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Soc. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2019)

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Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Cyberstalking and Previous Offline Victimization in a Sample of Italian University Students
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010030
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Cyberstalking has been defined as the use of electronic communication devices (including the Internet and email) to stalk another person. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cyberstalking between victims of cyberstalking and victims of cyberstalking and previous offline [...] Read more.
Cyberstalking has been defined as the use of electronic communication devices (including the Internet and email) to stalk another person. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cyberstalking between victims of cyberstalking and victims of cyberstalking and previous offline victimization in their lifetimes. Our hypothesis was that cyberstalking had an impact on victims’ wellbeing and contributed to increases in physical and emotional symptoms, anxiety and depression, and that those symptoms increased in victims who had suffered previous offline victimization. In an effort to investigate the effects of cyberstalking, a questionnaire was self-administered to 229 Italian students. A total of 107 participants (46.7%) indicated that they had been victims of cyberstalking. Seventy-two of them (67.3%) were victims of both cyberstalking and other forms of offline victimization in their lifetimes. Overall, our findings showed that the prevalence of cyberstalking in our sample was higher than in previous investigations. With regard to consequences, victims indicated higher scores for depression and anxiety than non-victims. In particular, victims of cyberstalking and previous offline victimization in their lifetimes experienced more depression and symptoms of trait anxiety than victims of cyberstalking only and non-victims. This investigation suggests the importance of preventing cyberstalking and offering support to victims of cyberstalking. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Dependence of Unemployment of the Senior Workforce upon Explanatory Variables in the European Union in the Context of Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010029
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Digitalization, robotization, artificial intelligence, and all kinds of new technologies that are known as Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution have great influence on the future of work because they will gather new jobs with new skills, and a majority of the [...] Read more.
Digitalization, robotization, artificial intelligence, and all kinds of new technologies that are known as Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution have great influence on the future of work because they will gather new jobs with new skills, and a majority of the senior workforce will probably have a lot of problems with those kinds of changes and challenges. The major objective of the paper is to recognize the dependence of the unemployment of the age category 55–64 upon selected explanatory variables. The explanatory variables were selected, and the expectations of their signs were presented in the research design. The secondary data of Eurostat and OECD 2015 has been used, covering the twenty-two member countries of the European Union (the countries that provided minimum wage were included only). The econometric analysis, specifically model specification and model quantification were the main methods used in the paper. The main outcomes and relevance of the model as well as its limitations have been compared with the findings of other authors in the discussion and implications for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle Examining the Emergence and Evolution of Blue Ocean Strategy through the Lens of Management Fashion Theory
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010028
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) is a management concept which prescribes that organizations, rather than going head-to-head with competitors, try to create and exploit new market spaces, so-called blue oceans. Since its inception in the mid-2000s, BOS has become one of the most popular [...] Read more.
Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) is a management concept which prescribes that organizations, rather than going head-to-head with competitors, try to create and exploit new market spaces, so-called blue oceans. Since its inception in the mid-2000s, BOS has become one of the most popular concepts in the field of strategy and one of the biggest buzzwords in the business world. This paper examines the emergence and evolution of BOS through the lens of management fashion theory. The analysis shows that the BOS concept exhibits several characteristics which makes it highly appealing to organizations and managers. In addition, the emergence of the concept was helped by a good fit with the zeitgeist in the field of strategy during the 2000s, which had shifted to a strong focus on theories and ideas about disruptive innovation and business model innovation. The popularization of the BOS concept can also be attributed to the backing of a powerful supply-side actors, and, in particular, the concept’s creators Kim and Mauborgne. While the attention given to BOS in public management discourse suggests that the concept can currently be considered highly fashionable, evidence about the concept’s use on the demand-side remains limited. Most surveys indicate that the adoption and diffusion is lower than would be expected based on the intensity of discourse surrounding the concept. Therefore, the current study provides some support for the view that supply-side and demand-side activity related to management fashions does not necessarily coevolve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Open AccessArticle Engagement to Enhance Community: An Example of Extension’s Land-Grant Mission in Action
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010027
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Engagement is a foundational practice for the Extension systems of land-grant universities and is demonstrated through its’ work in partnership with individuals, organizations and communities. This article will share how an Extension-led effort, focused on an aspect of community development, integrated several components [...] Read more.
Engagement is a foundational practice for the Extension systems of land-grant universities and is demonstrated through its’ work in partnership with individuals, organizations and communities. This article will share how an Extension-led effort, focused on an aspect of community development, integrated several components of engagement starting with the initial conversation through the evaluation process. Practitioner reflections on two examples that occurred in different states will highlight the processes and tools that helped nurture engagement between faculty and community and support the development of a sustainable and resilient community. The multi-state implementation will illustrate the unique depth and breadth of public participation that can be achieved when academic institutions are focused on engagement to strengthen communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
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Open AccessArticle In Search of the “Good Life”: The Appeal of the Tiny House Lifestyle in the USA
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010026
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Over the past decade, tiny houses and the lifestyle they promote have become a world-wide phenomenon, with the trend especially impactful in the United States. Given their broad appeal and increasing prominence within popular culture, it is surprising how little research exists on [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, tiny houses and the lifestyle they promote have become a world-wide phenomenon, with the trend especially impactful in the United States. Given their broad appeal and increasing prominence within popular culture, it is surprising how little research exists on them. To help to better understand what motivates people to adopt this lifestyle, this paper presents insights from an exploratory study in the United States and offers the first contours of a new conceptual framework. Situating the lifestyle within the larger economic and cultural forces of our times, it argues that going “tiny” is seen by tiny house enthusiasts as a practical roadmap to the Good Life: A simpler life characterized by more security, autonomy, relationships, and meaningful experiences. The paper ends with a brief discussion of broader implications and directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Family in Bullying and Cyberbullying Involvement: Examining a New Typology of Parental Education Management Based on Adolescents’ View of Their Parents
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010025
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
The influence of the family in children’s involvement in bullying and cyberbullying has been well documented. However, previous research into this relationship seems to have overlooked recent social changes, which have affected the family context. The aim of this study is to put [...] Read more.
The influence of the family in children’s involvement in bullying and cyberbullying has been well documented. However, previous research into this relationship seems to have overlooked recent social changes, which have affected the family context. The aim of this study is to put forward a categorization of the current educational management of Spanish parents and examine how this is linked to their children’s involvement in bullying and cyberbullying. To achieve this, 2060 schoolchildren from the South of Spain (47.9% girls with mean age = 14.34) answered four questionnaires including the Scale for the Assessment of the Parenting Styles of Adolescents’ Mothers and Fathers, the Discipline Dimensions Inventory, the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, and the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire. The Cluster Analysis results revealed a typology containing six styles: permissive, authoritarian, strict, normative democratic, indulgent democratic, and punitive democratic. Lower levels of victimization and aggression in bullying and cyberbullying were found to be linked to the indulgent democratic or normative democratic styles and higher levels to the authoritarian and strict styles. The value of parents’ educational practices and how they are combined in general styles, since these are elements that can predispose or prevent adolescent’s involvement in bullying and cyberbullying, is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
Open AccessArticle Normative Shifts in the Global Conception of Climate Change: The Growth of Climate Justice
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010024
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
While climate change has been framed as an environmental issue from the very beginning of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations, over the years the concept has expanded to further emphasize it as a fundamental issue of human rights and [...] Read more.
While climate change has been framed as an environmental issue from the very beginning of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations, over the years the concept has expanded to further emphasize it as a fundamental issue of human rights and global justice. This paper examines the evolution of the conception of climate change since 2009, arguing that the issue framing utilized by UNFCCC member states has increasingly trended toward some aspects of the climate justice frame, including disparities in vulnerability to climate change (loss and damage), human rights impacts, and social inequalities. This shift also extends to the framing adopted by civil society organizations in the form of the Climate Action Network (CAN International), in which a larger focus on issues of climate justice can be seen in recent years. These trends are then reviewed alongside the objectives, mechanisms, and language of the ratified text of the Paris Agreement in order to evaluate the status of the growing international norm of climate justice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deterrence Theory in Paraguay: Exploring Fraud and Violation of Trust Cases
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010023
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
This research paper contributes to the literature of deterrence theory in general, and in particular, with respect to white-collar crime, offering valuable insight by using a unique dataset of fraud and violation of trust incidents within the jurisdiction of Paraguay. Descriptive evidence shows [...] Read more.
This research paper contributes to the literature of deterrence theory in general, and in particular, with respect to white-collar crime, offering valuable insight by using a unique dataset of fraud and violation of trust incidents within the jurisdiction of Paraguay. Descriptive evidence shows a clear and continuous misallocation of funds and human capital, therefore providing less efficient services for the public. Regression analysis suggests that clearance rate exerts a highly significant effect in deterring fraud, but the results are not clear for violation of trust incidents. Despite the limitations of available data, results confirm the deterrence theory in Paraguay. However, for more than two-thirds of victims, not even an attempt was made to seek justice. As a side-result, it seems that a soft-on-crime strategy, induced from the former German penal code, has led to an increasing share of pre-trial diversion, therefore enhancing white-collar crimes like fraud and violation of trust, due to impunity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Community-Engaged Research Builds a Nature-Culture of Hope on North American Great Plains Rangelands
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010022
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
In the North American Great Plains, multigenerational ranches and grassland biodiversity are threatened by dynamic and uncertain climatic, economic, and land use processes. Working apart, agricultural and conservation communities face doubtful prospects of reaching their individual goals of sustainability. Rangeland research could serve [...] Read more.
In the North American Great Plains, multigenerational ranches and grassland biodiversity are threatened by dynamic and uncertain climatic, economic, and land use processes. Working apart, agricultural and conservation communities face doubtful prospects of reaching their individual goals of sustainability. Rangeland research could serve a convening platform, but experimental studies seldom involve local manager communities. The Collaborative Adaptive Rangeland Management (CARM) project, however, has undertaken a ten-year, ranch-level, participatory research effort to explore how community-engaged research can increase our understanding of conservation and ranching goals. Using ethnographic data and the nature-culture concept—which recognizes the inseparability of ecological relationships that are shaped by both biological and social processes—we examine the CARM team’s process of revising their management objectives (2016–2018). In CARM’s early days, the team established locally-relevant multifunctional goals and objectives. As team members’ understanding of the ecosystem improved, they revised objectives using more spatially, temporally and ecologically specific information. During the revision process, they challenged conventional ecological theories and grappled with barriers to success outside of their control. The emerging CARM nature-culture, based on a sense of place and grounded in hope, provides insights into effective community-engaged research to enhance rangeland livelihood and conservation outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
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Open AccessArticle Trainee Teachers’ Perceptions on Cyberbullying in Educational Contexts
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010021
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper analyzes the perceptions of teachers in training regarding cyberbullying in schools. The objectives of the study were: to ascertain their perceptions regarding their concern and their commitment to cyberbullying, their agreement with the measures to address it in educational contexts, as [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the perceptions of teachers in training regarding cyberbullying in schools. The objectives of the study were: to ascertain their perceptions regarding their concern and their commitment to cyberbullying, their agreement with the measures to address it in educational contexts, as well as the assessment of their capabilities to act and the training they have received and they would like to receive; to determine if the perceptions differ according to gender, age and degree pursued and if there are relationships between the perceptions; and, to define pre-service teachers’ profiles based on perceptions. With a survey research design, 408 students from different undergraduate and graduate education-related degree programs at Spanish public universities participated. Findings highlight the coexistence of three different teacher in training profiles. All profiles exhibit a high level of concern and recognize cyberbullying as a problem. They strongly agree with all the proposed prevention and management measures. Two of the three profiles perceive themselves as highly confident and willing to respond. On the contrary, participants in the third profile do not feel confident enough to act and consider their training insufficient, coinciding with the second profile. The need to approach this issue in the initial training of future education professionals is a main conclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
Open AccessArticle Job Crafting among Labor Union Representatives: Its Impact on Work Engagement and Job Satisfaction
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010020
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Labor Union activity still lacks recognition as an ordinary work activity. However, on the one hand, labor union representatives must deal with many tasks (internal and external) that can sometimes be overwhelming. On the other hand, given its vocational nature and the possibility [...] Read more.
Labor Union activity still lacks recognition as an ordinary work activity. However, on the one hand, labor union representatives must deal with many tasks (internal and external) that can sometimes be overwhelming. On the other hand, given its vocational nature and the possibility that it offers for the workers themselves to organize their work, the area of trade unionism can be interesting for the study of job crafting and other phenomena associated with well-being, such as burnout or work engagement. Unfortunately, to date, there are no investigations that address these phenomena, especially job crafting in the labor union environment. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to explore the existing relationships between the job crafting of the labor union representatives and their well-being and health. A sample of 78 participants engaged in labor union activity for an average of 12.62 years completed job satisfaction and work engagement measures. The results indicate that job crafting dimensions predicted participants’ job satisfaction and engagement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Labor Unions and the Changing Employment Relationships)
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Open AccessArticle An Experimental Examination of Binge Watching and Narrative Engagement
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010019
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Increasingly, audiences are engaging with media narratives through the practice of binge watching. The effects of binge watching are largely unknown, although early research suggests binge watching may be motivated by a need for escape and could be associated with some qualities of [...] Read more.
Increasingly, audiences are engaging with media narratives through the practice of binge watching. The effects of binge watching are largely unknown, although early research suggests binge watching may be motivated by a need for escape and could be associated with some qualities of addiction. In this study, we ask whether the practice of binge watching impacts audience engagement with a media narrative. Using an experimental approach, we manipulate the format of exposure to media narratives (binge or nonbinge) and test the effect of this manipulation on audience engagement, specifically parasocial relationships with favorite characters and narrative transportation. Results suggest that binge watching increases the strength of parasocial relationships and the intensity of narrative transportation. Media engagement has been shown to increase media effects, suggesting that binge watching could change not only how audiences engage with narrative media but also the effect it has on them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Always On Anywhere: Streaming Television and Its Effects)
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Open AccessArticle An Investigation of the Use of Language, Social Identity and Multicultural Values for Nation-Building in Malaysian Outdoor Advertising
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010018
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
The mass media in the form of advertising is extensively employed in the process of nation-building in Malaysia. Advertising has been used as an important tool for educating the public about State issues, ensuring diverse cultures are equally represented and the multicultural values [...] Read more.
The mass media in the form of advertising is extensively employed in the process of nation-building in Malaysia. Advertising has been used as an important tool for educating the public about State issues, ensuring diverse cultures are equally represented and the multicultural values are emphasized to the fullest. The objective of the present study is to investigate how outdoor advertising, particularly billboards, promotes the language, social identity, and multicultural values of Malaysian society for nation-building. In Malaysia, the extensive use of advertisements has been argued as one of the most powerful mechanisms to enhance Malaysian identity, foster interactions and thus contribute to the process of nation-building even though it is portrayed in a banal and routine way. To achieve its objective, this paper utilizes semiotic methodology to examine 11 billboards to understand the relationships between texts and visuals that communicate messages to the public. The findings revealed that the billboards do not only communicate pro-social messages, but also reflect the language, social identity and multicultural values of Malaysian society towards nation-building. This study expands the work of outdoor advertising within the Malaysian society and contributes to Semiotic Analysis by examining textual-visual elements of billboards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Media and Nationalism in the Network Society)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Gay-Themed Advertising among Young Heterosexual Adults from U.S. and South Korea
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010017
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Little research has been conducted to explain the effects of gay-themed advertising in a cross-cultural context. Such research has been particularly scarce in South Korea. This study is designed to investigate the effects of cultural orientation, gender, and types of gay-themed advertising in [...] Read more.
Little research has been conducted to explain the effects of gay-themed advertising in a cross-cultural context. Such research has been particularly scarce in South Korea. This study is designed to investigate the effects of cultural orientation, gender, and types of gay-themed advertising in evaluation of gay male and female lesbian print ads. The study results indicate that Korean college students (i.e., collectivists) had lower tolerance of homosexuality than did U.S. college students (i.e., individualists). The study also finds that gender-role beliefs lead males to have lower tolerance of homosexuality. However, gender did not have statistically significant impacts on advertising and brand evaluation. Lastly, the study also found that lesbian imagery print ads could lead to greater tolerance of homosexuality and more favorable evaluations of the advertising and brand than could gay male imagery print ads. The current study sheds some light on the characteristics of U.S. consumers and Korean consumers on tolerance of homosexuality and gay-themed ads. Limitations and areas for further research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Social Sciences in 2018
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010016
Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessReview Systems of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (SAACs) in Spain: A Systematic Review of the Educational Practices Conducted in the Last Decade
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010015
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Systems of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (SAACs) encompass a variety of forms of expression used to enhance the communication skills of people with disabilities and/or communication impairments. This paper compiles educational practices carried out in Spain using SAACs in the last decade. A [...] Read more.
Systems of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (SAACs) encompass a variety of forms of expression used to enhance the communication skills of people with disabilities and/or communication impairments. This paper compiles educational practices carried out in Spain using SAACs in the last decade. A systematic review of scientific research databases enabled a descriptive and qualitative analysis of the 25 case studies out of 88 that met the established inclusion criteria. The aim of this analysis was to obtain a global perspective of the main lines of action, as well as to identify its nature according to the beneficiary, context, aims, and typology of the SAACs implemented through the application of an evaluation grid. This evaluation grid tool arose in a broader European Project entitled [email protected] School for Social Inclusion. The results of this systematic review provide researchers and educators with evidence to apply SAACs with individuals with communication impairments, regardless of their age, gender, or the impairment or functional diversity they suffer from and could be applied in other European contexts. Full article
Open AccessArticle Are Black Sexual Minority Adults More Likely to Report Higher Levels of Psychological Distress than White Sexual Minority Adults? Findings from the 2013–2017 National Health Interview Survey
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010014
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
This study examined whether the association between sexual minority status and psychological distress is different between Black adults and White adults. The intersectionality framework suggests that Black sexual minority adults are more likely to report psychological distress than White sexual minority adults. Using [...] Read more.
This study examined whether the association between sexual minority status and psychological distress is different between Black adults and White adults. The intersectionality framework suggests that Black sexual minority adults are more likely to report psychological distress than White sexual minority adults. Using data from the 2013–2017 National Health Interview Survey, multinomial logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations among race, sexual orientation identity, and psychological distress in a large representative U.S. sample that included a large number of Black sexual minority adults and White sexual minority adults. Results indicated that the association between sexual minority status and psychological distress was not significantly different between Black adults and White adults. Future research should examine resources that may buffer risk for psychological distress among Black sexual minority adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle Psychometric Properties of the CYBVICS Cyber-Victimization Scale and Its Relationship with Psychosocial Variables
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010013
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
The main goal of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the revised version of the Adolescent Cyber-Victimization Scale (CYBVICS). This scale is composed of 18 items that assess direct and indirect cyber-victimization. Two subsamples participated in the present study. [...] Read more.
The main goal of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the revised version of the Adolescent Cyber-Victimization Scale (CYBVICS). This scale is composed of 18 items that assess direct and indirect cyber-victimization. Two subsamples participated in the present study. Sample 1 included 1318 adolescents (47.4% boys) from 12 to 16 years old (M = 13.89, SD = 1.32). Sample 2 was composed of 1188 adolescents (51.5% girls) from 12 to 16 years old (M = 14.19, SD = 1.80). First, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on sample 1. Results yielded a bifactor structure: direct cyber-victimization and indirect cyber-victimization. To confirm the structure of the CYBVICS, we selected sample 2 to perform confirmatory factor analysis and test its convergent validity with theoretically related measures. The results supported the reliability and validity of the two-factor model. In addition, measurement invariance was established. Related to convergent validity, positive correlations between cyber-victimization and peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and offensive communication with the mother and the father were found. Moreover, negative correlations were found between cyber-victimization and open communication with the mother and the father and family self-esteem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
Open AccessArticle Mothers’ Perceptions of the Phenomenon of Bullying among Young Children in South Korea
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010012
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate mothers’ different perspectives on bullying in early childhood. Twelve mothers having children under eight years old were interviewed in South Korea. All the interviews were transcribed in Korean and analyzed using Nvivo. The constant comparison method was used [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate mothers’ different perspectives on bullying in early childhood. Twelve mothers having children under eight years old were interviewed in South Korea. All the interviews were transcribed in Korean and analyzed using Nvivo. The constant comparison method was used to analyze the data. The results showed six themes consisting of categories: (1) concept of bullying (2) difficulty in defining bullying in early childhood, (3) difficulty in telling other mothers about bullying, (4) children who do not reveal their experiences, (5) ways to be aware of bullying, and (6) mothers’ concern. Categories were sometimes divided into subcategories. Findings showed that mothers seemed to view bullying differently, and that relationships among them contributed to differences in their perspectives on bullying. Mothers’ relationships also interacted with children’s relationships. Children were unlikely to tell their victimization experiences, due to certain reasons. These findings can contribute to understanding the nature of bullying in early childhood, increasing the social awareness of bullying among young children, and emphasizing the need for intervention/prevention programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
Open AccessArticle Putting Research to Action: Integrating Collaborative Governance and Community-Engaged Research for Community Solar
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010011
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Community solar involves the installation of a solar electricity system that is built in one central location with the costs and benefits distributed across voluntary investors who choose to subscribe and receive credits based on the generated energy. Community solar is gaining attention [...] Read more.
Community solar involves the installation of a solar electricity system that is built in one central location with the costs and benefits distributed across voluntary investors who choose to subscribe and receive credits based on the generated energy. Community solar is gaining attention because of its potential to increase access to renewable energy and to democratize energy governance. This paper reflects on community-engaged research experiences in two rural community case studies in Michigan, USA, focusing on obstacles that were experienced during the research process rather than empirical findings from the research. We highlight difficulties we experienced to help advance a conceptual argument about incorporating collaborative governance strategies to improve community-engaged research for community energy projects. Our reflections illustrate challenges in community-engaged research that are associated with identifying who should be included in the decision-making process, sustaining participation and avoiding exploitation, establishing and communicating final decision-making power, and giving attention to outputs and outcomes of the research. We argue that collaborative governance strategies can help to address these challenges, as we experienced firsthand in our project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
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Open AccessArticle Go Long or Go Often: Influences on Binge Watching Frequency and Duration among College Students
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010010
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Binge watching, or serial viewing of a single program over an extended period of time, is a relatively new norm in television viewing that is becoming more popular than traditional appointment viewing. Previous research has explored various influences on binge watching; however, the [...] Read more.
Binge watching, or serial viewing of a single program over an extended period of time, is a relatively new norm in television viewing that is becoming more popular than traditional appointment viewing. Previous research has explored various influences on binge watching; however, the current research is unique in exploring theoretically and empirically grounded predictors of both binge watching frequency and duration of binge watching sessions by means of a survey administered to college undergraduates (N = 651). Data show that binge watching frequency and duration are predicted by two non-overlapping sets of variables. Binge watching frequency was predicted by low self-regulation, greater tendency to use binge watching as both a reward and a form of procrastination, and less regret; while binge watching duration was associated with being female and experiencing greater enjoyment while binging. Self-control did not predict either binge watching frequency or duration, suggesting that alternative theoretical models should be explored. Findings also suggest that scholars should reconceptualize binge watching by including both frequency and duration measures in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Always On Anywhere: Streaming Television and Its Effects)
Open AccessArticle How Eudaimonic Aspect of Subjective Well-Being Affect Transport Mode Choice? The Case of Thessaloniki, Greece
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010009
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
In recent years, the relationship between transportation and subjective well-being has been a major subject. Well-being is a factor that can affect travelers’ psychology and transport mode choice. For this reason, policymakers have attempted to improve travelers’ subjective well-being and promote sustainable modes [...] Read more.
In recent years, the relationship between transportation and subjective well-being has been a major subject. Well-being is a factor that can affect travelers’ psychology and transport mode choice. For this reason, policymakers have attempted to improve travelers’ subjective well-being and promote sustainable modes of transport. For a better understanding of these factors, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify the travel eudaimonia aspect of subjective well-being (comfort, safety, autonomy, self-confidence, physical, and mental health), for the various means of transport in the city of Thessaloniki. During the survey, 300 valid questionnaires were completed. The collection of the above data was followed by statistical analysis. The aim of the analysis was to identify the factors of travel eudaimonia that contributed to the mode choice. For that reason, four ordinal regression models were developed to determine how travel eudaimonia affected the usage frequency of the four available means of transport in the city of Thessaloniki (i.e., private car, bicycle, public transport, walking). Walking was rated higher than other modes in all factors, whilst cycling was rated high in physical and mental health, self-confidence, and autonomy, but low in comfort and safety. Public transport scored very low in all factors, demonstrating the poor quality of service provided by the city’s public transport. Moreover, from the ordinal regression models’ results, it could be demonstrated that travel eudaimonia factors had a significant role to play in mode choice. Recognizing the impact of these factors on transport mode choice is particularly useful for policymakers, researchers, and engineers, as it helps them to make informed decisions about what improvements are needed to promote sustainable modes of transport (mainly walking, cycling, and secondarily, public transport). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Transport and Social Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle ‘Come Back at Us’: Reflections on Researcher-Community Partnerships during a Post-Oil Spill Gulf Coast Resilience Study
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010008
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents findings from eight post-hoc interviews with individuals representing the key community partner organizations that facilitated and hosted data collection for an in-person mixed-methods survey about disaster resilience and preparedness in three communities on the Gulf Coast (U.S.) impacted by the [...] Read more.
This paper presents findings from eight post-hoc interviews with individuals representing the key community partner organizations that facilitated and hosted data collection for an in-person mixed-methods survey about disaster resilience and preparedness in three communities on the Gulf Coast (U.S.) impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and numerous disasters from natural hazards. We submit our analysis of these follow-up interviews with community partners as a case study to provide a set of recommendations for future community-engaged research practices, particularly in the field of environmental and disaster resilience. Input from community partners stressed the importance of engaging with local community brokers to enhance trust in research; researcher-partner communication; and researcher interaction with community residents that respects local knowledge and culture. The partners indicated that even communities that have often been the subjects of post-disaster studies are receptive to research participation, especially when the effects of disasters are long-term and ongoing. Recommendations include using research methodologies that are congruent with post-disaster community characteristics such as educational attainment; collaborating with community partners to disseminate research findings; and incorporating theories and practices that center critical reflection and consider power dynamics when working with communities that have experienced disaster and trauma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
Open AccessErratum Erratum: Del Barrio, E. et al. From Active Aging to Active Citizenship: The Role of (Age) Friendliness. Social Sciences, 2018, 7, 134
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010007
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper (Del Barrio 2018) [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Cognitive-Based E-Learning Design for Older Adults
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010006
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
Aging is highly correlated with a decline in cognitive abilities. Information and communication technologies are nowadays increasingly used for knowledge acquisition, education, cognitive development, etc. Older adults should be prepared to adopt these technologies and take advantage of their capabilities. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Aging is highly correlated with a decline in cognitive abilities. Information and communication technologies are nowadays increasingly used for knowledge acquisition, education, cognitive development, etc. Older adults should be prepared to adopt these technologies and take advantage of their capabilities. The purpose of this study was to analyze the cognitive profile of older adults in order to identify the ways that they learn, as well as to analyze older adults’ attitudes, to aid in the development of an e-learning platform adapted to their needs. The sample of the study consisted of 103 older adults, aged 55+, from Greece. According to their responses, older adults seemed to prefer e-learning modules that presented the educational content step-by-step and contained practice questions and examples. In addition, respondents had positive attitudes toward the existence of assessment tests for after the completion of each module. Finally, the utilization of explanatory videos and special graphics in the modules was imperative, according to older adults’ preferences. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gender Equality in Europe and the Effect of Work-Family Balance Policies on Gender-Role Attitudes
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010005
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 30 December 2018
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Abstract
This study starts from the assumption that the context of opportunities for work-family balance affects individual attitudes toward gender roles, a main indicator of support for gender equality. Compared with extant research, the present study adopts a more articulated definition of “opportunity structure” [...] Read more.
This study starts from the assumption that the context of opportunities for work-family balance affects individual attitudes toward gender roles, a main indicator of support for gender equality. Compared with extant research, the present study adopts a more articulated definition of “opportunity structure” that includes national income level and social norms on gender attitudes, measures of gender-mainstreaming policies implemented at the company level (flextime), and different work-family balance policies in support of the dual-earner/dual-caregiver family model (e.g., parental-leave schemes and childcare provisions). The effects of these factors are estimated by performing a cross-sectional multilevel analysis for the year 2014. Gender-role attitudes and micro-level controls are taken from the Eurobarometer for all 28 European Union (EU) members, while macro-indicators stem from Eurostat, European Quality of Work Survey, and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Our results show that both institutional and workplace arrangements supporting the dual-earner/dual-caregiver family model are associated with more egalitarian gender-role attitudes This is particularly true concerning availability of formal childcare for 0- to 3-year-olds among institutional factors, as well as work-schedule flexibility among workplace factors, probably as they enable a combination of care and paid work for both men and women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Socio-Structural Perspective on Family Model Preferences, Gender Roles and Work–Family Attitudes in Spain
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010004
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
Since the early 1990s, the diversity of work–family arrangement models has increased in Spain. It is difficult to understand this phenomenon without attending to the Spanish population’s preferences for such models. This article analyses the attitudes towards gender roles, and family model preferences [...] Read more.
Since the early 1990s, the diversity of work–family arrangement models has increased in Spain. It is difficult to understand this phenomenon without attending to the Spanish population’s preferences for such models. This article analyses the attitudes towards gender roles, and family model preferences within a normative and socio-structural framework. Using data from the International Social Survey Programme 2012, we developed descriptive and explanatory analyses. The findings reveal contradictions between attitudes towards the mother’s and father’s work intensity and gender roles that seem to be resolved through preferences for a “hybrid” or “adaptive” family model. We also identified the determinants of family model preferences for both men and women. The results show that gender plays a significant role in explaining preferences (women are less likely than men to prefer the male-breadwinner family model) and that socio-structural factors such as age, education level, immigrant condition, religious status and social class influence the preferences of men and women differently. Ultimately, these results contrast with Hakim’s Preference Theory, which emphasises individuals’ choices over socio-structural factors as determinants of family models, and align with Crompton’s and Pfau-Effinger’s theories. Full article
Open AccessArticle Parental Communication and Feelings of Affiliation in Adolescent Aggressors and Victims of Cyberbullying
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010003
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
Cyberbullying is an increasingly frequent problem among adolescents, and it produces considerable social concern. Using a cross-sectional and quantitative methodology, the main objective of this study was to analyze the differences among students involved in the perpetration and victimization of cyberbullying (non-involved, occasional, [...] Read more.
Cyberbullying is an increasingly frequent problem among adolescents, and it produces considerable social concern. Using a cross-sectional and quantitative methodology, the main objective of this study was to analyze the differences among students involved in the perpetration and victimization of cyberbullying (non-involved, occasional, and severe), in their parental communication, and feelings of affiliation with classmates. The sample consisted of 849 adolescents (51.7% boys and 48.3% girls) from 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.5; SD = 1.62). Three comparison groups of aggressors and victims of cyberbullying were formed, depending on the intensity of the intimidation: non-involved, occasional, and severe. The results of the analysis of variance indicated that adolescents involved in cyberbullying as perpetrators or victims have less open and more avoidant communication with their parents than adolescents who are not involved in cyberbullying. Additionally, victims of cyberbullying perceive lower feelings of affiliation with their classmates, whereas cyberbullies show no differences between the groups on this variable. These new results provide insight into the important role of family and peers in the prevention and eradication of the growing problem of cyberbullying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
Open AccessArticle Corporate Propensity for Long-Term Donations to Non-Profit Organisations: An Exploratory Study in Portugal
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010002
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 23 December 2018
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Abstract
The motivations for individual and corporate donations to non-profit organisations (NPOs) have been vastly researched. However, companies tend to diversify their donations towards different institutions, hindering the development of substantial and continuous social interventions by charities. Considering the importance of regular support to [...] Read more.
The motivations for individual and corporate donations to non-profit organisations (NPOs) have been vastly researched. However, companies tend to diversify their donations towards different institutions, hindering the development of substantial and continuous social interventions by charities. Considering the importance of regular support to guarantee NPOs’ sustainability, this study analyses the corporate motivations and the conditions that might favour their propensity for long-term donations. Researchers have conducted twenty semistructured interviews in companies with social responsibility policies and concluded that motivations to donate goes beyond visibility or recognition the donation might bring to the business. Interviewees highlighted the sense of altruism and the perceived importance of their donation for the well-being of people the institutions are supporting. However, managers admitted they diversify their partnerships rather than donate regularly to the same institution and consider that a relationship and proactive marketing approach by NPOs would be a key point to activate long-term donations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing in Nonprofit Organizations)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Factors Associated to the Enrollment and Demand of Computing-Related Careers
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010001
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
Despite the great need for computer-related career professionals, some universities that offer specialties to develop professionals with knowledge to cover the mention need, present a decrease in enrollment, which can cause a wide variety of problems. That is why in this paper we [...] Read more.
Despite the great need for computer-related career professionals, some universities that offer specialties to develop professionals with knowledge to cover the mention need, present a decrease in enrollment, which can cause a wide variety of problems. That is why in this paper we set out to investigate what the main factors that directly or indirectly affect student enrollment in computer-related careers are, to establish a literature-based starting point, and to help select the best possible strategy to improve enrollment. To reach this goal, we did a documentary research, categorizing each one of the factors with its respective analysis. In the results, we explain several challenges that educators face, due to the evolution of society needs, two of them are: teaching-learning models and technology; besides, it became evident that the relevance of this academic programs remain available since there is a high demand for these professionals in Mexico, as well as in the world; finally, we showed some intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that have an essential relevance at the time that a student chooses the career to study. On the other hand, we reflected that the perception of everything that involves the study of a Computing-related career is a factor to be considered in the selection of an educational program of higher education. This study could be a reference for universities that are facing decreasing enrollment concerns. In conclusion, we analyzed and identified the main factors that have an impact on the demand for a career related to engineering, providing possible lines of action for increasing school enrollment. Full article
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