Neighborhood Influence: A Qualitative Study in Cáceres, an Aspiring Age-Friendly City
2. Background: Spain and Cáceres Context
3. Theoretical Underpinning
4. Materials and Methods
- Elderly people do most of their activities in the neighborhood, therefore the components of the neighborhood will directly affect elderly residents.
- People who live in neighborhoods better suited for their daily activities will enjoy healthier and more successful aging.
- The perception of the environment can, positively or negatively, influence individuals by creating psychological barriers that can limit their activities and, therefore, decrease successful aging.
4.1. Grounded Theory and Qualitative Analysis
4.2. In-Depth Interviews
- Activities. Questions were asked about activities carried out throughout the week, taking into account both formal—workshops, courses, association meetings, etc.—and informal—purchases, home care, leisure activities, free time, etc.—activities. The focus of this item was to identify the physical places in which theses activities take place.
- Social relationships. Questions were asked about what kind of social interactions—friends, companions, relatives, etc.—elderly people have during the week and where those interactions usually to take place.
- Level of satisfaction with the neighborhood. The goal of this item was to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the neighborhood as perceived by elderly residents.
- Perceived health and well-being. The goal of this item was to understand the relationship between subjects physical health and their subjective experience of well-being, as well as the decision to participate or abstain from certain activities.
4.3. Setting and Subjects
5.1. Influence of the Neighborhood in the Well-Being, Identity, Comfort, Loneliness and Abandonment
In the back we had a very good neighbor, Ana but she also left, very young.The husband also left and the son has gone … he was a teacher, he went away. In the end I do not have neighbors.(I:11; N.A)3
Each time we are less because they are dying and we are elderly(I:04; N.A.)
Man, that gives a lot of safety, and the bars a lot of safety because you see yourself in a bind in a moment, you go into a bar and call home. […] Because anyone follows you, you go into a bar, here we know everyone.(I: 11; N.B)
Here there are no neighbors! […]This is one is divorced, that he lives his life goes in and out and it’s over. This one there are students, the other there are students. The one above my sister-in-law, who is 86 years old, and the other over there are also students. There are 3 flats with students and 3 flats with us.(I: 13; N.B)
- Family meetings could decrease in frequency due to the distance between homes and the lack of free time of young adults (Wiles et al. 2012). The modern family structure, in which both parties work outside the home, can also be an obstacle for family meetings, in addition to the shift away from the intergenerational family, which has become a concept of the past (Beard and Bloom 2015). One participant illustrates the challenges of modern family life:Because in my house I saw that my parents took care of my grandparents and that, but my mother was dedicated to the children, to the husband and to … to take care of the people. But I understand that now … if you are not able to take care of your children how are you going to be able to take care of the elderly? Well, how? … no, you do not have time. I see that my daughter, how she is going to take care of me, how? … if she keeps working taking care of her own … you know, when? How?(I.12; N.A)
- Due to the distance between homes, elderly people must travel long distances to meet with family members, requiring the use of a car, especially when the elderly have assumed the role of the informal caregivers:What happens is that as I usually have to pick up a child, I have to take the car. If not, if I do not have to pick up any children or do not have to take them anywhere, I go walking.(I: 14; N.B)
5.2. Influence of the Neighborhood on the Activities and Routines of the Elderly Residents
But there in the park, now when the holidays arrive we will go to the park. She (her granddaughter) loves it. Also, as it has the water and then there at the end it has the pond, there are frogs … and we are always trying to hunt a frog.(I: 02; N.B)
In front of their house there is a park, the avenues are big … where my son lives, there is everything; supermarkets […]Because there (a newly built neighborhood) they have absolutely everything, they have primary schools, high-schools … absolutely everything. And we here … […]Because yes, it is true, we do not even have a sports center, a park, or anything …(I: 10; N.A)
- Secondary activity (derived from the primary activity). The goal of walking is doing exercise while another activity —the main activity— is being done. A significant example could be the daily shopping, related to buying vegetables, bread or fresh fruit. Instead of going straight to the local shop, the study participants looked for a longer route, going a round about way, with the only aim of walking a bit more, and, in doing so, getting the recommended amount of daily exercise.
- Main activity. As expected, for several in the sample, walking is a form of physical exercise; therefore, it is as an activity with the exclusive purpose of self care.
And then I take advantage when I go shopping and I go walking, and in this way, I do exercise too (laughs).(I: 09; N.A.)
I prefer to go far, better. Look, at the door of the house I have bread, but I go to Santa Joaquina (far) to buy it. So I get my walk, I train …(I: 15, N.B)
But good … well I know, I should take more care of myself. Now for example that I do not go to the gym … although it is true that I walk a lot.(I: 10; N.A)
The days that I do not come here (The Home for the Elderly) in the morning I pick up the girl, I put her in the chair and we go to the Ronda Norte, we see storefronts and things and then I come to prepare the food.
Yes, but well, less because we go to the park in the morning and we always move through this circle (in their neighborhood) but in summer I go to the classical theater, when they play movies in the Balbos forum or if there is something special in the Old Town (neighborhood A), I also go.(I:16, N.B)
5.3. Influence of the Neighborhood on the Feeling of Community, Safety and Social Relationships
5.3.1. Relationships with Local Businesses: Safety
And for me all this is very familiar, because … I have everything and more, all kinds of shops … anyway, if I do not want to leave the neighborhood, I do not leave, I am very good here I am very happy.(I:18; N.B)
I think, I do not know the other neighborhoods but I think … that you have everything you need at hand. You have the church; you have the shops … many supermarkets.(I: 17; N.B)
There is a small supermarket but it is very expensive and the shops are also expensive those shops that have a little bit of everything.(I: 03, N.A)
Yes, but well, when we have to do a big shop for everything, we go to Carrefour (hypermarket). But come on, if not, here there is a very good assortment of supermarkets.(I: 16; N.B)
Yes, but well, when we have to do a big shop for everything, we go to Carrefour (hypermarket). But come on, if not, here there is a very good assortment of supermarkets.(I: 16; N.B)
Ah yes, there is nothing to buy. You have to take the car and go to Mercadona (big supermarket) or Eroski (hypermarket). There are two or three local shops but come on, to do a shop, a real shopping … you have to go outside.(I: 08, N.A)
I already told you, my daughters have to accompany me to do the shopping, at Eroski (hypermarket) up there (by car)(I: 04; N.A)
I always buy fruit, fish and meat in the neighborhood. I see it like that, in the big supermarkets, I barely buy those kinds of products. Here is my butcher, my fruit seller and my daughters order me the fruit, it is very good fruit.(I: 14; N.B)
There the boy from the pharmacy every time I pass, he says “oh well, here is the joy!” (Laughs). […]Yes, yes, it is the one I go to because it is the closest one. They already know me from the years I have been here, you know.(I: 10; N.B)
But then if, in the shops, everyone knows you, they trust you … they let you take the clothes to your house to try on, I … for me everywhere. […]In the places where I already have trust and where I almost always go.(I: 18; N.B)
5.3.2. Religion and Elderly Associations
On Sundays and every day. I have the church here very close, Santo Domingo and I go there to the friars.(I: 02, N.A)
I really like the Old Town, a lot. Every time someone comes I go there, although, usually, I do not go alone. But when someone comes, relatives or friends, always, I always take them to the historic center.(I: 14; N.B)
And then Monday, Wednesday and Friday we walk here from 10 to 11 (ETC program). And then at 11 on Mondays and Thursdays we stay at the park (Parque del Príncipe) because we play petanque. Then we go walking, we say goodbye, people leave and a few of us stay with others who come from here from the Home (Hogar de mayores), and we play petanque.(I: 17; N.B)
But we do not have parks, we have absolutely nothing. In other words, it is very nice because you are in the historic center and if you like stones and such … but of course, you do not have large avenues …(I: 10; N.A)
Conflicts of Interest
- Abellán García, Antonio, Alba Ayala García, Julio Pérez Díaz, and Rogelio Pujol Rodríguez. 2018. Un perfil de las personas mayores en españa, 2018. indicadores estadísticos básicos. In Informes Envejecimiento en Red. Madrid: CSIC-Instituto de Economía, Geografía y Demografía (IEGD), pp. 32–37. [Google Scholar]
- Almeida, Maria. 2014. A identidade na velhice. In Envelhecimento, Saúde e Cidadania. Coimbra: UICISA: E, pp. 13–37. [Google Scholar]
- Andréu Abela, Jaime, Antonio García-Nieto, and Ana Pérez Corbacho. 2007. Evolución de la teoría fundamentada como técnica de análisis cualitativo. Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ayuntamiento, de Cáceres. 2018. Análisis de las cifras de población obtenidas a 01 de enero de 2018. Cáceres: Ayuntamiento de Cáceres. [Google Scholar]
- Bauman, Adrian, Rodrigo Reis, James Sallis, Jonathan Wells, Ruth Loos, Brian Martin, and Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. 2012. Correlates of physical activity: Why are some people physically active and others not? The Lancet 380: 258–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bazo, María Teresa. 1992. La nueva sociología de la vejez: De la teoría a los métodos. Reis, 75–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bazo, María Teresa, and Benjamín García Sanz. 2014. Envejecimiento y sociedad: Una perspectiva internacional. Edited by Pilar Rodriguez. Madrid: Médica Panamericana. [Google Scholar]
- Beard, Hon Prof John, and David Bloom. 2015. Towards a comprehensive public health response to population ageing. Lancet (London, England) 385: 658–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Buffel, Tine, Chris Phillipson, and Thomas Scharf. 2012. Ageing in urban environments: Developing ‘age-friendly’ cities. Critical Social Policy 32: 597–617. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cerin, Ester, Terry L. Conway, Marc A. Adams, Anthony Barnett, Kelli L. Cain, Neville Owen, Lars B. Christiansen, Delfien Van Dyck, Josef Mitáš, Olga L. Sarmiento, and et al. 2018. Objectively-assessed neighbourhood destination accessibility and physical activity in adults from 10 countries: An analysis of moderators and perceptions as mediators. Social Science & Medicine 211: 282–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chao, Alfredo Alfageme. 2005. Desigualdades mundiales ante el proceso de envejecimiento demográfico. Recerca: revista de pensament i anàlisi 5: 41–62. [Google Scholar]
- Chen, Hong, Jeffrey C. Kwong, Ray Copes, Karen Tu, Paul J. Villeneuve, Aaron Van Donkelaar, Perry Hystad, Randall V. Martin, Brian J. Murray, Barry Jessiman, and et al. 2017. Living near major roads and the incidence of dementia, parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis: A population-based cohort study. The Lancet 389: 718–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Conde, Paloma, Marta Gutiérrez, María Sandín, Julia Díez, Luisa Borrell, Jesús Rivera-Navarro, and Manuel Franco. 2018. Changing neighborhoods and residents’ health perceptions: The heart healthy hoods qualitative study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15: 1617. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Corbin, Juliet M., and Anselm Strauss. 1990. Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology 13: 3–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cordero del Castillo, Prisciliano. 2007. Situación social de las personas mayores en españa. Humanismo y trabajo Social 5: 161–95. [Google Scholar]
- Dias, Isabel. 2012. O uso das tecnologias digitais entre os seniores: Motivações e interesses. Sociología, problemas e práticas 68: 51–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- EUROSTAT. 2017. estructura demográfica y envejecimiento de la población. Luxembourg: Eurostat (Statistics Explained). [Google Scholar]
- Gallego, J. I. Rengifo, A. J. Campesino Fernández, and J. M. Sánchez Martín. 2015. El turismo en la ciudad de cáceres (1986-2010): un cuarto de siglo emblemático. Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles 67: 375–401. [Google Scholar]
- Gavrilov, L. A., and P. Heuveline. 2003. Aging of population. In The Encyclopedia of Population. Edited by P. Demeny and G. McNicoll. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, pp. 32–37. [Google Scholar]
- Giménez, Rubén Cuñat. 2007. Aplicación de la teoría fundamentada (grounded theory) al estudio del proceso de creación de empresas. In Decisiones basadas en el conocimiento y en el papel social de la empresa: XX Congreso anual de AEDEM. Vigo: Asociación Española de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa (AEDEM), p. 44. [Google Scholar]
- Giraldo Prato, Marisela. 2011. Abordaje de la investigación cualitativa a través de la teoría fundamentada en los datos. Ingeniería Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias 6: 79–86. [Google Scholar]
- Glaser, Barney G., and Anselm L. Strauss. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine. [Google Scholar]
- Glass, Thomas A., and Jennifer L. Balfour. 2003. Neighborhoods, aging, and functional limitations. Neighborhoods and Health 1: 303–34. [Google Scholar]
- Havighurst, Robert J. 1963. Successful aging. Processes of Aging: Social and Psychological Perspectives 1: 299–320. [Google Scholar]
- Hernández Carrera, Rafael Manuel. 2014. La investigación cualitativa a través de entrevistas: Su análisis mediante la teoría fundamentada. Cuestiones Pedagógicas 23: 187–210. [Google Scholar]
- Hoffimann, Elaine, Henrique Barros, and Ana Ribeiro. 2017. Socioeconomic inequalities in green space quality and accessibility—Evidence from a southern european city. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14: 916. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Howell, Sandra C. 1983. The meaning of place in old age. In Aging and Milieu: Environmental Perspectives on Growing Old. New York: Academic Press, pp. 97–107. [Google Scholar]
- IEEX. 2018a. Datos padrón extremadura, resultado detallados 2019. Mérida: Instituto de estadística de extremadura. [Google Scholar]
- IEEX. 2018b. Datos padrón municipios de cáceres, resultado detallados 2018. Mérida: Instituto de estadística de extremadura. [Google Scholar]
- IMF. 2018. GDP by Countries. Washington: International Monetary Fund. [Google Scholar]
- INE. 2018a. Indicadores de mortalidad: esperanza de vida a los 65 años; Madrid: INE.
- INE. 2018b. Instituto nacional de estadística: Indicadores de estructura de la población; Madrid: INE.
- INE. 2019. Instituto nacional de estadística: Población de 16 y más años por nivel de formación alcanzado; Madrid: INE.
- Lawton, M. P. 1989. Behavior-relevant ecological factors. In Social Structure and Aging Psychological Processes. Edited by K. Schaie and C. Schooler. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlabaum Associates, Inc., pp. 57–78. [Google Scholar]
- Lecovich, Esther. 2014. Aging in place: From theory to practice. Anthropological Notebooks 20: 21–33. [Google Scholar]
- Lee, I.-Min, Eric J. Shiroma, Felipe Lobelo, Pekka Puska, Steven N. Blair, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, and Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. 2012. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. The Lancet 380: 219–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lopes, Alexandra, Teresa Pinto, and Rute Lemos. 2016. Age-friendly cities and the who checklist: Lessons from a portuguese survey. In International Perspectives on Age-Friendly Cities. Edited by K. G. Fitzgerald and F. G. Caro. London and New York: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Luján, Noemí. 2010. Lo cualitativo como estrategia de investigación: Apuntes y reflexiones. In El arte de investigar. Edited by Pablo Mejía and José Manuel Juárez y Sonia Comboni. México: Mc Editores, pp. 213–31. [Google Scholar]
- Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press, vol. 11. [Google Scholar]
- McGhee, Gerry, Glenn R. Marland, and Jacqueline Atkinson. 2007. Grounded theory research: Literature reviewing and reflexivity. Journal of Advanced Nursing 60: 334–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nieto, A., and C. García. 2014. Análisis del envejecimiento demográfico en extremadura a escala de detalle: Distritos y secciones censales. In Actas XIV Congreso Nacional de la Población. Cambio demográfico y socio territorial en un contexto de crisis. Grupo de Población de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles. Sevilla: University of Sevilla, pp. 83–94. [Google Scholar]
- Phillipson, Chris. 2011. Growing Older in Urban Environments: Perspectives from Japan and the UK: A Report on a Symposium Held in Church House Conference Centre, Westminster, London, March 29–30 2011. London: International Longevity Centre-UK. [Google Scholar]
- Puga González, María Dolores, and Antonio Abellán García. 2006. Las escalas territoriales del envejecimiento. SEMATA, Ciencia Sociais e Humanidades 18: 121–41. [Google Scholar]
- Remy, Jean, and Liliane Voyé. 1976. La ciudad y la urbanización. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios de Administración Local. [Google Scholar]
- Requena, Antonio Trinidad. 2006. El nuevo discurso de los mayores: La construcción de una nueva identidad social. Revista Española de Sociología 6: 65–90. [Google Scholar]
- Rodríguez, G., P. Rodríguez, P. Castejón, and E. Morán. 2013. Las personas mayores que vienen. Autonomía, solidaridad y participación social. Madrid: Fundación Pilares. [Google Scholar]
- Ronzi, Sara, Daniel Pope, Lois Orton, and Nigel Bruce. 2016. Using photovoice methods to explore older people’s perceptions of respect and social inclusion in cities: Opportunities, challenges and solutions. SSM-Population Health 2: 732–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sallis, James F., Ester Cerin, Terry L. Conway, Marc A. Adams, Lawrence D. Frank, Michael Pratt, Deborah Salvo, Jasper Schipperijn, Graham Smith, Kelli L. Cain, and et al. 2016. Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study. The Lancet 387: 2207–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sallis, James F., Neville Owen, and E. Fisher. 2015. Ecological models of health behavior. Health Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practice 5: 43–64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sancho, Mayte, Dolores Puga González, and Aina Faus Bertomeu. 2015. Deconstruyendo la vejez, construyendo la atención a los mayores. entrevista con mayte sancho. Encrucijadas-Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales 10: 1–15. [Google Scholar]
- Sancho Prieto, Daniel, Diego Herranz Andújar, and Pilar Rodríguez Rodríguez. 2015. Envejecer sin ser mayor: Nuevos roles en la participación social en la edad de jubilación. Madrid: Fundación Pilares para la Autonomía Personal. [Google Scholar]
- Stafford, Mai, and Michael Marmot. 2003. Neighbourhood deprivation and health: Does it affect us all equally? International Journal Epidemiology 32: 357–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Strauss, Anselm L., and Juliet Corbin. 2002. Bases de la investigación cualitativa: Técnicas y procedimientos para desarrollar la teoría fundamentada. Medellín: Universidad de Antioquia. [Google Scholar]
- Vargas Beal, Xavier. 2011. ¿Cómo hacer investigación cualitativa? Una guía práctica para saber qué es la investigación en general y cómo hacerla, con énfasis en las etapas de la investigación cualitativa. México: ETXETA. [Google Scholar]
- Vinuesa, Julio, and Antonio Moreno Jiménez. 2000. Sociodemografía. In Gerontología Social. Madrid: Pirámide, pp. 55–78. [Google Scholar]
- WHO. 2002. Active Ageing: A Police Framework. Geneva: WHO. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WHO. 2007. Global Age-Friendly Cities: A Guide. Geneva: WHO. [Google Scholar]
- Wiggins, Richard D., Paul F. D. Higgs, Martin Hyde, and David B. Blane. 2004. Quality of life in the third age: Key predictors of the casp-19 measure. Ageing & Society 24: 693–708. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wiles, Janine L., Annette Leibing, Nancy Guberman, Jeanne Reeve, and Ruth E. S. Allen. 2012. The meaning of “aging in place” to older people. The Gerontologist 52: 357–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
It is an official institution dependent of the autonomous community of Extremadura (Spain) https://saludextremadura.ses.es/sepad/inicio.
I would like to thank SEPAD and their related entities, the Nursing Homes, the workshops of the University of the Third Age (Universidad Popular), the Exercise Take Care program of the City Council and the University of the Elderly (Universidad del Mayor), for facilitating contact with interviewees.
I:11 means interviewee number 11 and N.A means Neighborhood A.
© 2019 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Domínguez-Párraga, L. Neighborhood Influence: A Qualitative Study in Cáceres, an Aspiring Age-Friendly City. Soc. Sci. 2019, 8, 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060195
Domínguez-Párraga L. Neighborhood Influence: A Qualitative Study in Cáceres, an Aspiring Age-Friendly City. Social Sciences. 2019; 8(6):195. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060195Chicago/Turabian Style
Domínguez-Párraga, Lidia. 2019. "Neighborhood Influence: A Qualitative Study in Cáceres, an Aspiring Age-Friendly City" Social Sciences 8, no. 6: 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060195