Special Issue "Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society"

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760). This special issue belongs to the section "Social Economics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sebastian Kot
Website
Guest Editor
The Management Faculty, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, North-West University (NWU), South Africa
Interests: sustainable development; supply chain; CSR
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Beata Ślusarczyk
Website
Guest Editor
The Management Faculty, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland Faculty of Economic Sciences and IT, North-West University (NWU), South Africa
Interests: industrial policy; globalization; innovation and entrepreneurship
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Daniel Francois Meyer
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, North-West University, South Africa
Interests: local economic development; economics; international trade; tourism; small business development; enabling environment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Paula Pypłacz
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Management, Institute of Management Information Systems, Czestochowa University of Technology, 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
Interests: process management; digitization and computerization of processes; business models in Economy 4.0; information systems; information and communication technologies (ICT); innovations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In today's world, there are unprecedented changes in various industries, mainly characterized by progressive digital transformation, the creation of the connection networks between products, value chains and business models. These activities take place within the fourth industrial revolution, called "Industry 4.0".

The new technologies, in particular: Digitization and computerization of production processes and market processes, drive Industry 4.0 but the need to build a competitive advantage still remains the real foundation of ongoing change. Today, this advantage is primarily created by the unprecedented flexibility of business.

The central issue in Economy 4.0 is to understand the impact of robotization and artificial intelligence on industry and the economy, and to adapt business models to increasingly-demanding customers. The active role of the state as a creator and regulator of innovation is also indispensable.

Considering the trends of changes within Industry 4.0, nine leading technological solutions can be identified that will revolutionize industrial production and services; these are: Big data and analytics, cloud technology, autonomous robots, simulations, augmented reality, horizontal and vertical software integration, industrial use of the Internet of things, cybersecurity, 3D printers application.

Industry 4.0 creates huge opportunities for the development of enterprises and, hence, national economies, but also raises worker concerns regarding their employment in the new conditions of robotic production and services. Industry 4.0 not only affects the demand for new professions, it also redefines the labor market and changes all the rules that are known so far.

Given this, this Special Issue on “Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society” fills a considerable gap in the literature. It encourages a diverse set of submissions and we will welcome papers that, inter alia, refer to (but are not limited to) themes such as:

  1. Big data and analytics in consumer behavior prediction.
  2. Influence of the most important Industry 4.0 factors on production and services.
  3. Industry 4.0 influence on employment market transformation.
  4. Society resistance against Industry 4.0.
  5. Industry 4.0 involvement in MSME.
  6. Reshoring as the result of Industry 4.0.
  7. Government support influence on Industry 4.0 implementation.
  8. Education for Industry 4.0.

The insights gained will be useful both for students, practitioners, as well as policy makers.

Prof. Sebastian Kot
Prof. Beata Ślusarczyk
Prof. Daniel Francois Meyer
Dr. Paula Pypłacz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Social Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Industry 4.0
  • Process digitization
  • Cloud technology
  • New economy

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Innovative Systems under Industry 4.0 Conditions
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070202 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The world is at the threshold of the fourth industrial revolution, which has already begun. It requires enterprises and even sectors to move toward Industry 4.0. Innovative systems (IS) play an important role in this process. In the article, the innovative systems in [...] Read more.
The world is at the threshold of the fourth industrial revolution, which has already begun. It requires enterprises and even sectors to move toward Industry 4.0. Innovative systems (IS) play an important role in this process. In the article, the innovative systems in Industry 4.0 are considered to be complex systems whose components have a lot of tasks; in particular, to produce innovative policy; to provide the subjects of innovative activity with the necessary resources; to participate directly in the process of creation, commercialization, and the practical use of new knowledge; to implement integration approaches between these processes, etc. The complexity of the innovation system leads to the development of modern approaches to their modeling, as a tool for further designing, creating, and modifying real innovative systems of different levels of organization under the conditions of Industry 4.0. In the simulation of IS under the conditions of Industry 4.0, the description of the subsystems by a number of sets is proposed. The model is described by the graph of relationships, including the abstract level of the hierarchical model of IS, its elements, indicators and their values, functions, actions and operations, their states and efficiency, and the tree of goals. In order to make optimal solutions, using the mathematical apparatus of the theory of Markov chains to study the dynamic and static characteristics of the states of the IS is proposed. This approach can be widely used in the simulation, designing, development, and rebuilding of IS at different levels of an organization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Building Relationships with Customer 4.0 in the Era of Marketing 4.0: The Case Study of Innovative Enterprises in Poland
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060177 - 07 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
(1) Background: Contemporary enterprises are putting more and more emphasis on shaping lasting and effective relationships with clients. This is not an easy task, especially in the conditions of Marketing 4.0, which imposes on enterprises the need to holistically consider the needs as [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Contemporary enterprises are putting more and more emphasis on shaping lasting and effective relationships with clients. This is not an easy task, especially in the conditions of Marketing 4.0, which imposes on enterprises the need to holistically consider the needs as well as the skills and inventiveness of customers. It can be assumed that Clients 4.0 require both changes in the scope of business processes and shaping communication with their environment. That is why it is important today to skillfully and correctly determine the complexity of communication with Clients 4.0, as well as to determine the importance of communication with clients for the development of enterprises—especially those operating in innovative industries. (2) Methods: Empirical research was carried out on a sample of 100 innovative enterprises listed on the NewConnect market in Poland. The respondents were managers at various levels. Two indicators were constructed based on these assessments: Customer Relationships Importance Index (CRII) and Customer Communication Complexity Index (CCCI). (3) Results: It was determined that the complexity of communication of innovative enterprises with customers is at a high level. What is more, the importance of relationships with Customers 4.0 for the development of innovative enterprises is at a high level. It was also indicated that there is no correlation between the level of complexity of relationships with Customers 4.0 and the importance of these relationships for the development of innovative enterprises. (4) Conclusions: Based on the survey, it can be assumed that the relations with Clients 4.0 have the greatest share in shaping the development of innovative enterprises in the areas of minimizing the number of complaints, financial liquidity and efficiency of core business processes. It is also important that, in shaping the complexity of communication with Clients 4.0, enterprises mainly consider traditional phone calls and email account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
The Importance of Information Management in the Context of Industry 4.0: Evidence from the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Forbes Diamonds
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060169 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Currently, the role of information and of the tools facilitating its acquisition and processing is so significant that, in the economic nomenclature, there are already such concepts as an information civilization or information society. The aftermath of this state of affairs is the [...] Read more.
Currently, the role of information and of the tools facilitating its acquisition and processing is so significant that, in the economic nomenclature, there are already such concepts as an information civilization or information society. The aftermath of this state of affairs is the commercial breakthrough consisting of the enterprise’s success on the intellectual capital rather than the material one. This article aims to show the outline of the information management process and to determine how its components are used in companies. The first part of the paper is devoted to the description of information management concepts in enterprises and the functioning of organizational information systems. The second part of the study includes the results of original research carried out using the Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) method on the 70 Kuyavian-Pomeranian enterprises counted among the Forbes Diamonds 2018. An analysis of the obtained results indicates that the level of diversity of methods and frequencies of information channels used depends on the size of the entity, its capital structure, and the industry in which they operate. The primary sources of information for the surveyed companies are customers and competitors. The respondents agree that a well-functioning enterprise information system facilitates making decisions in the company and improves internal communication. The most frequently implemented development strategy in the analyzed companies is the market development strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Industry 4.0: A Solution towards Technology Challenges of Sustainable Business Performance
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(5), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8050154 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 158
Abstract
Technology adoption is always a difficult task for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) due to lack of resources and other market issues. Many technology challenges adversely affect the sustainable business performance of SMEs. However, the incorporation of Industry 4.0 can overcome various technology [...] Read more.
Technology adoption is always a difficult task for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) due to lack of resources and other market issues. Many technology challenges adversely affect the sustainable business performance of SMEs. However, the incorporation of Industry 4.0 can overcome various technology issues. The goal of Industry 4.0 is to attain an advanced level of operational effectiveness and productivity, as well as a higher level of automatization. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the role of Industry 4.0 to promote sustainable business performance in SMEs in Thailand. A survey has been prepared to collect the data from managers of SMEs and analyzed with the help of Partial Least Square. The questionnaire was used to collect the data and questionnaires were distributed by using simple random sampling. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed amongst the managerial staff of SMEs located in Thailand. From these distributed questionnaires, 280 were returned and 270 valid responses were found. Data were analyzed by using Partial Least Square (PLS)-Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Findings reveal that Industry 4.0 is a key to the growth of sustainable business performance among SMEs. Elements of Industry 4.0 such as big data, Internet of Things and smart factory have a positive role in promoting information technology (IT) implementation, which contributes to sustainable business performance. Moreover, organization structure and process strengthen the positive relationship between Industry 4.0 and IT implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Economic, Social Impacts and Operation of Smart Factories in Industry 4.0 Focusing on Simulation and Artificial Intelligence of Collaborating Robots
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(5), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8050143 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Smart Factory is a complex system that integrates the main elements of the Industry 4.0 concept (e.g., autonomous robots, Internet of Things, and Big data). In Smart Factories intelligent robots, tools, and smart workpieces communicate and collaborate with each other continuously, which results [...] Read more.
Smart Factory is a complex system that integrates the main elements of the Industry 4.0 concept (e.g., autonomous robots, Internet of Things, and Big data). In Smart Factories intelligent robots, tools, and smart workpieces communicate and collaborate with each other continuously, which results in self-organizing and self-optimizing production. The significance of Smart Factories is to make production more competitive, efficient, flexible and sustainable. The purpose of the study is not only the introduction of the concept and operation of the Smart Factories, but at the same time to show the application of Simulation and Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods in practice. The significance of the study is that the economic and social operational requirements and impacts of Smart Factories are summarized and the characteristics of the traditional factory and the Smart Factory are compared. The most significant added value of the research is that a real case study is introduced for Simulation of the operation of two collaborating robots applying AI. Quantitative research methods are used, such as numerical and graphical modeling and Simulation, 3D design, furthermore executing Tabu Search in the space of trajectories, but in some aspects the work included fundamental methods, like suggesting an original whip-lashing analog for designing robot trajectories. The conclusion of the case study is that—due to using Simulation and AI methods—the motion path of the robot arm is improved, resulting in more than five percent time-savings, which leads to a significant improvement in productivity. It can be concluded that the establishment of Smart Factories will be essential in the future and the application of Simulation and AI methods for collaborating robots are needed for efficient and optimal operation of production processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Decision-Makers’ Attitudes toward Industry 4.0 Adaptation
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(5), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8050140 - 06 May 2019
Cited by 13
Abstract
Industry 4.0 could drastically change not only firms’ production sites, organization, operation, and marketing but also industrial competition rules. This study aims at investigating a real situation of firms’ willingness to adapt to Industry 4.0 and revealing the determinants of decision-makers’ attitudes toward [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 could drastically change not only firms’ production sites, organization, operation, and marketing but also industrial competition rules. This study aims at investigating a real situation of firms’ willingness to adapt to Industry 4.0 and revealing the determinants of decision-makers’ attitudes toward Industry 4.0 adaptation, as well as factors that inhibit adaptation. The study, using statistical analysis and questionnaire survey data for quantitative observation, finds that firms required the following: fostering the positive attitude of decision-makers toward adapting Industry 4.0, enhancing decision-makers’ acquisition of appropriate knowledge, and complementing lack of resources such as skilled workers. Moreover, firms applying to adapt to Industry 4.0 as well as outsiders must participate in promoting it among manufacturing firms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
Open AccessArticle
Factors Introducing Industry 4.0 to SMES
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8050130 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 15
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to identify some of the factors that affect the introduction of Industry 4.0 elements to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The article is concerned with factors that can be impulsive for SMEs and factors that, on the [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is to identify some of the factors that affect the introduction of Industry 4.0 elements to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The article is concerned with factors that can be impulsive for SMEs and factors that, on the contrary, are limiting for SMEs to integrate Industry 4.0 into the enterprises. These factors are the result of a short brainstorming with some employees of 72 selected SMEs for case studies. The analysis of 1018 Czech SMEs showed that the introduction of Industry 4.0 is related to the size of the enterprise. Fisher’s Factorial Test based on a four-fold contingency table tested the data. The majority of medium-sized enterprises consider introducing digitization and robotization elements in the next 5 years, while in the case of micro-enterprises it was less than a half of the enterprises of the sample. At the same time, the relation between the enterprises with a written strategy and enterprises planning to implement Industry 4.0 was demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Culture of Manufacturing Enterprises: A Possible Way to Adaptation to Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8040124 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 27
Abstract
The concept of Industry 4.0 means a new paradigm of modern manufacturing. This phenomenon requires continuous innovation processes and technological development from each enterprise. Traditional concepts of quality must absorb changes and prepare themselves for new challenges. The studies linked to successful adaptation [...] Read more.
The concept of Industry 4.0 means a new paradigm of modern manufacturing. This phenomenon requires continuous innovation processes and technological development from each enterprise. Traditional concepts of quality must absorb changes and prepare themselves for new challenges. The studies linked to successful adaptation to Industry 4.0 focus mostly on technical dimensions and forget the impact of organisational culture. One should, however, remember that quality culture plays a crucial role in the organisational culture of manufacturing enterprises with elements of quality management implemented. Developed quality cultures support the innovation environment, which is why it is necessary for the enterprises to identify the current level of their quality culture and detect significant factors that differentiate individual quality cultures and focus on them. Given this fact, the aim of the paper is to analyse the typical cultures and quality concepts and to detect the factors that differentiate individual quality cultures in Slovakia. We use data from our own survey; dependences were indicated by means of correspondence analysis and the test of proportion. The improvement and assurance of quality, the use of information and the overall effectiveness are significant factors detected by the discriminant analysis. The conclusions of the survey may be used by scientific researchers but especially by manufacturing enterprises interested in quality which are coming to terms with the era of Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
The Approach to Industry 4.0 within the Slovak Business Environment
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8040104 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Academics, executives and top managers have solid, but also diverse, views on the Industry 4.0 issue, as do the employment policymakers. Without urgent and targeted measures to manage the short-term transition and shape the labor force with the skills needed for the future, [...] Read more.
Academics, executives and top managers have solid, but also diverse, views on the Industry 4.0 issue, as do the employment policymakers. Without urgent and targeted measures to manage the short-term transition and shape the labor force with the skills needed for the future, governments will have to face increasing unemployment and social impacts, while companies will have to deal with a sluggish consumer base. The main goal of this paper is to find out how managers are perceived and informed about the Industry 4.0 concept and how quickly these views are changing. To accomplish this goal, methods such as analysis, synthesis, statistical methods and logical deduction are to used along with the conducted survey being executed by a questioner method. The conducted survey presented by the authors in this paper aims to support the discussion and open up opportunities for further action by providing views to HR managers in strategic employers who are among the leading representatives of new trends and are the key actors in the implementation of future labor development strategies in the Slovak Republic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Internet of Things on Supply Chains: A Framework for Warehousing
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030084 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
The emergence of new digital industrial technology, known as Industry 4.0, has a positive impact on the performance of the supply chain. Warehouses are a basic part of the supply chain; they are used to store products and manage the inventory level. A [...] Read more.
The emergence of new digital industrial technology, known as Industry 4.0, has a positive impact on the performance of the supply chain. Warehouses are a basic part of the supply chain; they are used to store products and manage the inventory level. A sound warehouse management system can lead to cost reduction and also can improve customer satisfaction. Traditional warehouse management models have become less efficient and unsuitable for today’s increasing market requirements. For the past decades, information and communication technology has been used for warehouse management. This paper presents a new approach for warehouse management by utilizing one of the main pillars of Industry 4.0, the Internet of Things. This new technology enables the connection of several objects through collecting real-time data and sharing them; the resulting information can then be used to support automated decision-making. The architecture of this application is illustrated and its potential benefits are overviewed. A framework is proposed to implement this approach in warehousing management, which can help in providing real-time visibility of everything in the warehouse, increasing speed and efficiency, and preventing inventory shortage and counterfeiting. This proposal gives an effective roadmap for enterprises to improve their warehouses by using the Internet of Things. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
The Dependence of Unemployment of the Senior Workforce upon Explanatory Variables in the European Union in the Context of Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010029 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Digitalization, robotization, artificial intelligence, and all kinds of new technologies that are known as Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution have great influence on the future of work because they will gather new jobs with new skills, and a majority of the [...] Read more.
Digitalization, robotization, artificial intelligence, and all kinds of new technologies that are known as Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution have great influence on the future of work because they will gather new jobs with new skills, and a majority of the senior workforce will probably have a lot of problems with those kinds of changes and challenges. The major objective of the paper is to recognize the dependence of the unemployment of the age category 55–64 upon selected explanatory variables. The explanatory variables were selected, and the expectations of their signs were presented in the research design. The secondary data of Eurostat and OECD 2015 has been used, covering the twenty-two member countries of the European Union (the countries that provided minimum wage were included only). The econometric analysis, specifically model specification and model quantification were the main methods used in the paper. The main outcomes and relevance of the model as well as its limitations have been compared with the findings of other authors in the discussion and implications for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
The Paradigms of Industry 4.0 and Circular Economy as Enabling Drivers for the Competitiveness of Businesses and Territories: The Case of an Italian Ceramic Tiles Manufacturing Company
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120255 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 38
Abstract
Sustainable development and the circular economy are two important issues for the future and the competitiveness of businesses. The programs for the integration of sustainability into industrial activities include the reconfiguration of production processes with a view to reducing their impact on the [...] Read more.
Sustainable development and the circular economy are two important issues for the future and the competitiveness of businesses. The programs for the integration of sustainability into industrial activities include the reconfiguration of production processes with a view to reducing their impact on the natural system, the development of new eco-sustainable products and the redesign of the business model. This paradigm shift requires the participation and commitment of different stakeholder groups and industry can completely redesign supply chains, aiming at resource efficiency and circularity. Developments in key ICT technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), help this systemic transition. This paper explores the phases of the transition from a linear to a circular economy and proposes a procedure for introducing the principles of sustainability (environmental, economic and social) in a manufacturing environment, through the design of a new Circular Business Model (CBM). The new procedure has been tested and validated in an Italian company producing ceramic tiles, using the digitalization of the production processes of the Industry 4.0 environment, to implement the impact assessment tools (LCA—Life Cycle Assessment, LCC—Life Cycle Costing and S-LCA—Social Life Cycle Assessment) and the business intelligence systems to provide appropriate sustainability performance indicators essential for the definition of the new CBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Industry 4.0 on the Production and Service Sectors in Pakistan: Evidence from Textile and Logistics Industries
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120246 - 23 Nov 2018
Cited by 17
Abstract
This research aims to investigate the role of Industry 4.0 in the production and service sector in Pakistan. It therefore considers five Industry 4.0 factors, namely big data, smart factory, cyber physical systems (CPS), Internet of things (IoT), and interoperability. In order to [...] Read more.
This research aims to investigate the role of Industry 4.0 in the production and service sector in Pakistan. It therefore considers five Industry 4.0 factors, namely big data, smart factory, cyber physical systems (CPS), Internet of things (IoT), and interoperability. In order to analyze the role of Industry 4.0, the textile industry is taken as a production industry, while the logistics industry is considered as a service industry. Both are facing various challenges in production and services causing below standard overall performance. To address this issue, a quantitative research approach with cross-sectional research design was selected. First hand data was collected through a survey questionnaire from a total of 224 employees of textile and logistics companies. Smart partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was preferred to analyze the collected data. Findings of the study revealed that Industry 4.0 has a key role in promoting the production and services sector in Pakistan, as it has a significant impact on the overall performance of the considered sectors. This research is one of the pioneer studies that examines the role of Industry 4.0 on the textile and logistics industry of Pakistan. Thus, this research also contributes in a practical dimension by explaining the implementation of Industry 4.0 for improving the performance of the textile and logistics industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
A Scoping Review on Digital English and Education 4.0 for Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110227 - 09 Nov 2018
Cited by 30
Abstract
Industry 4.0 is a current trend of automation and digitalization of industries. The impacts and importance of Industry 4.0 are reflected in all aspects of our lives. The purpose of this article is to analyze the literatures based on a scoping review method. [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 is a current trend of automation and digitalization of industries. The impacts and importance of Industry 4.0 are reflected in all aspects of our lives. The purpose of this article is to analyze the literatures based on a scoping review method. A lack of digital culture, training, knowledge, and language are also challenges faced by Industry 4.0 while implementing its operations. Digital English and Education 4.0 are also employee competencies of Industry 4.0. The authors have reviewed the literature related to Digital English, Education 4.0, and Industry 4.0 from various resources. Astonishingly, the results show that the studies conducted in these areas are so specific focusing only one of the above-mentioned areas; no research article was identified that detailed the interconnections among these areas. From the scoping review, the study has identified the gaps in the literature. Thus, the study concludes that filling up the gaps and conducting research in these areas are useful to sort out a few of the challenges of Industry 4.0 and it recommends that in future, researchers conduct studies based on the interconnections of Digital English and Education 4.0 for Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior and Prospective Purchase Decisions in a Dynamic Pricing Environment—An Exploratory Factor Analysis Approach
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090153 - 07 Sep 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
The rapid advancements in information and communication technology during the third industrial revolution of the late 20th century has marked the beginning of a new era in the retail sector with the introduction of E-commerce. The dawn of the new century witnessed industry [...] Read more.
The rapid advancements in information and communication technology during the third industrial revolution of the late 20th century has marked the beginning of a new era in the retail sector with the introduction of E-commerce. The dawn of the new century witnessed industry 4.0, revolutionizing all areas of online business by bringing in novel opportunities and possibilities. Despite the progress in technology, the determination of correct pricing on online selling platforms still remains a very complex task. The adoption of big data technology has enabled online sellers to make real-time price changes of high magnitude and proximity. However, with increasing awareness among buyers regarding modern pricing strategies, it is necessary to examine probable changes in consumer behavior when exposed to dynamic pricing scenarios. This study investigates the factors that influence consumer behavior, and their prospective online purchase decisions in a dynamic pricing context, through an exploratory factor analysis approach. A primary research survey was conducted, and 178 samples were finalized for data analysis through a series of web surveys completed by respondents in India. This study identifies, measures and classifies 27 research items into variables, namely shopping experience, privacy concerns, awareness about dynamic pricing, buying strategy, fair price perceptions, reprisal intentions and intentions for self-protection. These seven factors could be used to explain consumer behavior in a dynamic pricing situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
Open AccessArticle
Information Technology Governance on Audit Technology Performance among Malaysian Public Sector Auditors
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080124 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The concept of Industry 4.0 has considerably altered the way organisations operate and has impacted every aspect of life. Furthermore, the fast-growing trend of information technology (IT) transformation in organisations and huge IT investment by Malaysian government have triggered the significance of IT [...] Read more.
The concept of Industry 4.0 has considerably altered the way organisations operate and has impacted every aspect of life. Furthermore, the fast-growing trend of information technology (IT) transformation in organisations and huge IT investment by Malaysian government have triggered the significance of IT risk and its related controls. Besides, technology-enabled auditing and IT-oriented audit procedures have become crucial when performing audit tasks in an electronic environment. Although many initiatives are being implemented to improve technology usage, audit technology use among auditors is still low and auditors are not attaining sufficient progress in the use of technology. This implies the current strategies and policies may not effectively support technology implementation. In the same vein, the under-utilisation of technologies was reported due to inadequate governance. Thus, this study intends to investigate the impact of IT governance on audit technology performance. IT governance is a mechanism to stimulate anticipated behavior in the use of technology among the employees of an organisation. Surveys using closed-ended questionnaires were distributed to approximately 309 Malaysia public sector auditors. The results show that IT governance mechanisms such as IT strategy and management support significantly influence the audit technology performance. IT governance does play a significant role in assuring the successful utilisation of audit technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Business Organisational Structures of Global Companies: Use of the Territorial Model to Ensure Long-Term Growth
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(6), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7060098 - 14 Jun 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
In today’s turbulently expanding business environment, during the fourth industrial revolution, it is necessary to respond to market trends and to adapt strategy and organisational structure appropriately. The article is focused on the reorganisation and optimisation of the business organisation structure of global [...] Read more.
In today’s turbulently expanding business environment, during the fourth industrial revolution, it is necessary to respond to market trends and to adapt strategy and organisational structure appropriately. The article is focused on the reorganisation and optimisation of the business organisation structure of global companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and evaluate the use of the territorial business structure, within the framework of a global company, based on experimental research. Experiences with the introduction of a territorial organisational structure in a corporate enterprise have proven to be highly effective long-term, with productivity and sales volumes increasing. This territorial setting can be considered as a competitive advantage, which matches predicted market trends and is suitable for global businesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Cloud Computing Research Profiling: Mapping Scholarly Community and Identifying Thematic Boundaries of the Field
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8040112 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aim of the study was to map the scholarly community interested in research on cloud computing and to identify thematic boundaries of the field. The methodology of research profiling, representing bibliometric descriptive studies, was applied to achieve the aim of the study. [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to map the scholarly community interested in research on cloud computing and to identify thematic boundaries of the field. The methodology of research profiling, representing bibliometric descriptive studies, was applied to achieve the aim of the study. Using research profiling for mapping the cloud computing field can be considered as an innovation. Although the research profiling methodology has been widely used across various subject areas, including Computer Science, Social Sciences, Engineering, Arts and Humanities, Business, Management and Accounting, and Psychology, thus far neither Scopus nor Web of Science indexed publications including the conjunction of phrases “cloud computing” and “research profiling” in their titles, keywords and abstracts. The previous important scientometric study of the research output in the field was published by Heilig and Voß in 2014. Taking into account a very dynamic growth of the field, all this indicates the research gap to be filled. The research sample is made of 14,158 publications indexed in Scopus database comprising the phrase “cloud computing” in their titles. The study was purposely limited to the title search to concentrate the attention of publications relating directly to the issue of cloud computing. Applying the quantitative approach provides an opportunity for broad scanning of subject-related literature. First, general publication profiling recognized the main contributors (countries, research intuitions, source titles and authors) to the scholarly community interested in cloud computing. Secondly, subject area profiling was applied to find how multidisciplinary is the research in the field and how the research output is distributed across subject areas. Finally, topic profiling unveiled leading topics of studies in the field and their distribution by authors, journal, subject areas and core references. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Other

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Open AccessOpinion
Big IFs in Productivity-Enhancing Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020037 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
With the dawn of Industry 4.0, its productivity-boosting impact appears to be comfortably ensconced both in the media and in the scientific community. Still, our paper is to portend a rather dismal prognosis by outlining three big Inertia Forces (IFs) hindering the power [...] Read more.
With the dawn of Industry 4.0, its productivity-boosting impact appears to be comfortably ensconced both in the media and in the scientific community. Still, our paper is to portend a rather dismal prognosis by outlining three big Inertia Forces (IFs) hindering the power of Industry 4.0 in reviving productivity growth in a more spectacular way. After applying a complexity view to the development of Industry 4.0 in deciphering the major IFs, the paper briefly exemplifies them by building on the case of Hungary, and it then draws some lessons for theorists and economic policy practitioners in the interest of a value-congruent development of Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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