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Pathogens 2019, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010034

Intra-Species and Inter-Species Differences in Cytokine Production by Porcine Antigen-Presenting Cells Stimulated by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, and M. flocculare

1
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES), Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, Mycoplasmology Bacteriology and Antimicrobial Resistance Unit, 22 440 Ploufragan, France
2
University of Brittany-Loire, Cité internationale 1 place Paul Ricoeur CS 54417, 35044 Rennes, France
3
Swine and Poultry Infectious Diseases Research Center and Research Group on Infectious Diseases in Production Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Sicotte St., Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
4
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES), Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, Epidemiology, Health and Welfare unit, 22440 Ploufragan, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms)
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Abstract

Mycoplasma hyorhinis and M. flocculare are commonly co-isolated with M. hyopneumoniae (primary agent of swine enzootic pneumonia) in gross pneumonia-like lesions, but their involvement in the disease process remains unknown. T cells play an immuno-pathological role during mycoplasmal infections. Dendritic cells (DCs) are major antigen-presenting cells involved in T cell activation and differentiation. In this study, we investigated cytokine (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α) production by porcine bone-marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) stimulated by M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, and/or M. flocculare. Results showed that cytokine production levels were relatively homogenous for all evaluated M. hyopneumoniae strains in contrast to M. hyorhinis and M. flocculare strains. The most noteworthy inter-species differences were the overall (i) lower IL-12 production capacity of M. hyopneumoniae, and (ii) higher TNF-α production capacity of M. flocculare. Co-stimulation of BM-DCs showed that M. hyorhinis dominated the IL-12 production independently of its association with M. hyopneumoniae or M. flocculare. In addition, a decreased BM-DC production of TNF-α was generally observed in the presence of mycoplasma associations. Lastly, M. flocculare association with M. hyopneumoniae increased BM-DC ability to secrete IL-10. A higher cytotoxicity level in BM-DCs stimulated by M. hyorhinis was also observed. Overall, this study demonstrated that the combination of M. hyorhinis or M. flocculare with M. hyopneumoniae may participate to the modulation of the immune response that might affect the final disease outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: porcine dendritic cells; cytokine; inflammatory response; Mycoplasma; pneumonia porcine dendritic cells; cytokine; inflammatory response; Mycoplasma; pneumonia
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Fourour, S.; Marois-Créhan, C.; Martelet, L.; Fablet, C.; Kempf, I.; Gottschalk, M.; Segura, M. Intra-Species and Inter-Species Differences in Cytokine Production by Porcine Antigen-Presenting Cells Stimulated by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, and M. flocculare. Pathogens 2019, 8, 34.

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