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Adm. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This is the first publication of the Enneagram of Strategy in a Western journal. The Enneagram originated in Sufism. It is a mystical symbol (Mandala), adapted to personality typology by psychologists. Alongside Jungian/Myers Briggs, it is widely used in human resource management. The authors apply the Enneagram to strategic decision-making and use it in executive programmes and consulting. The strategy process is represented in the diagram through the hexagram, 142857. The context of strategy is described in triad 936. We outline the meaning of the symbolism in our paper. The methodology provides a strategic framework, but most importantly, the Strategic Enneagram is a Mandala designed to evoke management creativity. View this paper
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16 pages, 3488 KiB  
Article
Ethical Reasoning at Work: A Cross-Country Comparison of Gender and Age Differences
by Karin Lasthuizen and Kamal Badar
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050136 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 2657
Abstract
This paper uses the IBE Ethics at Work 2018 survey to explore employees’ ethical reasoning and examine gender and age differences across 12 countries. Debates about gender and ethics have been intense since Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, with feminist critiques from Gilligan [...] Read more.
This paper uses the IBE Ethics at Work 2018 survey to explore employees’ ethical reasoning and examine gender and age differences across 12 countries. Debates about gender and ethics have been intense since Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, with feminist critiques from Gilligan and others advocating the different voice of women, while the recent arrival of Millennials in the workplace has raised new questions about age/generational differences and ethics. The findings in this study suggest that women and older workers have stronger ethical judgments in the workplace than men and younger workers. These gender and age differences, both among employees and managers, are consistent across countries. This study shows that individual characteristics are important for employees’ ethical reasoning, which affects their ability to make ethical decisions and act ethically. Business ethics research should therefore take greater account of differences between (groups of) employees and their learning needs when examining the effectiveness of ethics policies and instruments, while organizations can improve employee ethical reasoning by adopting diversity-based training programs and ethical leadership. Full article
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17 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
The Interaction Effect of Nomination Committee’s Effectiveness on Board of Directors’ Characteristics and Firm Performance
by Mujeeb Saif Mohsen Al-Absy and Nada Hameed AlMahari
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050135 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the interaction effect of the nomination committee’s effectiveness on the board of directors’ characteristics and firm performance (measured by return on assets and earnings per share). The nomination committee was scored for committee separation, size, independence, meeting frequency, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the interaction effect of the nomination committee’s effectiveness on the board of directors’ characteristics and firm performance (measured by return on assets and earnings per share). The nomination committee was scored for committee separation, size, independence, meeting frequency, and the number of female directors. The study selected all listed firms on the Bahrain Bourse for two years, 2020 and 2021, using ordinary least-squares regression to examine the relationship. The results showed that the interaction of the nomination committee with some characteristics of the board of directors had a significant impact on firm performance. With the interaction of the nomination committee, board meeting frequency became significantly positively associated with firm performance as measured by return on assets and earnings per share, as opposed to the insignificant results found in the direct relationship. Similarly, with the interaction of the nomination committee, the number of female directors became more significantly positively associated with firm performance using the measurement of return on assets, while it became significantly positively associated with firm performance using earnings per share, compared to an insignificant positive impact found in the direct relationship. The results show that there is a need to re-evaluate the role of the board of directors and strengthen its effectiveness. This study is the first to alert policymakers, businesses and their stakeholders, and researchers to the significance of having an effective nomination committee, which could play an important role in enhancing the board of directors’ effectiveness and hence firm performance. It makes a significant contribution to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the interaction impact of NC (as a score) on BOD characteristics and firm performance. Full article
17 pages, 999 KiB  
Article
The Maturity of Strategic Networks’ Governance: Proposal of an Analysis Model
by Marione Winkler, Douglas Wegner and Clea Beatriz Macagnan
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050134 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Strategic Networks (SNs) consist of dozens to hundreds of organizations that work together to achieve common goals but remain legally independent. Because most SNs are managed by hired professionals rather than member companies, more structured governance models are recommended as the number of [...] Read more.
Strategic Networks (SNs) consist of dozens to hundreds of organizations that work together to achieve common goals but remain legally independent. Because most SNs are managed by hired professionals rather than member companies, more structured governance models are recommended as the number of members grows. In addition, removing the network members from management roles allows for the emergence of a conflict of interest and the problem of information asymmetry. The purpose of this study is to propose a model for assessing the maturity level of SNs’ governance. Using Design Science Research (DSR), a model of 34 items was developed to measure the maturity level of SN governance and serve as a guide for analyzing this type of inter-organizational collaboration. Using these indicators can provide opportunities for governance system improvements, resulting in better management of SNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Strategic Management)
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18 pages, 546 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Employees’ Mental Toughness on Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: Mediating Psychological Well-Being
by Minkyung Lee and Boyoung Kim
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050133 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4119
Abstract
This study aims to examine the impact of mental toughness of employees on their psychological well-being, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. A research model based on structural equation modeling ‘ developed, and a survey was conducted with 534 office workers in Korean companies [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the impact of mental toughness of employees on their psychological well-being, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. A research model based on structural equation modeling ‘ developed, and a survey was conducted with 534 office workers in Korean companies to gather the data. The findings indicate that mental toughness has a significant effect on psychological well-being and positively (+) affects organizational commitment and job satisfaction through psychological well-being. The study also reveals that mental toughness has a greater influence on organizational commitment than on job satisfaction. However, the positive effect of job satisfaction was found to increase when psychological well-being was mediated. Consequently, this study recommends that employees’ mental toughness be managed effectively to improve their job satisfaction and organizational commitment, leading to enhanced job competency, and reduced turnover intention. These findings are of practical significance to organizational practitioners, as they underscore the importance of fostering mental toughness among employees to promote their well-being and commitment to their work. Full article
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28 pages, 1145 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Risk Management in Industrial Companies in Jordan
by Nadia Abu Kwaik, Rateb Sweis, Baraa Allan and Ghaleb Sweis
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050132 - 12 May 2023
Viewed by 4514
Abstract
This study aims to identify and rank the critical factors affecting risk management from the perspective of top and Lower Management in Jordanian industrial companies. Based on a rigorous literature review, critical factors affecting risk management are factors related to (1) flexibility and [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify and rank the critical factors affecting risk management from the perspective of top and Lower Management in Jordanian industrial companies. Based on a rigorous literature review, critical factors affecting risk management are factors related to (1) flexibility and adaptation in the economic environment; (2) company characteristics; (3) external audit quality; (4) government rules and regulations; (5) top management and the board of directors; (6) organizational structure; (7) internal audit effectiveness; (8) trust; (9) human resources efficiency and training (10); communications (11); information technology (12); and the company’s culture. Quantitative research methods were used. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to a random sample of senior managers of industrial companies in Jordan. Kendall and Mann–Whitney tests, RII, and EFA were used to analyze the acquired data. The results show that all discussed factors have an effect on risk management, and there is no difference between top and Lower Management’s opinions regarding the ranking of the importance of those factors on risk management. This study provides an original perspective on the concept of risk management and the factors that impact it. These findings have important implications for Jordanian industrial companies’ decision makers. Companies should apply the results to their strategies and policies to reduce risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Technology Innovation and Risk Management)
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25 pages, 1111 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Digital Competence of Public University Employees and the Impact on Innovative Work Behavior
by Larissa Pinon de Carvalho, Thiago Poleto, Camila Carvalho Ramos, Fernando de Assis Rodrigues, Victor Diogho Heuer de Carvalho and Thyago Celso Cavalcante Nepomuceno
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050131 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
Digital competence plays an important role in higher education. The literature highlights the adoption and use of digital competence for the development of educational services in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), but it is still necessary to understand its influence on the innovative behavior [...] Read more.
Digital competence plays an important role in higher education. The literature highlights the adoption and use of digital competence for the development of educational services in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), but it is still necessary to understand its influence on the innovative behavior of the public official. This study aims to investigate the influence of digital competence, based on the predictors’ infrastructure, integration, and digital management, on innovative work behaviors. The research was applied to 540 public employees of a Federal Institution of Higher Education (IFES) in northern Brazil. The response rate for this study was 33.5%. The Structural Equation Modeling approach by Partial Least Squares (PLS-SEM) was used. Empirical findings confirm that public employees with a high level of perception of digital competence more often develop challenging work to generate new innovative behaviors at work. This research was limited to investigating the influence of digital competence on innovative work behaviors of public employees of a Brazilian IFES. Future studies may address other contextual factors in this relationship. One of the practical implications is the need for managers in the education sector to support the construction of guidelines for educational and technological innovation to expand innovative behavior at work. Full article
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15 pages, 470 KiB  
Article
How the COVID-19 Pandemic Changed the Work of Managers: Case Study of Economic Managers
by Lenka Veselovská and Lucia Hudáková
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050130 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2754
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally changed the business environment in many sectors. This study analyzes how the pandemic and the resulting global economic crisis have influenced changes in management. The aim was to explore changes in the dominance of management functions through the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally changed the business environment in many sectors. This study analyzes how the pandemic and the resulting global economic crisis have influenced changes in management. The aim was to explore changes in the dominance of management functions through the lens of economic managers in various companies. A case study approach was adopted to achieve the research objective. The sample file consisted of 238 managers from various operational fields in the Slovak Republic. A new methodology was created to measure the overall changes. An indicator of the rate of change in the dominance of the management functions was calculated. The index consists of two factors: changes in the time devoted to each management function during the pandemic, and changes in the importance of basic activities performed within the individual management function. This study provides an overview of all industries and describes the changes in the context of a company’s revenue development during the pandemic. It was discovered that the centralization of strategic decision making was significantly underestimated. Up to 78.69% of managers working in companies whose revenues decreased during the pandemic increased the time devoted to planning, and 90.98% of them decreased the time devoted to leading people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leadership)
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15 pages, 348 KiB  
Article
Impactful Female Directors and Earnings Management: The Moderating Effect of Ownership Concentration
by Mujeeb Saif Mohsen Al-Absy
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050129 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the moderating effect of ownership concentration (OC) on the relationship between impactful female directors and earnings management (EM). The study concentrated on firms with the lowest positive earnings, measured by return on assets. The results [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the moderating effect of ownership concentration (OC) on the relationship between impactful female directors and earnings management (EM). The study concentrated on firms with the lowest positive earnings, measured by return on assets. The results showed that OC positively moderated the association between impactful female directors and accrual earnings management (AEM). With the moderating effect of OC, impactful female directors became positively associated with AEM. In terms of real earnings management (REM), the results showed that OC weakened the significant negative relationship between impactful female directors and REM that was found in the direct regression. With the moderating effect of OC, impactful female directors became insignificantly associated with REM. The study is extremely beneficial to policymakers, stakeholders, researchers, and society. It provides empirical findings that could help all parties to re-evaluate the role of the board of directors, specifically impactful female directors, in mitigating EM. The results highlight the impact of the majority shareholders, introduced by agency theory II, an issue that requires more solutions from regulators. Full article
16 pages, 1707 KiB  
Article
The Impact of COVID-19 on Curriculum and Employability in Lebanon
by Nada Mallah Boustani
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050128 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacting the whole service sector, including higher education, has forced universities to quickly innovate and recreate. The sanitary crisis resulted in the greatest disruption to educational systems in human history, as well as a shift in the nature, qualifications, [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacting the whole service sector, including higher education, has forced universities to quickly innovate and recreate. The sanitary crisis resulted in the greatest disruption to educational systems in human history, as well as a shift in the nature, qualifications, and mix of the workforce. The reopening of higher education institutions is another concern, with numerous new operational procedures in place, new opportunities, and prospective curriculum adjustments based on labour market realities. Due to the development of technology, businesses’ requirements for human resource credentials and job types underwent several modifications. This study’s goal is to investigate how COVID-19 has influenced curriculum revisions and employability requirements. The research used a mixed methodology, with quantitative analysis of changes in enrolled students by major and a qualitative study including two different sets of surveys based on the innovation and employability theories addressed to five human resource (HR) directors from institutions and organizations in Lebanon, as well as three universities. The objective was to answer the following questions: How can universities adapt to the changing demands of the labour market specifically in times of crisis? Should university curricula place greater emphasis on students’ personal growth than on technical and conventional learning? The results lead to re-thinking about what higher education systems and institutions can do to redesign their curricula in accordance with the job market and the expectations of the students in this challenging context, where employment security and job market stability issues are more urgent due to the economic crisis and advanced technologies. According to the findings, the research implications include boosting the implementation of the new curriculum through improved HR practices from the Ministry of Education. This will also encourage innovative performance, which will necessitate realistic, swift technical procedures to be unbeatable, creative, and competitive. This study adds significantly to the literature by suggesting curriculum adjustments for online courses and e-training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Role of Universities in Entrepreneurship Education)
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18 pages, 506 KiB  
Article
SMEs, Success, and Capital Startups: Evidence from the Service Sector in South Africa
by Kanayo K. Ogujiuba, Ebenezer Olamide, Estelle Boshoff, Isaac Agholor and Chinelo Ogujiuba
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050127 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
Financing has been identified as a major stumbling block to the effective launch and long-term success of SMEs, particularly in emerging economies. However, little is known about the impact of capital startups on SMEs’ performance in South Africa. Thus, the aim of this [...] Read more.
Financing has been identified as a major stumbling block to the effective launch and long-term success of SMEs, particularly in emerging economies. However, little is known about the impact of capital startups on SMEs’ performance in South Africa. Thus, the aim of this article is to compare differences in business success for three different levels of Capital startups and to determine the impact of capital startups on SMEs’ performance. The analysis was premised on a two-tail hypothesis test that the average weights of the three groups are different. The Cronbach Alpha test and the test–re-test reliability approach on the survey instrument indicated values of 0.70 and 0.875, respectively. A one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted startup. There was a statistically significant difference at the p < 0.05 level in scores for the three groups (F (2, 477) = 12.967 p = 0.0000). Post hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean scores for Group 1 (M = 19.93, SD = 6.343) were significantly different from Group 2 (M = 20.94, SD = 2.309) and Group 3 (M = 21.73, SD = 2.880). Despite reaching statistical significance, the actual difference in mean scores between the groups was quite small. The one-way ANOVA approach indicates that finance (startup capital) remains a significant impediment to the effective launch of service-providing SMEs. It is recommended that SMEs who want to raise startup capital must create a solid business plan or build a prototype to sell the idea. This will assist them in discussions with venture capitalists, angel investors, banks, or other financial institutions. Full article
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18 pages, 859 KiB  
Article
Social Sustainability of Digital Transformation: Empirical Evidence from EU-27 Countries
by Saeed Nosratabadi, Thabit Atobishi and Szilárd Hegedűs
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050126 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2765
Abstract
In the EU-27 countries, the importance of social sustainability of digital transformation (SOSDIT) is heightened by the need to balance economic growth with social cohesion. By prioritizing SOSDIT, the EU can ensure that its citizens are not left behind in the digital transformation [...] Read more.
In the EU-27 countries, the importance of social sustainability of digital transformation (SOSDIT) is heightened by the need to balance economic growth with social cohesion. By prioritizing SOSDIT, the EU can ensure that its citizens are not left behind in the digital transformation process and that technology serves the needs of all Europeans. Therefore, the current study aimed firstly to evaluate the SOSDIT of EU-27 countries and then to model its importance in reaching sustainable development goals (SDGs). The current study, using structural equation modeling, provided quantitative empirical evidence that digital transformation in Finland, the Netherlands, and Denmark are respectively most socially sustainable. It is also found that SOSDIT leads the countries to have a higher performance in reaching SDGs. Finally, the study provided evidence implying the inverse relationship between the Gini coefficient and reaching SDGs. In other words, the higher the Gini coefficient of a country, the lower its performance in reaching SDGs. The findings of this study contribute to the literature of sustainability and digitalization. It also provides empirical evidence regarding the SOSDIT level of EU-27 countries that can be a foundation for the development of policies to improve the sustainability of digital transformation. According to the findings, this study provides practical recommendations for countries to ensure that their digital transformation is sustainable and has a positive impact on society. Full article
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15 pages, 583 KiB  
Article
Leadership and Service Delivery in Times of Change
by Sulaiman Olusegun Atiku, Collen Mulife Kurana and Idris Olayiwola Ganiyu
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050125 - 07 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3645
Abstract
There has been a growing concern for excellent service delivery in the public sector. The challenges that are hindering service delivery in Town Councils have been attributed to political interference in appointments and ineffective leadership. The residents in the Town Council have been [...] Read more.
There has been a growing concern for excellent service delivery in the public sector. The challenges that are hindering service delivery in Town Councils have been attributed to political interference in appointments and ineffective leadership. The residents in the Town Council have been experiencing power outages and water shortages. The livelihoods of the residents and business operations have been hindered by these difficulties. This study investigates the influence of leadership on service delivery in a Town Council in Namibia. A qualitative research approach was adopted to analyse the influence of leadership practices on service delivery in times of change. A total of ten participants were sampled from a population of 117 staff members using a purposive sampling. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Participants views were tape recorded, transcribed into Microsoft Word, and analysed using thematic analysis via NVivo 12. The results showed that logistical difficulties, political interference, lack of human resources, and financial constraints, are the challenges hampering service delivery in the Town Council. The need for managers and supervisors to inspire, coach, mentor, and motivate their subordinates to enhance service delivery using a transformational leadership style is evident in the results. Therefore, the Town Council should prioritise budgeting, foster public-private partnerships, promote innovation, and ensure stakeholder engagement to enhance service delivery in the Town Council. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leadership)
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29 pages, 774 KiB  
Article
CEO Greed, Corporate Governance, and CSR Performance: Asian Evidence
by Saif Ur Rehman and Yacoub Haider Hamdan
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050124 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2355
Abstract
In this study, we examined the association between CEO greed and corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance with a particular emphasis on the curtailing role of corporate governance. We found that CEO greed has a negative effect on CSR, since an uncontrolled pursuit of [...] Read more.
In this study, we examined the association between CEO greed and corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance with a particular emphasis on the curtailing role of corporate governance. We found that CEO greed has a negative effect on CSR, since an uncontrolled pursuit of personal gain typically reveals myopic behavior and the foregoing of investment in CSR by a greedy CEO. Additionally, we found that CEO compensation in the form of large bonuses, support, and restricted stocks options weakened the link between CEO greed and CSR. Concerning the power dynamics amongst CEOs (CEO duality and tenure), we found that CEO duality moderates the negative relation between CEO greed and CSR. We also explored the curtailing role of corporate governance (proxies represented by board gender diversity and board independence) in the association between CEO greed and CSR. Our findings show that gender diversity curtails the negative effect of CEO greed on CSR once it reaches critical mass on the corporate board. Gender critical mass also curtails the negative impact of CEO greed on CSR, even if the CEO exercises duality. Our findings have empirical and practical implications. This study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the relationship between CEO greed and CSR in Asia, a region not renowned for CSR performance. This study also provides evidence for the curtailing role of compensation and governance factors in the negative relationship between CEO greed and CSR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Strategic Management)
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19 pages, 829 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Study of How Missing Employee Empathy in Failed Service Interactions Affects Empathetic Customers’ EWoM-Giving Behaviour
by Neele Inken Abend, María D. De-Juan-Vigaray and Mandy Nuszbaum
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050123 - 04 May 2023
Viewed by 2077
Abstract
Empathy as an influencing factor of consumer behaviour has mostly been analysed from an empathetic employee’s perspective. Empirical investigations into customer empathy in the context of failed service interactions are still scarce. This study investigates customer–employee reciprocity related to a failed service interaction [...] Read more.
Empathy as an influencing factor of consumer behaviour has mostly been analysed from an empathetic employee’s perspective. Empirical investigations into customer empathy in the context of failed service interactions are still scarce. This study investigates customer–employee reciprocity related to a failed service interaction and its meaning as a predictor of electronic-worth-of-mouth (eWoM)-giving behaviour. The eWoM phenomenon in the context of online purchases is well researched, but the (a) impact of failed service interactions and (b) empathetic customer service agents still needs to be explored. For this purpose, two situational experiments of customer–employee interactions (n = 260) were conducted. Both situations depict disgruntled customers who are looking for help and call the customer support centre after an online purchase. They experience negative customer–employee interaction. The experiments test (a) the impact of employee and customer empathy on eWoM-giving behaviour after failed service interactions and (b) the mediating role of negative emotions. The results show that in service situations, negative emotions fully mediate the relationship between customer empathy and eWoM-behaviour. In addition, empathetic customers seem to be more sensitive to a poorly empathetic employee in comparison to non-empathetic customers. The research enriches the service understanding of empathy in eWoM research and provides practical implications for the management of complaint handling, such as how to consider customer empathy as a complainer’s characteristic to improve the customer service experience, effectiveness, and efficiency. Full article
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16 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Giants with Feet of Clay? An Inquiry into User Payment Patterns for Subscription Video-on-Demand Services
by Ignacio Redondo and Diana Serrano
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050122 - 04 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Subscription video-on-demand platforms such as Netflix and HBO Max are being increasingly challenged by the widespread practice of sharing accounts with individuals outside the household. Platforms face a massive loss of revenue due to the opportunistic behavior of many users who enjoy content [...] Read more.
Subscription video-on-demand platforms such as Netflix and HBO Max are being increasingly challenged by the widespread practice of sharing accounts with individuals outside the household. Platforms face a massive loss of revenue due to the opportunistic behavior of many users who enjoy content without paying anything or paying only a part of the required subscription fees. This study explores which factors influence platform users to pay all, part, or none of the subscription fees. Using a cross-sectional survey from Spain, various demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral factors were identified as predictors of the patterns of full, partial, and non-payment. The findings may help platform managers tailor some interventions to monetize a larger number of actual users by deterring the opportunistic payment patterns without discouraging the full payment pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategic Management for Cultural and Creative Industries)
25 pages, 521 KiB  
Article
The Holistic Model of Labour Retention: The Impact of Workplace Wellbeing Factors on Employee Retention
by Martin Gelencsér, Gábor Szabó-Szentgróti, Zsolt Sándor Kőmüves and Gábor Hollósy-Vadász
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050121 - 01 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6247
Abstract
This paper explores the holistic context of workforce retention. The global labour shortages in developed countries have made employers realise that in a world of scarce resources, employee wellbeing and retention are key factors in competitiveness. The aim of the research is to [...] Read more.
This paper explores the holistic context of workforce retention. The global labour shortages in developed countries have made employers realise that in a world of scarce resources, employee wellbeing and retention are key factors in competitiveness. The aim of the research is to create a model to identify the key determinants of employee well-being and workforce retention. A quantitative research methodology was applied, using a questionnaire with 58 validated statements, completed online by the research participants (n = 406). The PLS-SEM method was used for data analysis and inner and outer modelling. The measurement model was tested for internal consistency reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Cronbach’s α and CR values were above the 0.7 threshold for all constructions, indicating high internal consistency of measurements. In our model, there are a total of 36 significant relationships between latent variables. Based on the research results, the effect of organizational commitment on the intention to quit was determined. If the organizational commitment within an organization changes, the intention to resign changes. Thus, critical variables affecting workforce retention (benefits, promotion, communication, nature of work, coworkers, and normative commitment) have been identified, the changing of which will affect organizational commitment. The results support that if employees perceive these factors negatively, their commitment will drastically decrease. Full article
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20 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
Validating the Whistleblowing Maturity Model Using the Delphi Method
by Paschalis Kagias, Nikolaos Sariannidis, Alexandros Garefalakis, Ioannis Passas and Panagiotis Kyriakogkonas
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050120 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Empirical research identifies whistleblowing as one of the most effective internal antifraud controls. Very recently, Directive 1937/2019 became effective in the EU, aiming to deal with the defragmentation of whistleblowing legislation among the member states and provide common minimum accepted standards. The present [...] Read more.
Empirical research identifies whistleblowing as one of the most effective internal antifraud controls. Very recently, Directive 1937/2019 became effective in the EU, aiming to deal with the defragmentation of whistleblowing legislation among the member states and provide common minimum accepted standards. The present article aims to provide a verified, weighted comparative maturity model. The suggested model has been constructed based on the methodology for constructing comparative maturity models and validated based on the Delphi method. The weights on each validated component have been calculated based on the summing of votes method. The study resulted in eight main components «scope», «corporate governance», «reporting mechanisms», «protection», «tone at the top», «organizational and human resource practices», «investigations» and «monitor and review» divided further into 18 elements. The suggested maturity model may provide a pathway for organizations to develop and maintain a robust whistleblowing maturity framework that will benefit both the organizations and the public welfare. Full article
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18 pages, 3197 KiB  
Article
An Enneagram Approach to Strategy
by Issam Tlemsani, Mohamed Ashmel Mohamed Hashim, Robin Matthews, Vera Ndrecaj and Rachel Mason-Jones
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050119 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2548
Abstract
This conceptual paper examines how Enneagram as a personality typing system could be adopted as a meta-model across multiple domains. The enneagram strategy is a structural typology that many organisations and individuals use to effectively understand their business profiles and interpersonal patterns, despite [...] Read more.
This conceptual paper examines how Enneagram as a personality typing system could be adopted as a meta-model across multiple domains. The enneagram strategy is a structural typology that many organisations and individuals use to effectively understand their business profiles and interpersonal patterns, despite scholars showing concerns about its robustness and dynamism. This paper extends the argument as to how the mechanics of the Enneagram are intrinsically interrelated with (a) organisational systems and networks, (b) organisational grammar, (c) supply chains, and (d) creativity. It also emphasizes the importance/close association of the Enneagram tool with interdependence, business model, networks, statics, and system dynamics. The paper uses a combination of research methods (theoretical, exploratory, and descriptive) to evaluate the adaptability of the enneagram. The findings demonstrate that enneagram as a strategy could be applied to various business phenomena but requires more cross-domain empirical research. The enneagram can also be used to develop meta-models/toy models that can relate to the organisational outcomes by integrating tangible and intangible process assets. This paper reliably lays a set of principles/foundations to launch the enneagram approach to a complex, broad, systematic, and creative scope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Role of Universities in Entrepreneurship Education)
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16 pages, 562 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Brand Image and Brand Equity and Its Impact on Consumer Satisfaction
by Joana Araújo, Inês Veiga Pereira and José Duarte Santos
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050118 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 30049
Abstract
This paper aims to study the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on brand image and brand equity and its impact on consumer satisfaction. The study follows a quantitative methodology, using the implementation of an online questionnaire distributed to people who bought, during [...] Read more.
This paper aims to study the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on brand image and brand equity and its impact on consumer satisfaction. The study follows a quantitative methodology, using the implementation of an online questionnaire distributed to people who bought, during the pandemic, a product that used a CSR action. Subsequently, data were analyzed through Smart PLS, following the Structural Equation Model. It was possible to conclude that the CSR initiatives positively affect consumer satisfaction through the mediating effect of brand image and brand equity. Further, brand image and brand equity improve when companies use CSR initiatives, and, despite what previous research has concluded, consumer satisfaction is not affected directly when CSR initiatives are used. This research has also showed that CSR’s impact on brand image is higher for men, and CSR initiatives’ impact on brand equity is also higher for regular purchase consumers. Full article
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21 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Pushing Down on Me: The Paradoxical Role of Self-Leadership in the Context of Work Pressure
by Christopher B. Neck, Christopher P. Neck, Elizabeth A. Goldsby and Michael G. Goldsby
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13050117 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
One of the most pressing threats to individual employees in today’s fast-paced work environment is work pressure. In this paper, the intention is to link the individual influence process of self-leadership to work pressure, representing the first empirical research to do so. Through [...] Read more.
One of the most pressing threats to individual employees in today’s fast-paced work environment is work pressure. In this paper, the intention is to link the individual influence process of self-leadership to work pressure, representing the first empirical research to do so. Through this linkage, we suggest a means by which the individual worker may deal with the external force of work pressure, thus decoupling the consequences of work pressure from the organizational influence. Through linking self-leadership to work pressure’s effects, we examine how the individual may mitigate the negative work pressure-driven outcomes whereas past research has typically focused on what the organization may do to mitigate these effects. Finally, this study aims to disentangle an existing paradox in the self-leadership literature through examining how the various strategies of self-leadership perform differently under the context of work pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leadership)
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