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Soc. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2019)

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Open AccessArticle The Good Food Revolution: Building Community Resiliency in the Mississippi Delta
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020057 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
The Mississippi Delta represents one of the greatest concentrations of rural persistent poverty in the United States. High unemployment, high food insecurity, higher rates of obesity and diabetes, and low access to healthy, affordable food characterize much of the 18 counties in the [...] Read more.
The Mississippi Delta represents one of the greatest concentrations of rural persistent poverty in the United States. High unemployment, high food insecurity, higher rates of obesity and diabetes, and low access to healthy, affordable food characterize much of the 18 counties in the region. In the face of this, The Good Food Revolution, a community-based program to address food related health and thereby employment, developed in response to significant need in three small communities in North Bolivar County, Mississippi, bringing together community members, public and private sector organizations, researchers and students. This paper examines the process of community-engaged scholarship from the theoretical lens on building community capacity and resiliency developed by Chaskin. Increasing community capacity for all participants in the Good Food Revolution project through community-engaged scholarship has built resilient communities that are engaging more communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
Open AccessArticle Ladies, Gentlemen and Guys: The Gender Politics of Politeness
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020056 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Are there ladies and gentlemen in the 21st century? Do we need them? In the 20th century, lady became particularly unpopular with second wave feminists, who preferred ‘woman’. Gentleman was seen as similarly politically incorrect: class, race and culture bound. Following previous research [...] Read more.
Are there ladies and gentlemen in the 21st century? Do we need them? In the 20th century, lady became particularly unpopular with second wave feminists, who preferred ‘woman’. Gentleman was seen as similarly politically incorrect: class, race and culture bound. Following previous research on the word lady, we explore here some current evocations and debates around these words. We consider how the more casual, etymologically gendered term ‘guy’ has been utilized for men and women, and how it functions to reflect and obscure gender. While the return of the lady might be considered a consumer fad, a neo-conservative post-feminist backlash, or nostalgia for an elite ‘polite society’, it also offers an opportunity for a deeper discussion about civility as part of a broader conversation that is gaining impetus in the Western world. Politeness is personal and political. Whilst evidence for a comeback of the gentleman is limited, we critically consider the re-emergence of the lady as reflecting a deeper desire for applied sexual and social ethics. Such gender ethics have global, social and cultural ramifications that we ought not to underestimate. The desire for a culture of civility is gaining momentum as we are increasingly confronted with the violent consequences of a culture without it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
Open AccessArticle Subjective Happiness, Health and Quality of Life and Their Sociocultural Correlates among Younger Population in Malawi
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020055
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Public health research and policy in sub-Saharan Africa are generally disease-oriented, with the focus being largely confined within the biological determinants of health. So far, little attention has been given to developing a more health-oriented approach by emphasising the psychosocial dimensions of health, [...] Read more.
Public health research and policy in sub-Saharan Africa are generally disease-oriented, with the focus being largely confined within the biological determinants of health. So far, little attention has been given to developing a more health-oriented approach by emphasising the psychosocial dimensions of health, especially among the younger population. To this regard, we conducted the present study to assess the prevalence and sociocultural correlates of perceived happiness, health, and life satisfaction among the adolescent and young (15–24 years) population in Malawi. We analysed cross-sectional data on 12,610 men and women based on a Malawi multiple indicator cluster survey conducted in 2013–2014. Data were analysed using descriptive and multivariable regression methods. According to the findings, more than 80% of the men and women reported being satisfied about happiness, health, and life. Multivariate analysis showed an inverse relationship between being currently or formerly married and perceived happiness. Ethnic disparities in perceived health and happiness were more pronounced in men, whereas that of life satisfaction was more pronounced in women. Living in households of the highest wealth quintile was positively associated with health and life satisfaction, but not with happiness. These findings highlight the need for prioritising the psychosocial needs of the adolescent and youth populations in designing health and social policy in Malawi. The findings need to be interpreted in light of the factors specific to the sociocultural environment in Malawi. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Entrepreneurial Self-Identity, Perceived Corruption, Exogenous and Endogenous Obstacles as Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intention in Italy
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020054
Received: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Although entrepreneurship is considered one of the most powerful drivers of national economies around the world, there is little consensus about what informal factors foster entrepreneurial intention. In accordance with recent literature, entrepreneurial self-identity perception, the perception of corruption in the entrepreneurship ecosystem, [...] Read more.
Although entrepreneurship is considered one of the most powerful drivers of national economies around the world, there is little consensus about what informal factors foster entrepreneurial intention. In accordance with recent literature, entrepreneurial self-identity perception, the perception of corruption in the entrepreneurship ecosystem, and perceived exogenous and endogenous obstacles to entrepreneurship were hypothesized as antecedents of college students’ and graduates’ entrepreneurial intention. A study with a sample (N = 153) composed of college students and graduates from an Italian university was conducted. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to test the research hypotheses. The hypotheses that entrepreneurial self-identity perception and corruption perception of the entrepreneurial ecosystem are positive antecedents of entrepreneurial intention were confirmed. Corruption was considered as a viable and socially acceptable strategy that entrepreneurs might adopt in order to easily overcome governmental norms and rules about managing firms. It was hypothesized that the perception of corruption of the entrepreneurial ecosystem might be a positive antecedent of entrepreneurial intention if the subjects perceived the corruption as pervasive of the economic ecosystem and the effort made by national government to control corruption as ineffective. From this point of view, the positive causal relationship between perceived corruption and entrepreneurial intention could reveal college students and graduates’ propensity to perceive corruption as a phenomenon capable of generating a “grease the wheel” effect. Full article
Open AccessArticle Online Store Locator: An Essential Resource for Retailers in the 21st Century
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020053
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Most retailers use their websites and social media to increase their visibility, while potential customers get information about these retailers using the Internet on electronic devices. Many papers have previously studied online marketing strategies used by retailers, but little attention has been paid [...] Read more.
Most retailers use their websites and social media to increase their visibility, while potential customers get information about these retailers using the Internet on electronic devices. Many papers have previously studied online marketing strategies used by retailers, but little attention has been paid to determine how these companies provide information through the Internet about the location and characteristics of their stores. This paper aims to obtain evidence about the inclusion of interactive web maps on retailers’ websites to provide information about the location of their stores. With this purpose, the store locator interactive tools of specialty retailers’ websites included in the report “Global Powers of Retailing 2015” are studied in detail using different procedures, such as frequency analysis and word clouds. From the results obtained, it was concluded that most of these firms use interactive maps to provide information about their offline stores, but today some of them still use non-interactive (static) maps or text format to present this information. Moreover, some differences were observed among the search filters used in the store locator services, according to the retailer’s specialty. These results provided insight into the important role of online store locator tools on retailers’ websites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fashion Merchandising and Consumer Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle Penal and Custodial Control of Female Criminality in Spain from a Gender Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020052
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Gender is a uniquely important factor in women’s lives and female criminality alike: A study of statistics on female criminality worldwide shows that several gender-related factors may determine a woman’s commission of an offence, her life in prison, and perhaps even her future. [...] Read more.
Gender is a uniquely important factor in women’s lives and female criminality alike: A study of statistics on female criminality worldwide shows that several gender-related factors may determine a woman’s commission of an offence, her life in prison, and perhaps even her future. Reflecting on this problem based solely on official statistics is difficult because some variables remain invisible from this perspective. Consequently, it is necessary to study the problem by applying criminological methods and examining past judgements. Whether it be an analysis of offences predominantly associated with women in the statistics (drug trafficking), or of other crimes that are not (terrorism, white/pink-collar crime), it is possible to identify gender patterns that in micro-criminological terms serve to elucidate the reasons why these women have committed an offence. It may even be possible to prevent female criminality by tackling the gender stereotypes that are present in all these crimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice)
Open AccessArticle Introduction of New Food Products in China: Is There a Trend towards Healthier and Safer Products?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020051
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
The Chinese society has undergone an important transformation in the last 20 years, with changes in lifestyles due to increasing urbanization and rising income levels. The emergence of modern supermarkets, convenience stores, and hypermarkets has run alongside the changes in consumers’ lifestyles, revolutionizing [...] Read more.
The Chinese society has undergone an important transformation in the last 20 years, with changes in lifestyles due to increasing urbanization and rising income levels. The emergence of modern supermarkets, convenience stores, and hypermarkets has run alongside the changes in consumers’ lifestyles, revolutionizing the Chinese food system and the nature of its food supply. Changes in food consumption patterns have also accompanied these shifts. One of the distinguishing aspects of this modern food sector is the continuous introduction of new foods and beverages to the market, and the communication of their associated attributes through labels, in-store displays, and advertising. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether there have been any trends towards the introduction of products with greater health, nutrition, and food safety attributes to help consumers attain healthier diets making trade-offs between purchase options. Results show that there has been a rise in the number of new products in the Chinese food retail sector, particularly branded products introduced mainly by Chinese companies making food safety claims. It is clear, however, that the new food and drink products follow the consumption trends highlighted in the literature, and, therefore, there are low chances that they will positively influence the Chinese diet to an important degree, as they are mainly reinforcing the observed dietary trends. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Examining the Local Spatial Variability of Robberies in Saint Louis Using a Multi-Scale Methodology
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020050
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
The current study spatially examines the local variability of robbery rates in the City of Saint Louis, Missouri using both census tract and block group data disaggregated and standardized to the 250- and 500-m raster grid spatial scale. The Spatial Lag Model (SLM) [...] Read more.
The current study spatially examines the local variability of robbery rates in the City of Saint Louis, Missouri using both census tract and block group data disaggregated and standardized to the 250- and 500-m raster grid spatial scale. The Spatial Lag Model (SLM) indicated measures of race and stability as globally influencing robbery rates. To explore these relationships further, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to determine the local spatial variability. We found that the standardized census tract data appeared to be more powerful in the models, while standardized block group data were more precise. Similarly, the 250-m grid offered greater accuracy, while the 500-m grid was more robust. The GWR models explained the local varying spatial relationships between race and stability and robbery rates in St. Louis better than the global models. The local models indicated that social characteristics occurring at higher-order geographies may influence robbery rates in St. Louis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Technology and School Unit Improvement: Researching, Reconsidering and Reconstructing the School Context through a Multi-Thematic Digital Storytelling Project
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020049
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
Digital stories comprise a technological tool which can engage learners in collaborative learning as well as lead them to experientially acquire knowledge through a constructive process. The aim of the current action research, for which a cooperative network between academics and teachers was [...] Read more.
Digital stories comprise a technological tool which can engage learners in collaborative learning as well as lead them to experientially acquire knowledge through a constructive process. The aim of the current action research, for which a cooperative network between academics and teachers was created, is to show how digital storytelling can emerge as an inclusive education tool through investigating the changes brought about by its implementation on the academic and social context of a school unit. The research was conducted in a Greek primary school and lasted seven months, involving two fifth grade classes and an integration class. It followed the three stages of a multi-thematic digital story project (preparation, implementation, and evaluation) and learners were called to research and process information, at their own pace, from diverse cognitive domains (art, science, coding). The research tools employed were participatory observation, diary research, and semi-structured interviews. The research positively influenced the reconstruction of the school unit since teachers reconsidered some of their educational techniques as non-inclusive, utilized technology as an instrument of constructive and experiential learning based on the diversity of each student, and reinforced learners’ critical thinking and imagination while cultivating a climate of empathy and self-confidence among students. Full article
Open AccessArticle Measuring Micrometers of Matter and Inventing Indices: Entangling Social Perception within Discrete and Continuous Measurements of Air Quality
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020048
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
Environmental protection agencies around the globe are establishing different methods for measuring particulates, and then integrating those measurements into a single air quality index with other pollutants. At the same time, scientific inquiry has also shifted to a theory of measurement that incorporates [...] Read more.
Environmental protection agencies around the globe are establishing different methods for measuring particulates, and then integrating those measurements into a single air quality index with other pollutants. At the same time, scientific inquiry has also shifted to a theory of measurement that incorporates discrete and continuous measurement. This article reviews the relationship between discrete measurements and indices, while also speculating on the way that the continuous measurement of air pollution could stimulate awareness and action. The paper argues that continuous measurement must include the way people of different backgrounds perceive air pollution in their lives. After reviewing the methods of measuring particulates and their inclusion into various indices, the article argues that in order to take action to mitigate the health impacts of air pollution, we must allow for the social perception of air pollution to become entangled within our scientific measurements. Full article
Open AccessArticle Views on Public Transport and How Personal Experiences Can Contribute to a More Positive Attitude and Behavioural Change
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020047
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
To reduce car usage, several strategies are needed, one of which focuses on social psychological factors. The aim of this study was to predict and explain bus usage using the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model of change in a sample [...] Read more.
To reduce car usage, several strategies are needed, one of which focuses on social psychological factors. The aim of this study was to predict and explain bus usage using the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model of change in a sample of 983 residents. The study also evaluated the effect of providing a group of regular car users (n = 34) with a free travel pass, to be used on busses and trains in the region. A regression analysis showed that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) explained 26% of the variance in intention to use the bus, increasing to 59% when past behaviour was added. The use of the free travel pass resulted in a more positive attitude towards bus usage, with a large number having either changed or having started to change their behaviour. When the same people were contacted three months later, 50% still used public transport. The conclusion is that negative attitudes and travel habits can be altered by experience. Although, a reduction of car use can only be achieved if several measures are implemented that make car driving less attractive and sustainable modes of transport more attractive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Transport and Social Psychology)
Open AccessArticle Measurement Invariance of a Direct Behavior Rating Multi Item Scale across Occasions
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020046
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been mostly evaluated in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, [...] Read more.
Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been mostly evaluated in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, for a standardized use in the pedagogical field, a larger and broader sample is required in order to assess measurement invariance between different participant groups and over time. Therefore, we constructed a DBR, the Questionnaire for Monitoring Behavior in Schools (QMBS) with multiple items to measure the occurrence of specific externalizing and internalizing student classroom behaviors on a Likert scale (1 = never to 7 = always). In a pilot study, two trained raters observed 16 primary education students and rated the student behavior over all items with a satisfactory reliability. In the main study, 108 regular primary school students, 97 regular secondary students, and 14 students in a clinical setting were rated daily over one week (five measurement points). Item response theory (IRT) analyses confirmed the technical adequacy of the instrument and latent growth models demonstrated the instrument’s stability over time. Further development of the instrument and study designs to implement DBRs is discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Term “Resilience” in Arctic Health and Well-Being Using a Sharing Circle as a Community-Centered Approach: Insights from a Conference Workshop
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020045
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
In the field of Arctic health, “resilience” is a term and concept used to describe capacity to recover from difficulties. While the term is widely used in Arctic policy contexts, there is debate at the community level on whether “resilience” is an appropriate [...] Read more.
In the field of Arctic health, “resilience” is a term and concept used to describe capacity to recover from difficulties. While the term is widely used in Arctic policy contexts, there is debate at the community level on whether “resilience” is an appropriate term to describe the human dimensions of health and wellness in the Arctic. Further, research methods used to investigate resilience have largely been limited to Western science research methodologies, which emphasize empirical quantitative studies and may not mirror the perspective of the Arctic communities under study. To explore conceptions of resilience in Arctic communities, a Sharing Circle was facilitated at the International Congress on Circumpolar Health in 2018. With participants engaging from seven of the eight Arctic countries, participants shared critiques of the term “resilience,” and their perspectives on key components of thriving communities. Upon reflection, this use of a Sharing Circle suggests that it may be a useful tool for deeper investigations into health-related issues affecting Arctic Peoples. The Sharing Circle may serve as a meaningful methodology for engaging communities using resonant research strategies to decolonize concepts of resilience and highlight new dimensions for promoting thriving communities in Arctic populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
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Open AccessArticle Child-Led Research: Questioning Knowledge
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020044
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
Over the last twenty years, childhood studies has challenged the schooled and developmental models of childhood. The children’s rights agenda has combined with academic childhood studies, to emphasise that children are and can be social actors and to seek ways to recognise and [...] Read more.
Over the last twenty years, childhood studies has challenged the schooled and developmental models of childhood. The children’s rights agenda has combined with academic childhood studies, to emphasise that children are and can be social actors and to seek ways to recognise and support their participation rights. For those who promote the participation of children and young people, there is considerable enthusiasm to involve them in all research stages—from research planning, fieldwork, and analysis to dissemination, leading to growth in what is often called ‘child-led research’. This article draws upon an empirical study of ‘child-led research’ projects, undertaken in Bangladesh, Jordan and Lebanon, for a critical examination of the meanings and implications of ‘child-led research’. In particular, this paper explores what counts as knowledge in social science research within contexts of generational difference and power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood and Society)
Open AccessArticle Difficulty Orientations, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: An Intersectional Analysis of Pathways to STEM Degrees
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020043
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
Is there a relationship between mathematics ability beliefs and STEM degrees? Fields such as physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC) are thought to require talent or brilliance. However, the potential effects of difficulty perceptions on students’ participation in STEM have yet to [...] Read more.
Is there a relationship between mathematics ability beliefs and STEM degrees? Fields such as physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC) are thought to require talent or brilliance. However, the potential effects of difficulty perceptions on students’ participation in STEM have yet to be examined using a gender and race/ethnicity intersectional lens. Using nationally representative U.S. longitudinal data, we measure gender and racial/ethnic variation in secondary students’ orientation towards mathematics difficulty. We observed nuanced relationships between mathematics difficulty orientation, gender, race/ethnicity, and PEMC major and degree outcomes. In secondary school, the gap between boys’ and girls’ mathematics difficulty orientations were wider than gaps between White and non-White students. Mathematics difficulty orientation was positively associated with both declaring majors and earning degrees in PEMC. This relationship varied more strongly based on gender than race/ethnicity. Notably, Black women show higher gains in predicted probability to declare a mathematics-intensive major as compared to all other women, given their mathematics difficulty orientations. This study’s findings show that both gender and racial/ethnic identities may influence the relationship between mathematics difficulty orientation and postsecondary STEM outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessEditorial Child Protection and Social Inequality: Editorial
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020042
Received: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
In the UK and internationally, reducing inequalities in health and education has become accepted across the political spectrum as an essential component of government policy [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Social Inequality)
Open AccessArticle Human Rights Violations and Violent Internal Conflict
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020041
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
This research project uses econometric methods and comparative, cross-national data to see whether violations of human rights increase the likelihood of the onset or escalation of violent protest, terrorism and/or civil war. The findings show that these types of violent internal conflict will [...] Read more.
This research project uses econometric methods and comparative, cross-national data to see whether violations of human rights increase the likelihood of the onset or escalation of violent protest, terrorism and/or civil war. The findings show that these types of violent internal conflict will occur and escalate if governments: (1) torture, politically imprison, kill, or “disappear” people, (2) do not allow women to participate fully in the political system, including allowing them to hold high level national political office, and (3) do not allow women to participate fully in the economic life of the nation by ensuring equal pay for equal work, by encouraging their entry to the highest paid occupations, and by protecting them from sexual harassment at their workplaces. These types of violations of human rights and the existence of large horizontal inequalities in societies independently produce an increased risk of the onset and escalation of many forms of violent internal conflict. The results also provide some evidence for the argument that there is a trade-off between liberty and security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Politics of Peace and Conflict)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Public Transport Context Situation and Culture on Mode Choice
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020040
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
Arrival on time when reaching a trip destination is perceived differently by different communities, but the need to arrive at the desired time is essential. This study conducted a cross-cultural comparison of the waiting time reliability of public bus transport systems in three [...] Read more.
Arrival on time when reaching a trip destination is perceived differently by different communities, but the need to arrive at the desired time is essential. This study conducted a cross-cultural comparison of the waiting time reliability of public bus transport systems in three cities in three different countries: Haifa, Israel; Quito, Ecuador; and Valencia, Spain. The objective of the study was to understand and compare the importance of reliable public transport for university students attending classes in these diverse locations. A stated preference survey was conducted that considered the local fares and current travel times for each community. A logit model was designed to detect the importance of the waiting time reliability of bus timing. The values of time and value of reliability were estimated for each location, and the results were compared. The study established that reliability is, in fact, one of the important characteristics when choosing a travel mode (along with cost and travel time) across all of these diverse communities. The results showed that in all of the samples, the Value of Reliability (VOR) late was much higher than the Value of Reliability (VOR) early. Due to the differences between the transportation systems of the distinct countries, this study did not cover all possible transportation variables. An in-depth study, covering other variables, should be undertaken in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Transport and Social Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle Positive Discrimination Policies and Indigenous-Based ECEC Services in Bogota, Colombia
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020039
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
This article aims to present a few tensions and contradictions when implementing children’s rights using the case of three Casas de Pensamiento Indígena (CPI)—indigenous childcare services—in Bogotá. It questions global policies and local interpretations of early childhood education. Its main purpose is to [...] Read more.
This article aims to present a few tensions and contradictions when implementing children’s rights using the case of three Casas de Pensamiento Indígena (CPI)—indigenous childcare services—in Bogotá. It questions global policies and local interpretations of early childhood education. Its main purpose is to find insights on what it means to attend to young children from minority groups. Could early childhood education and care (ECEC) services be reduced to ethnic backgrounds? In the struggle to deal with global, local, and community discourses, policy makers see positive discrimination not only as a way to justify their actions and their policies but also as a way to respond to the question of equity and diversity, regardless of equality. Therefore, this article highlights this discussion on positive discrimination as a way to intensify social inequality or reproduce inequalities at another level with a different name. Rancière’s dissertation on politics (Rancière 1998) and on the different meanings of politics and politique is used to understand the subtle relationship between equity and diversity. Considering all of this, it was decided to do fieldwork to comprehend the daily lives of CPI settings and the complexity of their formalization/institutionalization. The study highlights how CPI both differs from and is part of conventional services, and how indigenous caregivers and children face an institutional script that asks them to perform indigenism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood and Society)
Open AccessArticle An Examination of the Impact of Astroturfing on Nationalism: A Persuasion Knowledge Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020038
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
One communication approach that lately has become more common is astroturfing, which has been more prominent since the proliferation of social media platforms. In this context, astroturfing is a fake grass-roots political campaign that aims to manipulate a certain audience. This exploratory research [...] Read more.
One communication approach that lately has become more common is astroturfing, which has been more prominent since the proliferation of social media platforms. In this context, astroturfing is a fake grass-roots political campaign that aims to manipulate a certain audience. This exploratory research examined how effective astroturfing is in mitigating citizens’ natural defenses against politically persuasive messages. An experimental method was used to examine the persuasiveness of social media messages related to coal energy in their ability to persuade citizens’, and increase their level of nationalism. The results suggest that citizens are more likely to be persuaded by an astroturfed message than people who are exposed to a non-astroturfed message, regardless of their political leanings. However, the messages were not successful in altering an individual’s nationalistic views at the moment of exposure. The authors discuss these findings and propose how in a long-term context, astroturfing is a dangerous addition to persuasive communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Media and Nationalism in the Network Society)
Open AccessOpinion Big IFs in Productivity-Enhancing Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020037
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
With the dawn of Industry 4.0, its productivity-boosting impact appears to be comfortably ensconced both in the media and in the scientific community. Still, our paper is to portend a rather dismal prognosis by outlining three big Inertia Forces (IFs) hindering the power [...] Read more.
With the dawn of Industry 4.0, its productivity-boosting impact appears to be comfortably ensconced both in the media and in the scientific community. Still, our paper is to portend a rather dismal prognosis by outlining three big Inertia Forces (IFs) hindering the power of Industry 4.0 in reviving productivity growth in a more spectacular way. After applying a complexity view to the development of Industry 4.0 in deciphering the major IFs, the paper briefly exemplifies them by building on the case of Hungary, and it then draws some lessons for theorists and economic policy practitioners in the interest of a value-congruent development of Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle Work and Family Life Reconciliation Policies in Turkey: Europeanisation or Ottomanisation?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020036
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper is an endeavour to explore and explain the Europeanisation patterns of gender equality in a longstanding candidate country, Turkey, with regard to the specific policy areas of work and family life reconciliation over the last two decades. To achieve this goal, [...] Read more.
This paper is an endeavour to explore and explain the Europeanisation patterns of gender equality in a longstanding candidate country, Turkey, with regard to the specific policy areas of work and family life reconciliation over the last two decades. To achieve this goal, this paper has utilised a combination of literature review, document analysis and 43 semi-structured in-depth interviews with European Union (EU) officials, representatives of social partners and international women’s organisations, as well as Turkish political elites and representatives of civil society organisations. The collected data have been analysed through the thematic analysis research method. Relying on an extensive review of the related literature and policy documents together with the data collected, this paper contends that the process of Europeanising Turkish work and family life reconciliation policies has remained contradictory, incomplete and patchy. Although the Turkish government has made various legislative changes in response to the adaptational pressure coming from the EU, a closer examination of those legislative amendments indicates a continued disconnect between Turkey and the EU in the specific policy area of work and family life reconciliation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Relationships, Child Poverty, and Children’s Life Satisfaction
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020035
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract
Child subjective well-being is determined by various personal, social, and contextual factors. Few studies have found reliable differences in the prediction power of these factors; however, the results vary especially when it comes to sociodemographic factors, such as the effect of child’s socioeconomic [...] Read more.
Child subjective well-being is determined by various personal, social, and contextual factors. Few studies have found reliable differences in the prediction power of these factors; however, the results vary especially when it comes to sociodemographic factors, such as the effect of child’s socioeconomic background on life satisfaction. This paper examines how poverty and social relationships affect the perceived life satisfaction of Finnish schoolchildren. Drawing on survey data of Finnish schoolchildren, from grades 5, 7, and 9 (n = 1793), linear regression was used to test how life satisfaction would be associated with socio-demographic variables, poverty, and child–parent and peer relationships. The results emphasize the complex nature of the determinants of children’s life satisfaction. The greatest unique contribution for change of life satisfaction was made by the time spent with mother (β(p) = 0.189). Overall, the model showed a good fit (R2 19.9). These findings have important implications for family policies and services that promote good parenting and positive parent–child relationships. Furthermore, this study highlights relational well-being as a key determinant of children’s life satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood and Society)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Relationship between Support Institutions and Industrial Districts in Spain: A Regional Approach
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020034
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 25 January 2019
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Abstract
One of the constituent elements of the industrial district is the existence of local and regional institutions which offer information and support services to the firms based in the district. These institutions, as has been shown in the literature on industrial districts, in [...] Read more.
One of the constituent elements of the industrial district is the existence of local and regional institutions which offer information and support services to the firms based in the district. These institutions, as has been shown in the literature on industrial districts, in addition to representing an important component of social capital, can play a key role in improving the joint operation of the companies in the district. The aim of this paper is, consequently, to analyze the food industry districts and the institutions which support this industry nationally. With that aim in mind, the analysis is undertaken from a regional perspective that allows us to assess, on the one hand, the degree of proximity between districts and institutions and, on the other hand, the role played by the latter as knowledge generators. The results obtained show that, in general, the support institutions tend to be located in the vicinity of the industrial districts specialized in the aforementioned sector. It likewise becomes clear that the training offer aimed at meeting the training needs of the industry is greater in these specialized environments than in others where this production model does not prevail. Such results confirm the importance of institutions in business agglomerations shaped as industrial districts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Clusters: Sailing Together towards a New Economy)
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Open AccessArticle Commodifying Lisbon: A Study on the Spatial Concentration of Short-Term Rentals
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020033
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 25 January 2019
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Abstract
This article explores the relationship between the spatial concentration of short-term rentals in Lisbon’s historic center and the phenomena of uneven development and tourism gentrification. By providing quantitative and qualitative evidence of the uneven geographic distribution of tourist apartments within the municipality of [...] Read more.
This article explores the relationship between the spatial concentration of short-term rentals in Lisbon’s historic center and the phenomena of uneven development and tourism gentrification. By providing quantitative and qualitative evidence of the uneven geographic distribution of tourist apartments within the municipality of Lisbon, it contributes to the study of the new processes of neoliberal urbanization in the crisis-ridden countries of Southern Europe. It argues that the great share of whole-home rentals and the expansion of the short-term rental market over the housing stock are symptoms of the commodification of housing in the neoliberal city. Due to the loss of consumption capacity by the Portuguese society amid crisis and austerity, real estate developers target external markets and local households must compete for access to a limited housing stock with tourists and other temporary city users. The subsequent global rent gap stimulates the proliferation of vacation rentals at the expense of the supply of residential housing, fueling property prices and jeopardizing housing affordability. With Portugal being a peripheral member of the EU and the Eurozone, the vulnerability of local households to the impacts of tourism gentrification is aggravated by the remarkable income gap with their counterparts of the core. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neoliberal Cities: The Touristification Phenomenon under Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Partner Violence on Female Delinquency
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020032
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
In recent decades there has been an increase of criminal behavior by women, which is due to social rather than individual change. Feminist analysis points to the existence of an androcentric and patriarchal order, which through the practices of subjectification, builds the identity [...] Read more.
In recent decades there has been an increase of criminal behavior by women, which is due to social rather than individual change. Feminist analysis points to the existence of an androcentric and patriarchal order, which through the practices of subjectification, builds the identity of the subjects. These practices have been shaped by close affective bonds, including couple bounds, who in turn have constructed them as criminals. Ninety-four women were interviewed in six prisons in four countries. Their life stories were analyzed through Atlas.ti. Affective bonds with the partner and gender violence are the two main categories of analysis. It was found that the affective bonds with the partner that included violent behavior can be a factor leading these women towards crime. The findings suggest that the women were imprisoned, before entering prison, in violent relationships that held them, configuring their subjectivity. The violent partner bonds and female delinquency associated with them are the product of a patriarchal society that does not see a difference between being a victim or being criminal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice)
Open AccessArticle Climate Change Perceptions and Attitudes to Smallholder Adaptation in Northwestern Nigerian Drylands
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020031
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
As climate change is projected to increase in vulnerable areas of the world, we examined farmers’ perceptions of this change and their attitudes to adaptation in two communities (Zango and Kofa) in northwestern Nigeria. A total of 220 arable farming households completed a [...] Read more.
As climate change is projected to increase in vulnerable areas of the world, we examined farmers’ perceptions of this change and their attitudes to adaptation in two communities (Zango and Kofa) in northwestern Nigeria. A total of 220 arable farming households completed a livelihoods survey preplanting. The perceptions survey was followed by a survey of 154 households post-harvest for the attitudes questions based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). In addition to the positive responses from the farmers towards climate change perceptions, TPB findings reveal that such perceptions could lead to intentions to adapt as determinants of attitude were significant. Subjective norm was a significant predictor of adaptation intention in Kofa, but not in Zango. Perceived behavioural control, though useful, was not a determinant of climate change adaptation intention. Most importantly, principal component analysis (PCA) of climate change perception variables allowed us to discriminate smallholder farming households and can be used as a tool for segmentation into climate change-perceiving and nonperceiving farming households. Efforts towards improving the determinants of behavioural intention for the poorly perceiving group could lead to better decisions to adapt to climate change and provide more targeted extension support in the future. Full article
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