Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Soc. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-35
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Visualizing the Possibility of Relocation: Coastal Relocation Leaf
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060197
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
Viewed by 442 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cognitive dissonance between the need for relocation as an adaptation strategy and the reluctance to consider this option among stakeholders may result in maladaptation in communities highly vulnerable to coastal hazards. This study presents an interactive communication tool, Coastal Relocation Leaf (CRL), [...] Read more.
The cognitive dissonance between the need for relocation as an adaptation strategy and the reluctance to consider this option among stakeholders may result in maladaptation in communities highly vulnerable to coastal hazards. This study presents an interactive communication tool, Coastal Relocation Leaf (CRL), designed to facilitate an understanding of the circumstances that may lead to relocation. The tool is designed to allow users to explore “what-if” scenarios, fostering further conversation about the complexities and trade-offs associated with the possibility of relocation in coastal communities. The tool is visualized using the Adobe Flash platform and refined using expert evaluation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Neoliberal Rome—The Role of Tourism
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060196
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
Viewed by 479 | PDF Full-text (1676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The primary objective of this paper is to analyze the main characteristics of recent tourism policies in Rome by describing the local modalities through which the neoliberal approach to urban strategies has been implemented. The first section highlights some general features of the [...] Read more.
The primary objective of this paper is to analyze the main characteristics of recent tourism policies in Rome by describing the local modalities through which the neoliberal approach to urban strategies has been implemented. The first section highlights some general features of the city of Rome and its tourism, which are particularly useful for understanding the specificities of neoliberal tourism policies. The paper then proceeds to describe the most clearly defined neoliberal period of the city from 1993 to 2008, when the new Master Plan was drawn up to establish new policies and projects for tourism. The period that followed 2008 was marked by the gradual withdrawal of public action, which on the other hand has left ample freedom to the forces of tourism and globalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neoliberal Cities: The Touristification Phenomenon under Analysis)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Neighborhood Influence: A Qualitative Study in Cáceres, an Aspiring Age-Friendly City
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060195
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
Viewed by 435 | PDF Full-text (23064 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study is to understand the perspective of elderly residents on their neighborhood and how the composition of the neighborhood influences their daily life. The study took place in the city of Cáceres (Spain) that aspires to become an age-friendly [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to understand the perspective of elderly residents on their neighborhood and how the composition of the neighborhood influences their daily life. The study took place in the city of Cáceres (Spain) that aspires to become an age-friendly city. This study focused on the intangible elements of the neighborhood related to feelings of safety, well-being, loneliness, belonging to the community and development of trusting relationships. The research was based on the sociology of aging, specifically referencing the theory of the activity of aging, and also urban sociology, which assumes the environment as a conditioning agent of daily life. Using a qualitative approach, 32 in-depth interviews were conducted with individuals over 65. The interviews were analyzed according to grounded theory. The results show how social aspects are key factors for the elderly in their perception of the neighborhood. Therefore, psychological, social and emotional dimensions of the neighborhood influence elderly residents and could have a positive or negative effect on successful aging. These findings also suggest that a crucial aspect of the positive perceptions of the environment lies in the quality of social interactions that take place inside the neighborhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Bountagkidis, G.; et al. EU Development Aid towards Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the Normative Principle. Soc. Sci. 2015, 4, 85–116
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060194
Received: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
Viewed by 530 | PDF Full-text (467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following change to their paper (Bountagkidis et al [...] Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Combining and Balancing Work and Study on the Eastern Border of Europe
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060193
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
Viewed by 418 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a vast amount of research in many countries on what motivates full-time students to enter the labor market, and how this affects their future employment, but these phenomena are hardly ever examined from the perspective of university faculties or student job [...] Read more.
There is a vast amount of research in many countries on what motivates full-time students to enter the labor market, and how this affects their future employment, but these phenomena are hardly ever examined from the perspective of university faculties or student job centers, i.e., the other two parties involved. The novelty of this research is that we took into account students’, faculty members’ and student job centers’ perspectives. This article reports on a study that investigated the social and organizational factors of student employment in Hungary. Fieldwork in 16 student job centers and a content analysis of 23 interviews with students and 7 interviews with faculty members were conducted. The qualitative data collected provides detailed information on how students find jobs and combine work with study. According to student perceptions, term-time work contributes to their employability. This study has also identified factors that might lead to an increased dropout rate. Furthermore, research results suggest that the conservative structure of higher education is incapable of reacting to new social challenges. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Use of Social Digital Networks by NGDO from a Social Marketing Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060192
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
Viewed by 441 | PDF Full-text (1349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The social marketing paradigm has been changing due to the use of digital social networks. This causes Non-Governmental Development Organizations’ efforts to focus on achieving a greater reaction from the public in these communication channels. We propose that the way forward is to [...] Read more.
The social marketing paradigm has been changing due to the use of digital social networks. This causes Non-Governmental Development Organizations’ efforts to focus on achieving a greater reaction from the public in these communication channels. We propose that the way forward is to analyze aspects of messages that give rise to a greater response from the audience. In this regard, we have analyzed 3608 Facebook and Twitter publications with the combination of content analysis and correlation analysis. We have considered three aspects: purpose, theme, and quality of the message. We have also listed a breakdown of quality and purpose parameters in order to become more fully acquainted with these aspects. The objectives of this research are firstly to carry out the communication profiles of the NGDOs studied from the points of view of the organizations and the public. Secondly, to analyze the reaction from the public (interactions) measured by the sum of likes plus the number of shares for each post, on Facebook and Twitter, according the parameters considered. The results showed that the most published messages from the organizations do not usually coincide with those that have the most impact on the public. Another proven aspect is that Twitter posts about behavior have more effectiveness than informative messages. Likewise, quality aspects, such as hashtags, mentions, or links, are not succeeding in generating public reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing in Nonprofit Organizations)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ungodly Genders: Deconstructing Ex-Gay Movement Discourses of “Transgenderism” in the US
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060191
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
Viewed by 509 | PDF Full-text (334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research investigates a neglected topic within both transgender studies and religious studies by analyzing ex-gay movement discourses of “transgenderism” from the 1970s to the present, focusing primarily on the US-American context. The oppression of transgender people in the US and globally is [...] Read more.
This research investigates a neglected topic within both transgender studies and religious studies by analyzing ex-gay movement discourses of “transgenderism” from the 1970s to the present, focusing primarily on the US-American context. The oppression of transgender people in the US and globally is fed and fueled by the religious, scientific, and political discourses of the transnational “ex-gay” movement, which provides the ideological and material foundation of Christian Right politics. Using critical discourse analysis of ex-gay texts, we analyze the implications of these discourses in the individual, interactional, and institutional dimensions of society’s gender structure. This movement is one of the most insidious—and overlooked—sources of cisgenderism and transmisogyny today, constructing gender variance as sin, mental illness, and danger—with catastrophic consequences for transgender people, and those along the transfemale/feminine spectrum in particular. Finally, we discuss the public policy implications of these discourses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Identity)
Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Impacts of Gentrified Traditional Retail Markets in Lisbon in Local Neighbourhoods
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060190
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
Viewed by 577 | PDF Full-text (1614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article explores recent transformations in retail in Lisbon. We analyse a gentrified traditional retail market located in Campo de Ourique, Lisbon and study the relationship between this retail precinct and the surrounding commercial fabric. Through a set of enquiries on local retailers, [...] Read more.
This article explores recent transformations in retail in Lisbon. We analyse a gentrified traditional retail market located in Campo de Ourique, Lisbon and study the relationship between this retail precinct and the surrounding commercial fabric. Through a set of enquiries on local retailers, our findings show an absence of relationship between the market and the remaining shopping district, insofar as Campo de Ourique market can be designed as a fortress. There is a social implication of this finding in the sense that the gentrification of the traditional retail market is severely detrimental to the local population quality of life. In terms of policy implication, this article demonstrates that this kind of project produces different results from some well-known retail-led urban regeneration projects and, as such, should not be used as a benchmarking for other areas. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Resilience as a Public Object. A Longitudinal Press Analysis of the Press Representations of Resilience in Italy, Spain, and France
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060189
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
Viewed by 472 | PDF Full-text (953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The notion of “resilience” has spilled over from the field of science and entered the field of policy, turning into a public and political object. The current study explores the social representations of resilience produced by press discourses between 2001 and 2017 in [...] Read more.
The notion of “resilience” has spilled over from the field of science and entered the field of policy, turning into a public and political object. The current study explores the social representations of resilience produced by press discourses between 2001 and 2017 in three different national contexts (Spain, France, and Italy), and examines the degree to which such representations incorporate technical and scientific meanings or rather include new components. A total amount of 1,298 articles published in three national newspapers (La Repubblica, Italy; Le Monde, France; and El Pais, Spain) were collected and analyzed for themes using the T-LAB software. The findings revealed more similarities than differences among the countries. The interest towards the topic increased over time, with the representations of resilience becoming more and more diversified and multifaceted. The technical and scientific components remained in the background, while a “practical theory” of resilience emerged, echoing the use of the concept in policy making, specifically in the European Union institutions approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mobility, Gender and Career Development in Higher Education: Results of a Multi-Country Survey of African Academic Scientists
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060188
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
Viewed by 521 | PDF Full-text (883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Empirical knowledge of the mobility of African scientists, and women scientists in particular, holds an important key to achieving future success in the science systems of the continent. In this article, we report on an analysis of a subset of data from a [...] Read more.
Empirical knowledge of the mobility of African scientists, and women scientists in particular, holds an important key to achieving future success in the science systems of the continent. In this article, we report on an analysis of a subset of data from a multi-country survey, in order to address a lack of evidence on the geographic mobility of academic scientists in Africa, and how it relates to gender and career development. First, we compared women and men from 41 African countries in terms of their educational and work-related mobility, as well as their intention to be mobile. We further investigated these gendered patterns of mobility in terms domestic responsibilities, as well as the career-related variables of research output, international collaboration, and receipt of funding. Our focus then narrowed to only those women scientists who had recently been mobile, to provide insights on the benefits mobility offered them. The results are interpreted within a theoretical framework centered on patriarchy. Our findings lead us to challenge some conventional wisdoms, as well as recommend priorities for future research aimed at understanding, both theoretically and empirically, the mobility of women in the science systems of Africa, and the role it may play in their development as academic leaders in African higher education institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women and Leadership in Higher Education)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Crime Prevention Effect of the Second Generation Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Project in South Korea: An Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060187
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
Viewed by 515 | PDF Full-text (6041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Yeomni-dong Sogeum-gil, Korea, the first generation CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) project was implemented in 2012, focusing on improving the physical environment. Later, spreading nationwide, it was developed into the second generation CPTED, emphasizing the role of resident participation and improving [...] Read more.
In Yeomni-dong Sogeum-gil, Korea, the first generation CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) project was implemented in 2012, focusing on improving the physical environment. Later, spreading nationwide, it was developed into the second generation CPTED, emphasizing the role of resident participation and improving upon the weak points of the first project. This study makes a comparative analysis of crime reduction and diffusion before and after the second generation CPTED conducted in S-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, Korea, using crime location data to verify the crime prevention effect. Most previous studies on Korean CPTED projects sought verification through surveys that involved subjective opinions of the researchers or participants, creating the need for verification through quantitative and objective analysis based on crime data. This follow-up research examines the effects of the first generation CPTED Project by making an objective analysis of the differences in crime prevention effects between the first and the second project. Findings revealed that the second CPTED had a positive effect in reducing the rate of burglary and violent crime. The second generation CPTED project also led to the crime control benefits of crime diffusion, in contrast to the earlier project, where crime displacement occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Waste Management Analysis in Developing Countries through Unsupervised Classification of Mixed Data
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060186
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
Viewed by 553 | PDF Full-text (779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increase in global population and the improvement of living standards in developing countries has resulted in higher solid waste generation. Solid waste management increasingly represents a challenge, but it might also be an opportunity for the municipal authorities of these countries. To [...] Read more.
The increase in global population and the improvement of living standards in developing countries has resulted in higher solid waste generation. Solid waste management increasingly represents a challenge, but it might also be an opportunity for the municipal authorities of these countries. To this end, the awareness of a variety of factors related to waste management and an efficacious in-depth analysis of them might prove to be particularly significant. For this purpose, and since data are both qualitative and quantitative, a cluster analysis specific for mixed data has been implemented on the dataset. The analysis allows us to distinguish two well-defined groups. The first one is poorer, less developed, and urbanized, with a consequent lower life expectancy of inhabitants. Consequently, it registers lower waste generation and lower C O 2 emissions. Surprisingly, it is more engaged in recycling and in awareness campaigns related to it. Since the cluster discrimination between the two groups is well defined, the second cluster registers the opposite tendency for all the analyzed variables. In conclusion, this kind of analysis offers a potential pathway for academics to work with policy-makers in moving toward the realization of waste management policies tailored to the local context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adopting Circular Economy Current Practices and Future Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Burnout Syndrome on Teachers Well-Being: A Systematic Review
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060185
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 522 | PDF Full-text (856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Emotional Intelligence (EI) has become a key factor in educational environments, which facilitates and contributes to the mental well-being of teachers, and therefore, favours the teaching and learning process. However, education professionals are under constant stress. This stress is caused by a [...] Read more.
Background: Emotional Intelligence (EI) has become a key factor in educational environments, which facilitates and contributes to the mental well-being of teachers, and therefore, favours the teaching and learning process. However, education professionals are under constant stress. This stress is caused by a large number of social interactions, the new skills to be acquired, and the workload, developing in many situations the Burnout Syndrome (BS). Methods and Results: The study presents a systematic review, paying special attention to the scientific literature that combines IE and BS in the work performance of teachers as fundamental factors in the work carried out by educators at different educational stages, as well as the influence they have on the quality of the teaching-learning process. The Web of Science (WOS) has been used as a database, obtaining a total of 36 scientific articles intimately related to the topic of the work, published between 2005 and 2017. Many studies show that teachers are increasingly experiencing high feelings of stress, which affect the quality of education, as well as the relevance of developing emotional intelligence, which helps prevent these negative feelings from appearing. Conclusions: EI is a capacity that should be developed in teachers, since it gives the individual the ability to regulate his emotions, making him stronger in terms of decision-making in daily situations in the teaching environments, as well as being a key factor for the success of education. Through the positive reinforcement of EI, levels of stress and anxiety that worry society so much are reduced, since this avoids the feeling of frustration before their professional realisation, which leads to improved teaching practice, health and mental well-being of teachers. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Parenting Practices and Adjustment Profiles among Latino Youth in Rural Areas of the United States
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060184
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 445 | PDF Full-text (435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On average, Latino adolescents in the United States (U.S.) are at an elevated risk for developing internalizing symptoms, externalizing behaviors, and engaging in binge drinking. Latino youth in rural U.S. contexts may be particularly at risk. Parent–adolescent relationships may be associated with each [...] Read more.
On average, Latino adolescents in the United States (U.S.) are at an elevated risk for developing internalizing symptoms, externalizing behaviors, and engaging in binge drinking. Latino youth in rural U.S. contexts may be particularly at risk. Parent–adolescent relationships may be associated with each of these indicators of maladjustment, as well as the co-occurrence of these issues. In the current study, adjustment profiles based on internalizing symptoms, externalizing behaviors, and binge drinking among 198 Latino adolescents (Mage = 15.90, SD = 1.47) living in rural areas of the United States were examined. Further, the association of adjustment profiles with parental behavioral involvement, parental monitoring, and familial ethnic socialization was tested. Four adjustment profiles emerged from a cluster analysis (i.e., low risk, internalizing risk, externalizing risk, co-occurring risk). Results indicated that adolescents in the co-occurring risk profile reported the lowest levels of parental monitoring compared to the other three profiles, lower familial ethnic socialization compared to the low risk and internalizing risk profiles, and lower parental behavioral involvement compared to the internalizing risk profile. The findings have implications for family-based, culturally informed interventions to encourage positive adjustment among Latino adolescents in rural areas of the United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Family Diversity: Inclusive Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Community Planning Perspective and Its Role within the Social Policy of the Municipalities
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060183
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
Viewed by 494 | PDF Full-text (928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Community planning solves policy making at different levels of the state’s functioning. Each case has a specific aim and reflects the requirements of citizens. The structure of aims is adjusted to collective and individual levels of clarification of the effect on maximization of [...] Read more.
Community planning solves policy making at different levels of the state’s functioning. Each case has a specific aim and reflects the requirements of citizens. The structure of aims is adjusted to collective and individual levels of clarification of the effect on maximization of potential applications of community planning. The research was realized in the perspective of the municipalities of the Slovak Republic. We used a participatory model of community planning policy as a main tool of community planning potential detection. We emphasized the specific adjustment of community planning to social policy in the Slovak Republic. Data collection was realized by the quantitative research method of a questionnaire. The data were evaluated by a correlation analysis to identify the measure of relationship between variables. Cross-Tabs were used for description of observed categories representation. The results showed a positive effect of the public sector on maximization of community planning policy. On the other hand, the potential declined with rising involvement of the public sector. Individual approach of leading researchers had minimum or no effect on success. It is a collective perspective that decides. In confrontation with the current state, the research represents a unique approach and confirms the exceptionality of the issue. It identifies with the previous findings about a positive contribution of the public participation in community planning. The public perceives the problems critically, expresses the requirements and needs, proposes different solutions and represents important human capital. Additionally, it can make use of contacts and multiply the use of local resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Third-Generation Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060182
Received: 11 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
Viewed by 848 | PDF Full-text (5710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper advances crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) theory and practice by introducing a holistic and integrated crime prevention theory called Third-Generation CPTED. We use Third-Generation CPTED to expand both the situational focus of traditional CPTED and the social ecology/neighbourhood focus of [...] Read more.
This paper advances crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) theory and practice by introducing a holistic and integrated crime prevention theory called Third-Generation CPTED. We use Third-Generation CPTED to expand both the situational focus of traditional CPTED and the social ecology/neighbourhood focus of Second-Generation CPTED, by creating a new theory that integrates human motivation and aspirations within a neighbourhood Liveability Hierarchy. Central to our theory is the planning concept of liveability and, because safety from crime, fear, and victimization is such an integral part of quality of life, we present two underlying themes on which liveability depends: public health and sustainability. We propose some theoretical assumptions and propositions that underpin the theory and suggest areas for future research. Our contention is that a holistic and integrative Third-Generation CPTED elevates liveability from the role of basic infrastructure and habitat to providing residents with opportunities to enhance their own personal aspirations and improve their quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
“And Slowly, the Integration and the Growing and the Learning”: Nuanced Notions of Integration of Bhutanese Refugees in US Cities
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060181
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
Viewed by 442 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Policy related to refugee integration focuses on economic factors, while integration is not clearly operationalized nor is it being systematically measured and tracked in policy implementation. This study poses the question, how can local-level integration be conceptualized based on the perspectives of resettled [...] Read more.
Policy related to refugee integration focuses on economic factors, while integration is not clearly operationalized nor is it being systematically measured and tracked in policy implementation. This study poses the question, how can local-level integration be conceptualized based on the perspectives of resettled refugees, to add nuance to policy. Using a case study approach with a nation-wide scale, data include 40 interviews and five focus groups with leaders of Bhutanese refugee-run organizations in 35 cities across the United States. Findings illustrate the importance of bonds, bridges and links in non-linear, relational integration. Findings also suggest that better access to services and resources is the responsibility of policy-makers and would lead to stronger bridges over time. This complicates existing policy and implies that resettlement programming should remain individualized and contextual from the ground level to the national level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration and Resettlement of Refugees and Forced Migrants)
Open AccessArticle
Arrest and Referral Decisions in Sexual Assault Cases: The Influence of Police Discretion on Case Attrition
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060180
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
Viewed by 506 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research on sexual assault case attrition spans from the decision of victims to report the incidents and cooperate with police during investigations through the final case disposition in the courtroom. However, few studies have focused on how police discretion influences attrition at the [...] Read more.
Research on sexual assault case attrition spans from the decision of victims to report the incidents and cooperate with police during investigations through the final case disposition in the courtroom. However, few studies have focused on how police discretion influences attrition at the points of arrest and case referral. The current study examines factors of adult sexual assaults reported to the police to determine which legal and extralegal factors were predictive of arrest and which variables were predictive of police decisions to refer cases to prosecutors for consideration. The results of this study showed victim cooperation and evidence significantly predicted arrest and referral, along with variables which measured the seriousness of the case and victim credibility. The findings confirmed both legally relevant and extralegal variables were important considerations during each decision-making point. Implications arising from these results are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Violence Against Women)
Open AccessCommunication
Outgroup Contact, Anti-Foreigner Attitude, and Social Cohesion in the Caucasus: Evidence from a Population-Based Survey
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060179
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
Viewed by 477 | PDF Full-text (603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A substantial literature has emerged examining the relationship between ethnic diversity due to immigration and social cohesion in the host country. Empirical evidence concerning this relationship, however, remains inconsistent, if not contradictory. Aside from rare exceptions, the bulk of evidence is also based [...] Read more.
A substantial literature has emerged examining the relationship between ethnic diversity due to immigration and social cohesion in the host country. Empirical evidence concerning this relationship, however, remains inconsistent, if not contradictory. Aside from rare exceptions, the bulk of evidence is also based on North American and European countries. The present study focuses on a novel empirical context: Georgia, a country located in the South Caucasus. Based on multilevel modeling of population-based data, it examines the associations between outgroup contact and attitude toward immigrants and two measures of social cohesion: generalized trust and civic engagement. Results show that net of controls at individual and regional levels, a negative orientation toward foreigners significantly predicts lower trust in generalized others. Frequency of outgroup contact, on the other hand, is positively related to civic participation. This linkage is also weaker in geographic areas with higher levels of anti-immigrant attitude. A major policy implication from this study is to encourage more intergroup contact through effective residential integration, amongst other measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Climate Catastrophe and Stanley Milgram’s Electric Shock “Obedience” Experiments: An Uncanny Analogy
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060178
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
Viewed by 687 | PDF Full-text (1703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Awareness of impending climate catastrophe has greatly increased over the last 30 years. Increasing awareness, however, has not translated into decreasing but instead increasing greenhouse gas emissions. This paper aims to shed new light on this perplexing and ultimately destructive positive correlation. It [...] Read more.
Awareness of impending climate catastrophe has greatly increased over the last 30 years. Increasing awareness, however, has not translated into decreasing but instead increasing greenhouse gas emissions. This paper aims to shed new light on this perplexing and ultimately destructive positive correlation. It does so by applying a new interpretation of Milgram’s Obedience to Authority “electric shock” experiments to the problem of climate catastrophe. This paper reveals that both the Obedience Studies and climate catastrophe share a crucial common denominator: both involve powerful figures utilising manipulative techniques of bureaucratic organisation to push and pull the functionary helpers below them into contributing to preconceived goal achievement. In both cases, for the functionary helpers to achieve the goals of the powerful, all must agree to contribute to the infliction of harm on a powerless group. Nearly all helpers choose to make their harmful contributions because they not only stand to personally benefit, they also suspect that—with so many other links in the chain participating in goal achievement—they can probably do so with total impunity. It is argued that this comparison may help to better understand the complex, self-reinforcing, yet ultimately destructive relationship shared between fossil fuel corporations, the ideological pursuit of economic growth, political impotence, rapacious consumer demand, and impending climate catastrophe. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Building Relationships with Customer 4.0 in the Era of Marketing 4.0: The Case Study of Innovative Enterprises in Poland
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060177
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
Viewed by 577 | PDF Full-text (1824 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: Contemporary enterprises are putting more and more emphasis on shaping lasting and effective relationships with clients. This is not an easy task, especially in the conditions of Marketing 4.0, which imposes on enterprises the need to holistically consider the needs as [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Contemporary enterprises are putting more and more emphasis on shaping lasting and effective relationships with clients. This is not an easy task, especially in the conditions of Marketing 4.0, which imposes on enterprises the need to holistically consider the needs as well as the skills and inventiveness of customers. It can be assumed that Clients 4.0 require both changes in the scope of business processes and shaping communication with their environment. That is why it is important today to skillfully and correctly determine the complexity of communication with Clients 4.0, as well as to determine the importance of communication with clients for the development of enterprises—especially those operating in innovative industries. (2) Methods: Empirical research was carried out on a sample of 100 innovative enterprises listed on the NewConnect market in Poland. The respondents were managers at various levels. Two indicators were constructed based on these assessments: Customer Relationships Importance Index (CRII) and Customer Communication Complexity Index (CCCI). (3) Results: It was determined that the complexity of communication of innovative enterprises with customers is at a high level. What is more, the importance of relationships with Customers 4.0 for the development of innovative enterprises is at a high level. It was also indicated that there is no correlation between the level of complexity of relationships with Customers 4.0 and the importance of these relationships for the development of innovative enterprises. (4) Conclusions: Based on the survey, it can be assumed that the relations with Clients 4.0 have the greatest share in shaping the development of innovative enterprises in the areas of minimizing the number of complaints, financial liquidity and efficiency of core business processes. It is also important that, in shaping the complexity of communication with Clients 4.0, enterprises mainly consider traditional phone calls and email account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
“Boys ‘Round Here”: Masculine Life-Course Narratives in Contemporary Country Music
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060176
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
Viewed by 618 | PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Country music remains one of the most popular genres in U.S. American society but is historically under-researched compared to rock, rap and other styles. This article extends the social science literature on the genre by examining themes of masculine identity in popular country [...] Read more.
Country music remains one of the most popular genres in U.S. American society but is historically under-researched compared to rock, rap and other styles. This article extends the social science literature on the genre by examining themes of masculine identity in popular country hits of the current century. A content analysis of 35 top country hits from the last 15 years of the Billboard charts reveals three key masculine archetypes: the lover, the family man and particularly the country boy, which is the dominant masculine image within the last few years of the genre. Together, the three create a life-course narrative where the rambunctious country boy will eventually settle into monogamous heterosexual romance, with marriage and fatherhood presented as the ultimate achievement of successful manhood. A fourth, lesser, archetype, the roughneck, presents an “arrested development” version of the country boy, fully-grown but rejecting the social and familial responsibilities of the other archetypes. These narratives simultaneously challenge some aspects of hegemonic masculinity (urbanity, white-collar labor) while reinforcing others (whiteness, heterosexuality). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Identity)
Open AccessArticle
Bad Witches: Gender and the Downfall of Elizabeth Holmes of Theranos and Disney’s Maleficent
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060175
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
Viewed by 701 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Female villains, both fictional and real, are subject to unconscious gender bias when part of their iniquity involves the disruption of male authority. Disney’s most popular animated villain, Maleficent, from Sleeping Beauty (1959) and Elizabeth Holmes of the now-disgraced blood testing startup, Theranos, [...] Read more.
Female villains, both fictional and real, are subject to unconscious gender bias when part of their iniquity involves the disruption of male authority. Disney’s most popular animated villain, Maleficent, from Sleeping Beauty (1959) and Elizabeth Holmes of the now-disgraced blood testing startup, Theranos, reveled in their power, deviating from idealized feminine propriety. An analysis of scenes featuring Maleficent, the “mistress of all evil”, and coverage of Elizabeth Holmes, once the first self-made female billionaire, illustrate how powerful women with hubris are censured beyond their misdeeds. Elizabeth Holmes’ adoption of a deep voice and other masculine characteristics parallels Maleficent’s demeanor and appearance that signal female usurpation of traditional male power. Both antagonists also engage in finger pricking that penetrates the skin and draws blood, acts associated with symbolic male potency. The purported ability to bewitch, in conjunction with the adoption of patterns associated with male dominance, suggest that Maleficent and Elizabeth Holmes wield power over men and wield the power of men. Discomfort with the way in which magical powers were allegedly employed by these women echo historical fears of witches accused of appropriating male power. Furthermore, powerful women who encroach on male authority but ultimately fail to upend the gender hierarchy trigger schadenfreude beyond that expected from their wrongdoings. In the end, the stories of Maleficent and Elizabeth Holmes celebrate the downfall of women who brazenly embrace power, without showing women how to challenge the gender hierarchy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
When Teacher Becomes Student: Unveiling Contradictions within Australian Social Work Education
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060174
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
Viewed by 599 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Social work education in Australia is bound by a range of rules and assumptions supported by both higher education institutions and the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW). This autoethnography explores a range of contradictions within social work education from the unique perspective [...] Read more.
Social work education in Australia is bound by a range of rules and assumptions supported by both higher education institutions and the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW). This autoethnography explores a range of contradictions within social work education from the unique perspective of someone who was simultaneously a student and academic in social work. This experience occurred because, although PhD qualified in social work, rulings set down by the AASW lead to me being excluded from consideration in permanent roles. The position led me to becoming an online Master of Social Work (MSW) student whilst still being a social work educator allowing me to explore a range of contradictory rules and processes within social work education. Analysis of my reflections, journals, assignments and conversations with colleagues unveiled a range of mixed messages in relation to social inclusion, technical rationalism, self-care and field placement supervision. My findings contribute to current debates about how neoliberalism currently impacts on inclusion in social work education and development of a professional identity. In exploring my dual roles, this autoethnography unveils contradictions within social work education and accreditation that question the social justice mission of the profession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personal Essays in Social Science)
Open AccessArticle
Debt and Deficit Growth Rate Reporting for Post-Communist European Union Member States
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060173
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
Viewed by 609 | PDF Full-text (2151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A focalized analysis and reporting on the problems of general government debt (GGD) and government deficit (GD) and their influencing factors on economic growth rate tell the story of positive, neutral, and negative economies. Research was conducted over a nineteen-year period between 2000 [...] Read more.
A focalized analysis and reporting on the problems of general government debt (GGD) and government deficit (GD) and their influencing factors on economic growth rate tell the story of positive, neutral, and negative economies. Research was conducted over a nineteen-year period between 2000 and 2018 on all eleven post-communist European Union Member States (MS). MSs are divided in to three regional blocks: (1) the Baltic countries, (2) Central and Eastern European countries, and (3) the Balkan countries. Reviewed literature examined different types of GGD and GD with denoted influence on each MS’s economy and government. GGD and GD increase as a result of State intervention by reacting to economic fluctuations needed in creating redistributive-related fiscal policy. A breakdown of the problems of fiscal policy is explained. Datasets were compiled and systematically analyzed using Eurostat indicators. European regulatory benchmarking was used for GGD and GD as a percentage of gross domestic product. Results were divided at the regional group level. Comparative tax systems based on total general government revenue as well as total tax and contribution rate were evaluated. Histo-geographical research was considered and a comparative examination of GGD, GD and growth rate illustrated. In terms of GGD, GD, and growth rate, the Baltic countries were best situated, while all other countries were generally stable—with the exception of Hungary, Croatia, and Slovenia. In all, negative or stagnant periods revealed a general positive trend throughout the study with the exception of the world financial crisis of 2008, in which a deteriorative impact on growth rate was evident in all MS—especially from 2009. In the latter years, MSs’ economic promise signals a high potential for renewed public finance and stability initiatives. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Women in Higher Education Management: Agents for Cultural and Structural Change?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060172
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
Viewed by 558 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article examines whether and under which conditions a rising participation of women in higher education management contributes to cultural and structural change in science and research. In Austria, the introduction of a statutory quota regulation for university decision-making bodies like the rectorate, [...] Read more.
This article examines whether and under which conditions a rising participation of women in higher education management contributes to cultural and structural change in science and research. In Austria, the introduction of a statutory quota regulation for university decision-making bodies like the rectorate, the senate, or the university council brought about a rapid and substantial increase in the share of female rectors and vice rectors. However, there are also gender-specific differences among rectorate members: women are significantly younger than men when they take up a rectorate position and switch less frequently from a professorship to such a position. This situation and the gender expertise of the rectors and vice rectors themselves contribute to the potential for change. Explicit gender equality goals and the establishment of gender competence as a qualification criterion for all rectors and vice rectors would be needed to make use of the potential of women in the rectorate to be agents for cultural and structural change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women and Leadership in Higher Education)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Queerly Unequal: LGBT+ Students and Mentoring in Higher Education
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060171
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
Viewed by 540 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sociological research has illuminated the importance of mentoring relationships, especially in regard to education. The literature has also shown that mentoring can help disadvantaged students access social and cultural capital that aids their academic achievement. Furthermore, mentoring relationships are more successful between mentees [...] Read more.
Sociological research has illuminated the importance of mentoring relationships, especially in regard to education. The literature has also shown that mentoring can help disadvantaged students access social and cultural capital that aids their academic achievement. Furthermore, mentoring relationships are more successful between mentees and mentors of the same race, class, or gender. However, there is little research about queer students’ experiences with mentoring relationships in regard to education. In an effort to expand the literature on mentoring relationships and queer students I conducted ten in-depth interviews with queer identified undergraduate students at a large university in the Southeast United States. Using these interviews, I examined respondents’ perception of their social exclusion, coping through resiliency, and prosocial behavior through mentoring others. I found that being openly queer posed an identity-based risk for students’ ability to access mentoring relationships, in turn this risk increased their perception of resiliency and prosocial behavior. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Development of the Health and Social Care Sector in the Regions of the Czech Republic in Comparison with other EU Countries
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060170
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
Viewed by 571 | PDF Full-text (1480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the quantitative status of employees in the Health and Social Care sector in the Czech Republic is assessed, and the future development of the sector is predicted both for the Czech Republic as a whole, and for individual regions according [...] Read more.
In this paper, the quantitative status of employees in the Health and Social Care sector in the Czech Republic is assessed, and the future development of the sector is predicted both for the Czech Republic as a whole, and for individual regions according to the NUTS3 classification. At present, labor market prognoses are created using the ROA-CERGE model, which includes the main professions in the Health and Social Care sector. This article expands the predictions by adding the regional level and using extrapolation of time series, and it identifies the regions important for the given sector and the labor force. The position of the Czech Republic with regard to selected professions in comparison with other countries of the European Union, i.e., its qualitative status, is also assessed in the paper. The following professions are assessed: general nurses and midwives (both with and without a specialization), physicians, and professional assistants. Healthcare workers do not manifest geographical mobility between regions and work primarily in the region where they live. Since the Czech Republic’s accession to the EU, staff working in key professions have been able to work under comparable conditions in any of the member states. The workforce flow depends, among other things, on its qualitative representation in the given country. To find groups of European countries with similar characteristics of quantitative coverage in selected professions in the Health and Social Care sector, cluster analysis is used to identify homogeneous clusters of countries, as of 2016. Secondary data was obtained from the Czech Statistical Office (CZSO) and the Information System (ISA+) of the National Institute of Education (NIE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adopting Circular Economy Current Practices and Future Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Importance of Information Management in the Context of Industry 4.0: Evidence from the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Forbes Diamonds
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060169
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
Viewed by 560 | PDF Full-text (953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, the role of information and of the tools facilitating its acquisition and processing is so significant that, in the economic nomenclature, there are already such concepts as an information civilization or information society. The aftermath of this state of affairs is the [...] Read more.
Currently, the role of information and of the tools facilitating its acquisition and processing is so significant that, in the economic nomenclature, there are already such concepts as an information civilization or information society. The aftermath of this state of affairs is the commercial breakthrough consisting of the enterprise’s success on the intellectual capital rather than the material one. This article aims to show the outline of the information management process and to determine how its components are used in companies. The first part of the paper is devoted to the description of information management concepts in enterprises and the functioning of organizational information systems. The second part of the study includes the results of original research carried out using the Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) method on the 70 Kuyavian-Pomeranian enterprises counted among the Forbes Diamonds 2018. An analysis of the obtained results indicates that the level of diversity of methods and frequencies of information channels used depends on the size of the entity, its capital structure, and the industry in which they operate. The primary sources of information for the surveyed companies are customers and competitors. The respondents agree that a well-functioning enterprise information system facilitates making decisions in the company and improves internal communication. The most frequently implemented development strategy in the analyzed companies is the market development strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Increasing Gender Diversity in Higher Education Leadership: The Role of Executive Search Firms
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060168
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
Viewed by 826 | PDF Full-text (290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Women are under-represented in leadership roles in United Kingdom Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Existing scholarship focuses on institutional barriers, which include cognitive bias and entrenched homosocial cultures, rather than external factors such as the use of executive search firms (ESFs) in recruitment and [...] Read more.
Women are under-represented in leadership roles in United Kingdom Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Existing scholarship focuses on institutional barriers, which include cognitive bias and entrenched homosocial cultures, rather than external factors such as the use of executive search firms (ESFs) in recruitment and selection. Recent research indicates that the use of ESFs is increasing for senior HEI appointments. This analysis offers insights on these firms’ involvement from a gender equality perspective, based on the results from a study that used a ‘virtuous circle’ approach to research and knowledge exchange. The requirement for HEIs to pay ‘due regard’ to equality considerations under the Public Sector Equality Duty provides a framework for analysis. This paper provides new insights on the dynamics within recruitment processes when ESFs are involved and on how a legislative approach can leverage better equality outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women and Leadership in Higher Education)
Soc. Sci. EISSN 2076-0760 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top