Special Issue "Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society"

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760). This special issue belongs to the section "Social Economics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Sebastian Kot

The Management Faculty, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland;
Faculty of Economic Sciences and IT, North-West University (NWU), South Africa
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sustainable development; supply chain; CSR
Guest Editor
Prof. Beata Ślusarczyk

The Management Faculty, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland Faculty of Economic Sciences and IT, North-West University (NWU), South AfricThe Management Faculty, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland;
Faculty of Economic Sciences and IT, North-West University (NWU), South Africa
Website | E-Mail
Interests: industrial policy; globalization; innovation and entrepreneurship
Guest Editor
Prof. Daniel Francois Meyer

Faculty of Economic Sciences and IT, North-West University (NWU), PO Box 1174 Vanderbijlpark, South Africa
Website | E-Mail
Interests: regional economic development; government policy development; inclusive growth; sectoral analysis
Guest Editor
Dr. Paula Pypłacz

Faculty of Management, Institute of Management Information Systems, Czestochowa University of Technology, 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: process management; digitization and computerization of processes; business models in Economy 4.0; information systems; information and communication technologies (ICT); innovations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In today's world, there are unprecedented changes in various industries, mainly characterized by progressive digital transformation, the creation of the connection networks between products, value chains and business models. These activities take place within the fourth industrial revolution, called "Industry 4.0".

The new technologies, in particular: Digitization and computerization of production processes and market processes, drive Industry 4.0 but the need to build a competitive advantage still remains the real foundation of ongoing change. Today, this advantage is primarily created by the unprecedented flexibility of business.

The central issue in Economy 4.0 is to understand the impact of robotization and artificial intelligence on industry and the economy, and to adapt business models to increasingly-demanding customers. The active role of the state as a creator and regulator of innovation is also indispensable.

Considering the trends of changes within Industry 4.0, nine leading technological solutions can be identified that will revolutionize industrial production and services; these are: Big data and analytics, cloud technology, autonomous robots, simulations, augmented reality, horizontal and vertical software integration, industrial use of the Internet of things, cybersecurity, 3D printers application.

Industry 4.0 creates huge opportunities for the development of enterprises and, hence, national economies, but also raises worker concerns regarding their employment in the new conditions of robotic production and services. Industry 4.0 not only affects the demand for new professions, it also redefines the labor market and changes all the rules that are known so far.

Given this, this Special Issue on “Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society” fills a considerable gap in the literature. It encourages a diverse set of submissions and we will welcome papers that, inter alia, refer to (but are not limited to) themes such as:

  1. Big data and analytics in consumer behavior prediction.
  2. Influence of the most important Industry 4.0 factors on production and services.
  3. Industry 4.0 influence on employment market transformation.
  4. Society resistance against Industry 4.0.
  5. Industry 4.0 involvement in MSME.
  6. Reshoring as the result of Industry 4.0.
  7. Government support influence on Industry 4.0 implementation.
  8. Education for Industry 4.0.

The insights gained will be useful both for students, practitioners, as well as policy makers.

Prof. Sebastian Kot
Prof. Beata Ślusarczyk
Prof. Daniel Francois Meyer
Dr. Paula Pypłacz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Social Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charges (APCs) of 350 CHF (Swiss Francs) per published paper are partially funded by institutions through Knowledge Unlatched for a limited number of papers per year. Please contact the editorial office before submission to check whether KU waivers, or discounts are still available. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Industry 4.0
  • Process digitization
  • Cloud technology
  • New economy

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Quality Culture of Manufacturing Enterprises: A Possible Way to Adaptation to Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8040124
Received: 10 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
PDF Full-text (589 KB)
Abstract
The concept of Industry 4.0 means a new paradigm of modern manufacturing. This phenomenon requires continuous innovation processes and technological development from each enterprise. Traditional concepts of quality must absorb changes and prepare themselves for new challenges. The studies linked to successful adaptation [...] Read more.
The concept of Industry 4.0 means a new paradigm of modern manufacturing. This phenomenon requires continuous innovation processes and technological development from each enterprise. Traditional concepts of quality must absorb changes and prepare themselves for new challenges. The studies linked to successful adaptation to Industry 4.0 focus mostly on technical dimensions and forget the impact of organisational culture. One should, however, remember that quality culture plays a crucial role in the organisational culture of manufacturing enterprises with elements of quality management implemented. Developed quality cultures support the innovation environment, which is why it is necessary for the enterprises to identify the current level of their quality culture and detect significant factors that differentiate individual quality cultures and focus on them. Given this fact, the aim of the paper is to analyse the typical cultures and quality concepts and to detect the factors that differentiate individual quality cultures in Slovakia. We use data from our own survey; dependences were indicated by means of correspondence analysis and the test of proportion. The improvement and assurance of quality, the use of information and the overall effectiveness are significant factors detected by the discriminant analysis. The conclusions of the survey may be used by scientific researchers but especially by manufacturing enterprises interested in quality which are coming to terms with the era of Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
Open AccessArticle The Approach to Industry 4.0 within the Slovak Business Environment
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8040104
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
Academics, executives and top managers have solid, but also diverse, views on the Industry 4.0 issue, as do the employment policymakers. Without urgent and targeted measures to manage the short-term transition and shape the labor force with the skills needed for the future, [...] Read more.
Academics, executives and top managers have solid, but also diverse, views on the Industry 4.0 issue, as do the employment policymakers. Without urgent and targeted measures to manage the short-term transition and shape the labor force with the skills needed for the future, governments will have to face increasing unemployment and social impacts, while companies will have to deal with a sluggish consumer base. The main goal of this paper is to find out how managers are perceived and informed about the Industry 4.0 concept and how quickly these views are changing. To accomplish this goal, methods such as analysis, synthesis, statistical methods and logical deduction are to used along with the conducted survey being executed by a questioner method. The conducted survey presented by the authors in this paper aims to support the discussion and open up opportunities for further action by providing views to HR managers in strategic employers who are among the leading representatives of new trends and are the key actors in the implementation of future labor development strategies in the Slovak Republic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle Impacts of Internet of Things on Supply Chains: A Framework for Warehousing
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030084
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emergence of new digital industrial technology, known as Industry 4.0, has a positive impact on the performance of the supply chain. Warehouses are a basic part of the supply chain; they are used to store products and manage the inventory level. A [...] Read more.
The emergence of new digital industrial technology, known as Industry 4.0, has a positive impact on the performance of the supply chain. Warehouses are a basic part of the supply chain; they are used to store products and manage the inventory level. A sound warehouse management system can lead to cost reduction and also can improve customer satisfaction. Traditional warehouse management models have become less efficient and unsuitable for today’s increasing market requirements. For the past decades, information and communication technology has been used for warehouse management. This paper presents a new approach for warehouse management by utilizing one of the main pillars of Industry 4.0, the Internet of Things. This new technology enables the connection of several objects through collecting real-time data and sharing them; the resulting information can then be used to support automated decision-making. The architecture of this application is illustrated and its potential benefits are overviewed. A framework is proposed to implement this approach in warehousing management, which can help in providing real-time visibility of everything in the warehouse, increasing speed and efficiency, and preventing inventory shortage and counterfeiting. This proposal gives an effective roadmap for enterprises to improve their warehouses by using the Internet of Things. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle The Dependence of Unemployment of the Senior Workforce upon Explanatory Variables in the European Union in the Context of Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010029
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Digitalization, robotization, artificial intelligence, and all kinds of new technologies that are known as Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution have great influence on the future of work because they will gather new jobs with new skills, and a majority of the [...] Read more.
Digitalization, robotization, artificial intelligence, and all kinds of new technologies that are known as Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution have great influence on the future of work because they will gather new jobs with new skills, and a majority of the senior workforce will probably have a lot of problems with those kinds of changes and challenges. The major objective of the paper is to recognize the dependence of the unemployment of the age category 55–64 upon selected explanatory variables. The explanatory variables were selected, and the expectations of their signs were presented in the research design. The secondary data of Eurostat and OECD 2015 has been used, covering the twenty-two member countries of the European Union (the countries that provided minimum wage were included only). The econometric analysis, specifically model specification and model quantification were the main methods used in the paper. The main outcomes and relevance of the model as well as its limitations have been compared with the findings of other authors in the discussion and implications for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle The Paradigms of Industry 4.0 and Circular Economy as Enabling Drivers for the Competitiveness of Businesses and Territories: The Case of an Italian Ceramic Tiles Manufacturing Company
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120255
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable development and the circular economy are two important issues for the future and the competitiveness of businesses. The programs for the integration of sustainability into industrial activities include the reconfiguration of production processes with a view to reducing their impact on the [...] Read more.
Sustainable development and the circular economy are two important issues for the future and the competitiveness of businesses. The programs for the integration of sustainability into industrial activities include the reconfiguration of production processes with a view to reducing their impact on the natural system, the development of new eco-sustainable products and the redesign of the business model. This paradigm shift requires the participation and commitment of different stakeholder groups and industry can completely redesign supply chains, aiming at resource efficiency and circularity. Developments in key ICT technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), help this systemic transition. This paper explores the phases of the transition from a linear to a circular economy and proposes a procedure for introducing the principles of sustainability (environmental, economic and social) in a manufacturing environment, through the design of a new Circular Business Model (CBM). The new procedure has been tested and validated in an Italian company producing ceramic tiles, using the digitalization of the production processes of the Industry 4.0 environment, to implement the impact assessment tools (LCA—Life Cycle Assessment, LCC—Life Cycle Costing and S-LCA—Social Life Cycle Assessment) and the business intelligence systems to provide appropriate sustainability performance indicators essential for the definition of the new CBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Industry 4.0 on the Production and Service Sectors in Pakistan: Evidence from Textile and Logistics Industries
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120246
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This research aims to investigate the role of Industry 4.0 in the production and service sector in Pakistan. It therefore considers five Industry 4.0 factors, namely big data, smart factory, cyber physical systems (CPS), Internet of things (IoT), and interoperability. In order to [...] Read more.
This research aims to investigate the role of Industry 4.0 in the production and service sector in Pakistan. It therefore considers five Industry 4.0 factors, namely big data, smart factory, cyber physical systems (CPS), Internet of things (IoT), and interoperability. In order to analyze the role of Industry 4.0, the textile industry is taken as a production industry, while the logistics industry is considered as a service industry. Both are facing various challenges in production and services causing below standard overall performance. To address this issue, a quantitative research approach with cross-sectional research design was selected. First hand data was collected through a survey questionnaire from a total of 224 employees of textile and logistics companies. Smart partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was preferred to analyze the collected data. Findings of the study revealed that Industry 4.0 has a key role in promoting the production and services sector in Pakistan, as it has a significant impact on the overall performance of the considered sectors. This research is one of the pioneer studies that examines the role of Industry 4.0 on the textile and logistics industry of Pakistan. Thus, this research also contributes in a practical dimension by explaining the implementation of Industry 4.0 for improving the performance of the textile and logistics industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle A Scoping Review on Digital English and Education 4.0 for Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110227
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
Industry 4.0 is a current trend of automation and digitalization of industries. The impacts and importance of Industry 4.0 are reflected in all aspects of our lives. The purpose of this article is to analyze the literatures based on a scoping review method. [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 is a current trend of automation and digitalization of industries. The impacts and importance of Industry 4.0 are reflected in all aspects of our lives. The purpose of this article is to analyze the literatures based on a scoping review method. A lack of digital culture, training, knowledge, and language are also challenges faced by Industry 4.0 while implementing its operations. Digital English and Education 4.0 are also employee competencies of Industry 4.0. The authors have reviewed the literature related to Digital English, Education 4.0, and Industry 4.0 from various resources. Astonishingly, the results show that the studies conducted in these areas are so specific focusing only one of the above-mentioned areas; no research article was identified that detailed the interconnections among these areas. From the scoping review, the study has identified the gaps in the literature. Thus, the study concludes that filling up the gaps and conducting research in these areas are useful to sort out a few of the challenges of Industry 4.0 and it recommends that in future, researchers conduct studies based on the interconnections of Digital English and Education 4.0 for Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior and Prospective Purchase Decisions in a Dynamic Pricing Environment—An Exploratory Factor Analysis Approach
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(9), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7090153
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
The rapid advancements in information and communication technology during the third industrial revolution of the late 20th century has marked the beginning of a new era in the retail sector with the introduction of E-commerce. The dawn of the new century witnessed industry [...] Read more.
The rapid advancements in information and communication technology during the third industrial revolution of the late 20th century has marked the beginning of a new era in the retail sector with the introduction of E-commerce. The dawn of the new century witnessed industry 4.0, revolutionizing all areas of online business by bringing in novel opportunities and possibilities. Despite the progress in technology, the determination of correct pricing on online selling platforms still remains a very complex task. The adoption of big data technology has enabled online sellers to make real-time price changes of high magnitude and proximity. However, with increasing awareness among buyers regarding modern pricing strategies, it is necessary to examine probable changes in consumer behavior when exposed to dynamic pricing scenarios. This study investigates the factors that influence consumer behavior, and their prospective online purchase decisions in a dynamic pricing context, through an exploratory factor analysis approach. A primary research survey was conducted, and 178 samples were finalized for data analysis through a series of web surveys completed by respondents in India. This study identifies, measures and classifies 27 research items into variables, namely shopping experience, privacy concerns, awareness about dynamic pricing, buying strategy, fair price perceptions, reprisal intentions and intentions for self-protection. These seven factors could be used to explain consumer behavior in a dynamic pricing situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
Open AccessArticle Information Technology Governance on Audit Technology Performance among Malaysian Public Sector Auditors
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(8), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7080124
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
The concept of Industry 4.0 has considerably altered the way organisations operate and has impacted every aspect of life. Furthermore, the fast-growing trend of information technology (IT) transformation in organisations and huge IT investment by Malaysian government have triggered the significance of IT [...] Read more.
The concept of Industry 4.0 has considerably altered the way organisations operate and has impacted every aspect of life. Furthermore, the fast-growing trend of information technology (IT) transformation in organisations and huge IT investment by Malaysian government have triggered the significance of IT risk and its related controls. Besides, technology-enabled auditing and IT-oriented audit procedures have become crucial when performing audit tasks in an electronic environment. Although many initiatives are being implemented to improve technology usage, audit technology use among auditors is still low and auditors are not attaining sufficient progress in the use of technology. This implies the current strategies and policies may not effectively support technology implementation. In the same vein, the under-utilisation of technologies was reported due to inadequate governance. Thus, this study intends to investigate the impact of IT governance on audit technology performance. IT governance is a mechanism to stimulate anticipated behavior in the use of technology among the employees of an organisation. Surveys using closed-ended questionnaires were distributed to approximately 309 Malaysia public sector auditors. The results show that IT governance mechanisms such as IT strategy and management support significantly influence the audit technology performance. IT governance does play a significant role in assuring the successful utilisation of audit technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle Business Organisational Structures of Global Companies: Use of the Territorial Model to Ensure Long-Term Growth
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(6), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7060098
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In today’s turbulently expanding business environment, during the fourth industrial revolution, it is necessary to respond to market trends and to adapt strategy and organisational structure appropriately. The article is focused on the reorganisation and optimisation of the business organisation structure of global [...] Read more.
In today’s turbulently expanding business environment, during the fourth industrial revolution, it is necessary to respond to market trends and to adapt strategy and organisational structure appropriately. The article is focused on the reorganisation and optimisation of the business organisation structure of global companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and evaluate the use of the territorial business structure, within the framework of a global company, based on experimental research. Experiences with the introduction of a territorial organisational structure in a corporate enterprise have proven to be highly effective long-term, with productivity and sales volumes increasing. This territorial setting can be considered as a competitive advantage, which matches predicted market trends and is suitable for global businesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Cloud Computing Research Profiling: Mapping Scholarly Community and Identifying Thematic Boundaries of the Field
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8040112
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to map the scholarly community interested in research on cloud computing and to identify thematic boundaries of the field. The methodology of research profiling, representing bibliometric descriptive studies, was applied to achieve the aim of the study. [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to map the scholarly community interested in research on cloud computing and to identify thematic boundaries of the field. The methodology of research profiling, representing bibliometric descriptive studies, was applied to achieve the aim of the study. Using research profiling for mapping the cloud computing field can be considered as an innovation. Although the research profiling methodology has been widely used across various subject areas, including Computer Science, Social Sciences, Engineering, Arts and Humanities, Business, Management and Accounting, and Psychology, thus far neither Scopus nor Web of Science indexed publications including the conjunction of phrases “cloud computing” and “research profiling” in their titles, keywords and abstracts. The previous important scientometric study of the research output in the field was published by Heilig and Voß in 2014. Taking into account a very dynamic growth of the field, all this indicates the research gap to be filled. The research sample is made of 14,158 publications indexed in Scopus database comprising the phrase “cloud computing” in their titles. The study was purposely limited to the title search to concentrate the attention of publications relating directly to the issue of cloud computing. Applying the quantitative approach provides an opportunity for broad scanning of subject-related literature. First, general publication profiling recognized the main contributors (countries, research intuitions, source titles and authors) to the scholarly community interested in cloud computing. Secondly, subject area profiling was applied to find how multidisciplinary is the research in the field and how the research output is distributed across subject areas. Finally, topic profiling unveiled leading topics of studies in the field and their distribution by authors, journal, subject areas and core references. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Other

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Open AccessOpinion Big IFs in Productivity-Enhancing Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020037
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
With the dawn of Industry 4.0, its productivity-boosting impact appears to be comfortably ensconced both in the media and in the scientific community. Still, our paper is to portend a rather dismal prognosis by outlining three big Inertia Forces (IFs) hindering the power [...] Read more.
With the dawn of Industry 4.0, its productivity-boosting impact appears to be comfortably ensconced both in the media and in the scientific community. Still, our paper is to portend a rather dismal prognosis by outlining three big Inertia Forces (IFs) hindering the power of Industry 4.0 in reviving productivity growth in a more spectacular way. After applying a complexity view to the development of Industry 4.0 in deciphering the major IFs, the paper briefly exemplifies them by building on the case of Hungary, and it then draws some lessons for theorists and economic policy practitioners in the interest of a value-congruent development of Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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