Special Issue "Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design"

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Rachel Armitage
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Behavioural and Social Sciences, School of Human and Health Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK
Interests: crime prevention through environmental design; situational crime prevention; terrorism; CCTV and surveillance; designing out crime

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The extent to which the design of places and spaces can impact on risk of crime victimisation is well established. Research confirms that buildings, and the spaces between those buildings, will experience varying levels of crime based upon their design, build and management. This method of influencing crime risk through design and layout is referred to as Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED). Whilst this crime prevention approach has been evidenced to impact significantly upon crime (Armitage and Monchuk, 2011; Armitage, 2013; Cozens and Love, 2015), very little is known about the secondary benefits of such design approaches. Are there impacts upon anti-social behaviour, drug use, mental health and physical and social wellbeing?

The principles upon which CPTED is based focus largely upon ‘designing out’ the potential offender. Preventing them from entering a space, enhancing the likelihood of them being observed and/or challenged and frustrating their search behaviour. These mechanisms for reducing crime rely upon the offender being an outsider, someone attempting to enter a given space. Yet we know that this is not the case, and many offenders travel very short distances to commit crimes (Wiles and Costello, 2000). Thus, a presumption that they can simply be ‘designed out’ restricts the maximum potential of such an approach.

This Special Issue of Social Sciences aims to explore the extent to which the design of places and spaces can be harnessed to reduce an individual’s propensity or desire to commit crime and to enhance pro-social behaviour. Submissions are welcomed that consider CPTED from a much broader perspective; exploring the impact of design on, for example, mental health, physical and social wellbeing and drug use.

References:

Armitage, R. (2013) Crime Prevention through Housing Design: Policy and Practice. Palgrave Macmillan: Crime Prevention and Security Management Book Series.

Armitage, R., & Monchuk, L. (2011) Sustaining the Crime Reduction Impact of Secured by Design: 1999 to 2009. Security Journal, 24 (4), 320-343.

Cozens, P., and T. Love. 2015. A Review and Current Status of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED). Journal of Planning Literature 30 (4), 393-412.

Wiles, P. and Costello, A. (2000) ‘The Road to Nowhere’: Evidence for Travelling Criminals. Home Office Research Study 207. Research, Development and Statistics Directorate: Home Office.

Prof. Rachel Armitage
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Crime prevention
  • Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED)
  • Designing out crime
  • Prosocial places and spaces
  • Wellbeing
  • Housing
  • Urban design
  • Mental health
  • Crime
  • Disorder

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Geographical Juxtaposition: A New Direction in CPTED
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(9), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8090252 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper explores Oscar Newman’s Defensible Space (1972) concept of geographical juxtaposition (GJ) highlighting a significant lack of research within the criminological literature over the last 50 years. We argue the concept is a key foundation in understanding crime and crime prevention theories [...] Read more.
This paper explores Oscar Newman’s Defensible Space (1972) concept of geographical juxtaposition (GJ) highlighting a significant lack of research within the criminological literature over the last 50 years. We argue the concept is a key foundation in understanding crime and crime prevention theories and in developing crime prevention strategies. Findings from a systematic review of the literature are presented to illustrate the paucity of research into geographical juxtaposition. We develop and extend the concept of geographical juxtaposition beyond that originally coined by Newman to include all immediate, local, distant, and remote environmental (physical) factors. Additionally, we demonstrate, by reference to practical criminological situations, the significant and extensive role of our revised concept of geographical juxtaposition. In particular, we point to the way that focusing on geographical juxtaposition identifies serious problems in many taken-for-granted assumptions in planning theory and practice. In exploring the concept of geographical juxtaposition, we highlight ten ways it can affect crime risks and six ways using geographical juxtaposition can benefit efforts to apply crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) more successfully when conducting a crime risk assessment. Finally, this paper briefly discusses four new CPTED principles, which emerge from our exploration of geographical juxtaposition. We identify new classes of CPTED methods and new ways of analyzing crime and offer the basis for new criminological theories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Crime Prevention Effect of the Second Generation Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Project in South Korea: An Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060187 - 13 Jun 2019
Abstract
In Yeomni-dong Sogeum-gil, Korea, the first generation CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) project was implemented in 2012, focusing on improving the physical environment. Later, spreading nationwide, it was developed into the second generation CPTED, emphasizing the role of resident participation and improving [...] Read more.
In Yeomni-dong Sogeum-gil, Korea, the first generation CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) project was implemented in 2012, focusing on improving the physical environment. Later, spreading nationwide, it was developed into the second generation CPTED, emphasizing the role of resident participation and improving upon the weak points of the first project. This study makes a comparative analysis of crime reduction and diffusion before and after the second generation CPTED conducted in S-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, Korea, using crime location data to verify the crime prevention effect. Most previous studies on Korean CPTED projects sought verification through surveys that involved subjective opinions of the researchers or participants, creating the need for verification through quantitative and objective analysis based on crime data. This follow-up research examines the effects of the first generation CPTED Project by making an objective analysis of the differences in crime prevention effects between the first and the second project. Findings revealed that the second CPTED had a positive effect in reducing the rate of burglary and violent crime. The second generation CPTED project also led to the crime control benefits of crime diffusion, in contrast to the earlier project, where crime displacement occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Third-Generation Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060182 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
This paper advances crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) theory and practice by introducing a holistic and integrated crime prevention theory called Third-Generation CPTED. We use Third-Generation CPTED to expand both the situational focus of traditional CPTED and the social ecology/neighbourhood focus of [...] Read more.
This paper advances crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) theory and practice by introducing a holistic and integrated crime prevention theory called Third-Generation CPTED. We use Third-Generation CPTED to expand both the situational focus of traditional CPTED and the social ecology/neighbourhood focus of Second-Generation CPTED, by creating a new theory that integrates human motivation and aspirations within a neighbourhood Liveability Hierarchy. Central to our theory is the planning concept of liveability and, because safety from crime, fear, and victimization is such an integral part of quality of life, we present two underlying themes on which liveability depends: public health and sustainability. We propose some theoretical assumptions and propositions that underpin the theory and suggest areas for future research. Our contention is that a holistic and integrative Third-Generation CPTED elevates liveability from the role of basic infrastructure and habitat to providing residents with opportunities to enhance their own personal aspirations and improve their quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Social and Physical Neighbourhood Effects and Crime: Bringing Domains Together Through Collective Efficacy Theory
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(5), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8050147 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Criminologists and social scientists have long sought to explain why crime rates vary across urban landscapes. By dissecting the city into neighbourhood units, consideration has been given to the comparable features of settings under study which may help to explain why measured crime [...] Read more.
Criminologists and social scientists have long sought to explain why crime rates vary across urban landscapes. By dissecting the city into neighbourhood units, consideration has been given to the comparable features of settings under study which may help to explain why measured crime is higher in certain areas as compared to others. Some, from the socio-spatial perspective, argue that the socio-demographic makeup of a neighbourhood influences the social processes within it relevant to the disruption of crime. Others posit that physical features of neighbourhood settings, which include its layout, architectural design, and more specific measures to ‘target harden’ buildings against property crimes, can exhibit a deterrent effect. Whilst these explanations profess discrete empirical support, little has been done to consider how these influences may come to explain neighbourhood crime rates concomitantly. In this article, I seek to develop a new socio-physical model in an attempt to integrate and appraise aspects of these domains and their purported ability to explain variations in recorded crime. To achieve this, I use Collective Efficacy theory as a central organising concept which can aid researchers in interrogating current findings. I conclude that the dichotomy between how neighbourhood settings can be both defended, and be defensible, can be addressed by considering the relevance of social cohesion in activating resident social control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Out of Sight: Social Control and the Regulation of Public Space in Manchester
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(5), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8050146 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper considers the history and context of the control of public spaces, how this is regulated currently and how it relates to the politics of homelessness and community governance with a specific focus on the regulation of public space in the contemporary [...] Read more.
This paper considers the history and context of the control of public spaces, how this is regulated currently and how it relates to the politics of homelessness and community governance with a specific focus on the regulation of public space in the contemporary city of Manchester. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
Open AccessArticle
Victimization, Social Structure and Psychosocial Variables: The Case of Spain in 1999 and 2016
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030102 - 22 Mar 2019
Abstract
This article reviews the research on the factors influencing victimization and explores the case of Spain. The first section presents a comparative analysis of the data for 1999 and 2016 in terms of perceptions, profiles and the most significant sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables. [...] Read more.
This article reviews the research on the factors influencing victimization and explores the case of Spain. The first section presents a comparative analysis of the data for 1999 and 2016 in terms of perceptions, profiles and the most significant sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables. The second section shows an explanatory analysis based on multivariate logistical regression models, using as independent variables sociodemographic and psychosocial items, and the dependent variable is whether one is described as one is described as a victim or no in the 2016 survey. The results point towards an explanatory model of victimization in which sociodemographic variables play a less important role, whereas psychosocial variables related to lifestyle and subjective perceptions make a significant contribution to greater understanding of the nature of being the victim of a crime and offer suggestions on how to improve Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
Open AccessArticle
Vehicle Crime, CPTED, and Offending under the Influence: A Qualitative Investigation of Offender Perceptions
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030088 - 09 Mar 2019
Abstract
Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) can impact upon where an offender decides to commit an offence. This is particularly the case for street-level acquisitive crime. There has been little coverage, within research on crime and offending, of how aspects of the built [...] Read more.
Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) can impact upon where an offender decides to commit an offence. This is particularly the case for street-level acquisitive crime. There has been little coverage, within research on crime and offending, of how aspects of the built environment might be interpreted by a motivated offender who has a dependency on either illicit drugs, alcohol or both of these. This study draws on qualitative interviews with twenty individuals who have received criminal convictions for vehicle crime offences. Within these offender interviews, images, of repeatedly victimised areas, were examined in order to gauge in what capacity various locations were vulnerable to vehicle crime. Through this examination, pertinent points were made by participants about how and why the appeal of locations could differ for offenders who suffer from substance addiction and offenders who do not. The key findings of this research demonstrate that vehicle crime offenders who are not dependent on drugs or alcohol, may be more risk-averse than those who are. Moreover, both types of offender might become part of organised crime networks, but these findings make an initial suggestion that those who offend under the influence are more vulnerable to coercion by a criminal hierarchy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
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