matters for people to fit in and be accepted harmoniously. Full article
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