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Soc. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2019)

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Open AccessArticle Graduate Students, Community Partner, and Faculty Reflect on Critical Community Engaged Scholarship and Gender Based Violence
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020071
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
This article reflects on the challenges and opportunities associated with community engaged learning at the graduate level, and challenges higher education to do more to support the teaching–research–service nexus. The community university partnership involved a graduate student class, a faculty member, and a [...] Read more.
This article reflects on the challenges and opportunities associated with community engaged learning at the graduate level, and challenges higher education to do more to support the teaching–research–service nexus. The community university partnership involved a graduate student class, a faculty member, and a community member from a provincial not for profit association. We examined our principled and collaborative process of critical community engaged scholarship geared toward addressing violence against women, and more specifically, femicide. Our research resulted in knowledge mobilization tools that could be used to inform various audiences (e.g., women’s shelter staff, the public, government, and journalists) about how mainstream media sources report and portray the issue of femicide. Our work had an explicit social justice focus with aims to generate a better understanding of the structural causes of violence against women and historically-created gendered hierarchy and its ongoing impacts. This paper offers insights for others interested in pursuing community engaged research within a community engaged learning environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
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Open AccessArticle Community as Story and the Dynamic Nature of Community: Perceptions, Place, and Narratives about Change
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020070
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
We present a theoretical discussion conceptualizing “community as story”—narratives that create and recreate one’s definition of and relationship to their community. We use a variety of disciplinary sources and representative quotes to help develop the theory. In so doing, we discuss the importance [...] Read more.
We present a theoretical discussion conceptualizing “community as story”—narratives that create and recreate one’s definition of and relationship to their community. We use a variety of disciplinary sources and representative quotes to help develop the theory. In so doing, we discuss the importance of subjective perception, narrative and place to the creation of a community story. Community stories take place in time and place, and as changes to the place occur, residents are compelled to adjust their stories and definitions. These changes are reflected in narratives that reminisce about what the community was and what it is becoming. The narratives then become part of a new community story. Above and beyond our theoretical conceptualization of “community as story”, to help illustrate our arguments in an empirical setting, we present a historical narrative from interviews with residents of Vance, Alabama, home of the Mercedes-Benz plant, which discuss the changing nature of and relationship to their community after the arrival of the plant in the 1990s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
Open AccessArticle Family Functioning, Self-Concept and Cybervictimization: An Analysis Based on Gender
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020069
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between cybervictimization, family functioning, and self-concept in adolescents, while taking the gender perspective into account. A study was conducted with a sample of 8115 adolescents, aged between 11 and 16 years (M [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between cybervictimization, family functioning, and self-concept in adolescents, while taking the gender perspective into account. A study was conducted with a sample of 8115 adolescents, aged between 11 and 16 years (M = 13.34; SD = 1.04) from the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A MANOVA 3 × 2 was performed to analyze the data. The results showed that family functioning, family self-concept, and academic self-concept were higher when cybervictimization was low. It was also observed that, in situations of cybervictimization, the girls had lower family self-concept, lower academic self-concept, and lower family functioning than the boys. The results that were obtained and their implications are discussed in the final section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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Open AccessArticle Variation in Access to Safe Drinking Water across Different Countries: An Explanatory Framework
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020068
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
Building upon extensive field interviews with past and current public officials from domestic agencies and international organizations who are involved in safe drinking water policy in Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, and South Korea, the research identifies and clarifies the causal mechanisms behind the [...] Read more.
Building upon extensive field interviews with past and current public officials from domestic agencies and international organizations who are involved in safe drinking water policy in Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, and South Korea, the research identifies and clarifies the causal mechanisms behind the different rates of expansion in access to safe drinking water among these five countries. It then examines how well theories in public administration, particularly with emphasis on theoretical frameworks in implementation scholarship, help capture and explain these mechanisms. Both strengths and weaknesses of public administration theory are examined where efforts to improve existing frameworks are suggested with their merger with theories from comparative politics. This opens the discussion on how public administration scholars should be involved in addressing and offering insights and advice to tackle the outstanding global challenge of 663 million people still living without access to safe drinking water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hispanic Students’ Sense of Control in Relation to Post-Secondary Enrollment Outcomes
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020067
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
U.S. Hispanics are the fastest growing minority population pursuing post-secondary education, yet their bachelor degree attainment lags behind other ethnic–racial groups. Previous work supports the theory that having a high locus of control (LOC) can enable persistence in challenging post-secondary settings. We examine [...] Read more.
U.S. Hispanics are the fastest growing minority population pursuing post-secondary education, yet their bachelor degree attainment lags behind other ethnic–racial groups. Previous work supports the theory that having a high locus of control (LOC) can enable persistence in challenging post-secondary settings. We examine LOC as a potential mitigate against low college enrollment, and hypothesize that Hispanic students’ capability to enroll in post-secondary institutions (e.g., community college, 4-year colleges), in the face of personal, academic, and financial challenges, is likely predicated on their belief that they control their academic futures. We modelled college enrollment using a path-model using a generalized structural equation modeling (GSEM) approach. Our findings indicate that LOC decreases the likelihood of Hispanic students’ post-secondary enrollment. This work advances the current state of knowledge on how we understand Hispanic students’ transition to college, and informs the development of potential interventions supporting the academic success of this growing and significant community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Measuring the Degree of Integration in the Dairy Products Market in Malawi
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020066
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
Using monthly data for the period 2006–2011, this study analyzed the degree of spatial market integration in Malawi focusing on two dairy products (liquid milk and powdered milk) sold in the four major towns of the country. The analysis of spatial market integration [...] Read more.
Using monthly data for the period 2006–2011, this study analyzed the degree of spatial market integration in Malawi focusing on two dairy products (liquid milk and powdered milk) sold in the four major towns of the country. The analysis of spatial market integration is important to assess whether to re-establish a dairy processing facility in the northern part of the country. The empirical analysis comprised of the following steps: (1) Integration between prices from different regions were tested using Johansen’s cointegration procedure, with the results indicating that, in the long run, prices in some areas move in a similar direction. (2) Two spatial equilibrium models were estimated using a three-regime bivariate threshold vector autoregressive model (TVAR) and a three-regime threshold vector error correction model (TVECM). The results showed that transaction costs were not a cause for concern between the areas thus northern Malawi does not need to re-establish a dairy processing facility as surplus areas (mainly Southern Malawi) can supply the region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intermodal Mobility Hubs and User Needs
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020065
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
Technological innovation in the mobility and transport sphere is still strongly aimed at vehicle- or infrastructure-based systems. Actual user needs in regard to accessibility and usability of the links between different transportation modes are usually addressed by standardized planning processes. In a row [...] Read more.
Technological innovation in the mobility and transport sphere is still strongly aimed at vehicle- or infrastructure-based systems. Actual user needs in regard to accessibility and usability of the links between different transportation modes are usually addressed by standardized planning processes. In a row of four consecutive Austrian research projects, every element in the chain of intermodal routes was addressed, starting from the user-centered features of public transport stops in both urban and rural transport systems, to the planning tasks involved in providing demand-driven public transport. The current iteration focuses on establishing a typology of intermodal mobility hubs, including a differentiated view of the potential users of a multimodal transport system and their respective needs at the station. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Transport and Social Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle Supporting Children, Blaming Parents: Frontline Providers’ Perception of Childhood’s Adversity and Parenthood in Indonesia
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020064
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
This article explores the construction of childhood and parenthood in rural communities in Indonesia based on a series of focus group discussions with service providers, community decision makers, and paraprofessionals; a group that we refer to as “frontline providers”. By examining the providers’ [...] Read more.
This article explores the construction of childhood and parenthood in rural communities in Indonesia based on a series of focus group discussions with service providers, community decision makers, and paraprofessionals; a group that we refer to as “frontline providers”. By examining the providers’ definition of successful children and their perception of factors that could undermine a child’s success, we provide insights into how frontline providers understand the role of parents, and how parenthood is constructed accordingly. We found that the providers’ definition of successful children reflects a strong neoliberal logic and that education is seen as the primary mechanism of such investment, an evolution of the idea of a modern nation under the previous regime that has permeated into an individual assessment. The paternalistic culture has further cemented the tendency among the frontline providers to problematize parents as the main risk factor for children’s educational achievement and to ignore the structural and ecological factors. We traced this paradigm in Indonesia’s educational and child protection policy framework, prompting a myriad of parenting programs that put parents from the underprivileged group as the main subject of intervention. Informed by studies in different countries, we argue that without changes in structural factors, any intervention on parenting will be deemed ineffective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood and Society)
Open AccessArticle Farmers’ Bargaining Power and Input Prices: What Can We Learn from Self-Reported Assessments?1
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020063
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
One of the key challenges in improving our understanding of farmers’ relations with input suppliers is that we do not have direct information about farmers’ bargaining power vis-à-vis their input providers. To overcome this problem, this study used farmers’ self-reported assessments of their [...] Read more.
One of the key challenges in improving our understanding of farmers’ relations with input suppliers is that we do not have direct information about farmers’ bargaining power vis-à-vis their input providers. To overcome this problem, this study used farmers’ self-reported assessments of their position in the supply chain. Using unique micro-survey data from the dairy sector in Poland, we constructed a proxy of farmers’ bargaining power and showed that it helps to explain discounts at which farmers buy feed from input suppliers, in addition to what is explained by the standard variables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Towards Quantifiable Metrics Warranting Industry-Wide Corporate Death Penalties
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020062
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
In the singular search for profits, some corporations inadvertently kill humans. If this routinely occurs throughout an industry, it may no longer serve a net positive social purpose for society and should be eliminated. This article provides a path to an objective quantifiable [...] Read more.
In the singular search for profits, some corporations inadvertently kill humans. If this routinely occurs throughout an industry, it may no longer serve a net positive social purpose for society and should be eliminated. This article provides a path to an objective quantifiable metric for determining when an entire industry warrants the corporate death penalty. First, a theoretical foundation is developed with minimum assumptions necessary to provide evidence for corporate public purposes. This is formed into an objective quantifiable metric with publicly-available data and applied to two case studies in the U.S.: the tobacco and coal mining industries. The results show the American tobacco industry kills 4 times more people per year than it employs, and the American coal-mining industry kills more than one American every year for every coal miner employed. The results clearly warrant industry-wide corporate death penalties for both industries in America. Future work is discussed to ensure industries only exist to benefit humanity in all the societies in which they operate. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Place of Animals and Human–Animal Relationships in Hydraulic Fracturing Discourse
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020061
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Throughout human history, energy security has been a prominent concern. Historically, animals were used as energy providers and as companions and sentinels in mining operations. While animals are seldom used for these purposes in developed communities today, this legacy of use is likely [...] Read more.
Throughout human history, energy security has been a prominent concern. Historically, animals were used as energy providers and as companions and sentinels in mining operations. While animals are seldom used for these purposes in developed communities today, this legacy of use is likely to have far-reaching consequences for how animals and human–animal relationships are acknowledged in energy development. The US is currently experiencing an energy boom in the form of high volume horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (HVHHF); because animals are the most at risk from this boom, this study uses a thorough content analysis of peer-reviewed HVHHF articles mentioning animals from 2012–2018 to assess how animals and human–animal relationships are discussed. Three dominant article theme classifications emerge: animal-focused articles, animal-observant articles, and animal sentinel articles. Across themes, articles seldom acknowledge the inherent value or the social and psychological importance of animals in human lives; instead, the focus is almost exclusively on the use of animals as sentinels for potential human health risks. Further, what is nearly absent from this body of literature is any social science research. Given that relationships with animals are an integral part of human existence, this study applies environmental justice principles, serving as a call to action for social science scholars to address the impacts of HVHHF on animals and human–animal relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue We Are Best Friends: Animals in Society)
Open AccessArticle Native History and Nation Building on Personal Online Platform: Implications in Hong Kong Context
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020060
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
Nationalism in the era of social media is more complex and presents new opportunities and challenges in different levels and contexts. Therefore, the paper hopes to contribute to understanding the roles of social media in identity presentation and formation in a transition society. [...] Read more.
Nationalism in the era of social media is more complex and presents new opportunities and challenges in different levels and contexts. Therefore, the paper hopes to contribute to understanding the roles of social media in identity presentation and formation in a transition society. Writing on Facebook is a civil practice. Thus, it chooses a typical and clear-cut Facebook fan page “Hong Kong National History” run by a nationalist and followed by over 5700 fans as a case study. Posts of the fan page are collected from 1 April to 31 December in 2017, and it analyzes the contents and forms of posts with content analysis. Then, the self-made digital publication “Hong Kong People’s History of the Thousand Years” attached to the fan page is analyzed with narrative analysis. Through the personal systematic discourses, this paper presents a special mode of user-generated content online and a civic Hong Kong story. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Media and Nationalism in the Network Society)
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Open AccessArticle Work-Family Balance in the Active Age Ethnic Hungarian Population in Romania
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020059
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
Value shifts and labour market transformations of the recent past have increased the importance of the work-family balance in the active population. Work overload also means an increased health risk. This study aims at identifying the main demographic, social and work-related determinants of [...] Read more.
Value shifts and labour market transformations of the recent past have increased the importance of the work-family balance in the active population. Work overload also means an increased health risk. This study aims at identifying the main demographic, social and work-related determinants of work-family balance in the ethnic Hungarian active age population of Mures County, Romania. Linear regression is performed to assess the controlled effects of variables. Single parents, parents with more children and shift workers are at increased risk of imbalance. Demographic agents account for more disparities in work-family balance than do work-related features. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Importance of Public Transport for Mobility and Everyday Activities among Rural Residents
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020058
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
A lack of transport opportunities has been shown to be a barrier for accessibility and social inclusion in contemporary society. In rural and sparsely populated areas, access to public transport is often poor compared to urban areas, leading to fewer possibilities to participate [...] Read more.
A lack of transport opportunities has been shown to be a barrier for accessibility and social inclusion in contemporary society. In rural and sparsely populated areas, access to public transport is often poor compared to urban areas, leading to fewer possibilities to participate in normal relationships and activities among rural dwellers. Based on qualitative interviews with rural dwellers in Sweden, the aim of this study was to explore how access to transport can meet the needs of mobility and activity participation in everyday life and how different modes of transport are being used. The study has been permeated by the time-geographical perspective, which considers people’s use of time and space and the restrictions they face in order to carry out activities, including travel. The results show that travel by private car plays a central role in realizing everyday activities for rural dwellers, as well as a perception of the car as being the norm in contemporary society. Frequent car use is the consequence of a combination of time-space restrictions, habit, and a lack of services, activities, and public transport in rural areas. Poor public transport services limit children’s and adolescents’ independent mobility in particular. Further, the physical environment influences the ability to use public transport, for example if roads and bus stops are seen as unsafe. Based on the results of the study, several measures and improvements are proposed that could increase mobility and accessibility in rural areas and reduce car dependency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Transport and Social Psychology)
Open AccessArticle The Good Food Revolution: Building Community Resiliency in the Mississippi Delta
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020057
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
The Mississippi Delta represents one of the greatest concentrations of rural persistent poverty in the United States. High unemployment, high food insecurity, higher rates of obesity and diabetes, and low access to healthy, affordable food characterize much of the 18 counties in the [...] Read more.
The Mississippi Delta represents one of the greatest concentrations of rural persistent poverty in the United States. High unemployment, high food insecurity, higher rates of obesity and diabetes, and low access to healthy, affordable food characterize much of the 18 counties in the region. In the face of this, The Good Food Revolution, a community-based program to address food related health and thereby employment, developed in response to significant need in three small communities in North Bolivar County, Mississippi, bringing together community members, public and private sector organizations, researchers and students. This paper examines the process of community-engaged scholarship from the theoretical lens on building community capacity and resiliency developed by Chaskin. Increasing community capacity for all participants in the Good Food Revolution project through community-engaged scholarship has built resilient communities that are engaging more communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
Open AccessArticle Ladies, Gentlemen and Guys: The Gender Politics of Politeness
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020056
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Are there ladies and gentlemen in the 21st century? Do we need them? In the 20th century, lady became particularly unpopular with second wave feminists, who preferred ‘woman’. Gentleman was seen as similarly politically incorrect: class, race and culture bound. Following previous research [...] Read more.
Are there ladies and gentlemen in the 21st century? Do we need them? In the 20th century, lady became particularly unpopular with second wave feminists, who preferred ‘woman’. Gentleman was seen as similarly politically incorrect: class, race and culture bound. Following previous research on the word lady, we explore here some current evocations and debates around these words. We consider how the more casual, etymologically gendered term ‘guy’ has been utilized for men and women, and how it functions to reflect and obscure gender. While the return of the lady might be considered a consumer fad, a neo-conservative post-feminist backlash, or nostalgia for an elite ‘polite society’, it also offers an opportunity for a deeper discussion about civility as part of a broader conversation that is gaining impetus in the Western world. Politeness is personal and political. Whilst evidence for a comeback of the gentleman is limited, we critically consider the re-emergence of the lady as reflecting a deeper desire for applied sexual and social ethics. Such gender ethics have global, social and cultural ramifications that we ought not to underestimate. The desire for a culture of civility is gaining momentum as we are increasingly confronted with the violent consequences of a culture without it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
Open AccessArticle Subjective Happiness, Health and Quality of Life and Their Sociocultural Correlates among Younger Population in Malawi
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020055
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Public health research and policy in sub-Saharan Africa are generally disease-oriented, with the focus being largely confined within the biological determinants of health. So far, little attention has been given to developing a more health-oriented approach by emphasising the psychosocial dimensions of health, [...] Read more.
Public health research and policy in sub-Saharan Africa are generally disease-oriented, with the focus being largely confined within the biological determinants of health. So far, little attention has been given to developing a more health-oriented approach by emphasising the psychosocial dimensions of health, especially among the younger population. To this regard, we conducted the present study to assess the prevalence and sociocultural correlates of perceived happiness, health, and life satisfaction among the adolescent and young (15–24 years) population in Malawi. We analysed cross-sectional data on 12,610 men and women based on a Malawi multiple indicator cluster survey conducted in 2013–2014. Data were analysed using descriptive and multivariable regression methods. According to the findings, more than 80% of the men and women reported being satisfied about happiness, health, and life. Multivariate analysis showed an inverse relationship between being currently or formerly married and perceived happiness. Ethnic disparities in perceived health and happiness were more pronounced in men, whereas that of life satisfaction was more pronounced in women. Living in households of the highest wealth quintile was positively associated with health and life satisfaction, but not with happiness. These findings highlight the need for prioritising the psychosocial needs of the adolescent and youth populations in designing health and social policy in Malawi. The findings need to be interpreted in light of the factors specific to the sociocultural environment in Malawi. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Entrepreneurial Self-Identity, Perceived Corruption, Exogenous and Endogenous Obstacles as Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intention in Italy
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020054
Received: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Although entrepreneurship is considered one of the most powerful drivers of national economies around the world, there is little consensus about what informal factors foster entrepreneurial intention. In accordance with recent literature, entrepreneurial self-identity perception, the perception of corruption in the entrepreneurship ecosystem, [...] Read more.
Although entrepreneurship is considered one of the most powerful drivers of national economies around the world, there is little consensus about what informal factors foster entrepreneurial intention. In accordance with recent literature, entrepreneurial self-identity perception, the perception of corruption in the entrepreneurship ecosystem, and perceived exogenous and endogenous obstacles to entrepreneurship were hypothesized as antecedents of college students’ and graduates’ entrepreneurial intention. A study with a sample (N = 153) composed of college students and graduates from an Italian university was conducted. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to test the research hypotheses. The hypotheses that entrepreneurial self-identity perception and corruption perception of the entrepreneurial ecosystem are positive antecedents of entrepreneurial intention were confirmed. Corruption was considered as a viable and socially acceptable strategy that entrepreneurs might adopt in order to easily overcome governmental norms and rules about managing firms. It was hypothesized that the perception of corruption of the entrepreneurial ecosystem might be a positive antecedent of entrepreneurial intention if the subjects perceived the corruption as pervasive of the economic ecosystem and the effort made by national government to control corruption as ineffective. From this point of view, the positive causal relationship between perceived corruption and entrepreneurial intention could reveal college students and graduates’ propensity to perceive corruption as a phenomenon capable of generating a “grease the wheel” effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Online Store Locator: An Essential Resource for Retailers in the 21st Century
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020053
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Most retailers use their websites and social media to increase their visibility, while potential customers get information about these retailers using the Internet on electronic devices. Many papers have previously studied online marketing strategies used by retailers, but little attention has been paid [...] Read more.
Most retailers use their websites and social media to increase their visibility, while potential customers get information about these retailers using the Internet on electronic devices. Many papers have previously studied online marketing strategies used by retailers, but little attention has been paid to determine how these companies provide information through the Internet about the location and characteristics of their stores. This paper aims to obtain evidence about the inclusion of interactive web maps on retailers’ websites to provide information about the location of their stores. With this purpose, the store locator interactive tools of specialty retailers’ websites included in the report “Global Powers of Retailing 2015” are studied in detail using different procedures, such as frequency analysis and word clouds. From the results obtained, it was concluded that most of these firms use interactive maps to provide information about their offline stores, but today some of them still use non-interactive (static) maps or text format to present this information. Moreover, some differences were observed among the search filters used in the store locator services, according to the retailer’s specialty. These results provided insight into the important role of online store locator tools on retailers’ websites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fashion Merchandising and Consumer Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle Penal and Custodial Control of Female Criminality in Spain from a Gender Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020052
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Gender is a uniquely important factor in women’s lives and female criminality alike: A study of statistics on female criminality worldwide shows that several gender-related factors may determine a woman’s commission of an offence, her life in prison, and perhaps even her future. [...] Read more.
Gender is a uniquely important factor in women’s lives and female criminality alike: A study of statistics on female criminality worldwide shows that several gender-related factors may determine a woman’s commission of an offence, her life in prison, and perhaps even her future. Reflecting on this problem based solely on official statistics is difficult because some variables remain invisible from this perspective. Consequently, it is necessary to study the problem by applying criminological methods and examining past judgements. Whether it be an analysis of offences predominantly associated with women in the statistics (drug trafficking), or of other crimes that are not (terrorism, white/pink-collar crime), it is possible to identify gender patterns that in micro-criminological terms serve to elucidate the reasons why these women have committed an offence. It may even be possible to prevent female criminality by tackling the gender stereotypes that are present in all these crimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice)
Open AccessArticle Introduction of New Food Products in China: Is There a Trend towards Healthier and Safer Products?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020051
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
The Chinese society has undergone an important transformation in the last 20 years, with changes in lifestyles due to increasing urbanization and rising income levels. The emergence of modern supermarkets, convenience stores, and hypermarkets has run alongside the changes in consumers’ lifestyles, revolutionizing [...] Read more.
The Chinese society has undergone an important transformation in the last 20 years, with changes in lifestyles due to increasing urbanization and rising income levels. The emergence of modern supermarkets, convenience stores, and hypermarkets has run alongside the changes in consumers’ lifestyles, revolutionizing the Chinese food system and the nature of its food supply. Changes in food consumption patterns have also accompanied these shifts. One of the distinguishing aspects of this modern food sector is the continuous introduction of new foods and beverages to the market, and the communication of their associated attributes through labels, in-store displays, and advertising. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether there have been any trends towards the introduction of products with greater health, nutrition, and food safety attributes to help consumers attain healthier diets making trade-offs between purchase options. Results show that there has been a rise in the number of new products in the Chinese food retail sector, particularly branded products introduced mainly by Chinese companies making food safety claims. It is clear, however, that the new food and drink products follow the consumption trends highlighted in the literature, and, therefore, there are low chances that they will positively influence the Chinese diet to an important degree, as they are mainly reinforcing the observed dietary trends. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Examining the Local Spatial Variability of Robberies in Saint Louis Using a Multi-Scale Methodology
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020050
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
The current study spatially examines the local variability of robbery rates in the City of Saint Louis, Missouri using both census tract and block group data disaggregated and standardized to the 250- and 500-m raster grid spatial scale. The Spatial Lag Model (SLM) [...] Read more.
The current study spatially examines the local variability of robbery rates in the City of Saint Louis, Missouri using both census tract and block group data disaggregated and standardized to the 250- and 500-m raster grid spatial scale. The Spatial Lag Model (SLM) indicated measures of race and stability as globally influencing robbery rates. To explore these relationships further, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to determine the local spatial variability. We found that the standardized census tract data appeared to be more powerful in the models, while standardized block group data were more precise. Similarly, the 250-m grid offered greater accuracy, while the 500-m grid was more robust. The GWR models explained the local varying spatial relationships between race and stability and robbery rates in St. Louis better than the global models. The local models indicated that social characteristics occurring at higher-order geographies may influence robbery rates in St. Louis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Technology and School Unit Improvement: Researching, Reconsidering and Reconstructing the School Context through a Multi-Thematic Digital Storytelling Project
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020049
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
Digital stories comprise a technological tool which can engage learners in collaborative learning as well as lead them to experientially acquire knowledge through a constructive process. The aim of the current action research, for which a cooperative network between academics and teachers was [...] Read more.
Digital stories comprise a technological tool which can engage learners in collaborative learning as well as lead them to experientially acquire knowledge through a constructive process. The aim of the current action research, for which a cooperative network between academics and teachers was created, is to show how digital storytelling can emerge as an inclusive education tool through investigating the changes brought about by its implementation on the academic and social context of a school unit. The research was conducted in a Greek primary school and lasted seven months, involving two fifth grade classes and an integration class. It followed the three stages of a multi-thematic digital story project (preparation, implementation, and evaluation) and learners were called to research and process information, at their own pace, from diverse cognitive domains (art, science, coding). The research tools employed were participatory observation, diary research, and semi-structured interviews. The research positively influenced the reconstruction of the school unit since teachers reconsidered some of their educational techniques as non-inclusive, utilized technology as an instrument of constructive and experiential learning based on the diversity of each student, and reinforced learners’ critical thinking and imagination while cultivating a climate of empathy and self-confidence among students. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Measuring Micrometers of Matter and Inventing Indices: Entangling Social Perception within Discrete and Continuous Measurements of Air Quality
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020048
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
Environmental protection agencies around the globe are establishing different methods for measuring particulates, and then integrating those measurements into a single air quality index with other pollutants. At the same time, scientific inquiry has also shifted to a theory of measurement that incorporates [...] Read more.
Environmental protection agencies around the globe are establishing different methods for measuring particulates, and then integrating those measurements into a single air quality index with other pollutants. At the same time, scientific inquiry has also shifted to a theory of measurement that incorporates discrete and continuous measurement. This article reviews the relationship between discrete measurements and indices, while also speculating on the way that the continuous measurement of air pollution could stimulate awareness and action. The paper argues that continuous measurement must include the way people of different backgrounds perceive air pollution in their lives. After reviewing the methods of measuring particulates and their inclusion into various indices, the article argues that in order to take action to mitigate the health impacts of air pollution, we must allow for the social perception of air pollution to become entangled within our scientific measurements. Full article
Open AccessArticle Views on Public Transport and How Personal Experiences Can Contribute to a More Positive Attitude and Behavioural Change
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020047
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
To reduce car usage, several strategies are needed, one of which focuses on social psychological factors. The aim of this study was to predict and explain bus usage using the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model of change in a sample [...] Read more.
To reduce car usage, several strategies are needed, one of which focuses on social psychological factors. The aim of this study was to predict and explain bus usage using the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model of change in a sample of 983 residents. The study also evaluated the effect of providing a group of regular car users (n = 34) with a free travel pass, to be used on busses and trains in the region. A regression analysis showed that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) explained 26% of the variance in intention to use the bus, increasing to 59% when past behaviour was added. The use of the free travel pass resulted in a more positive attitude towards bus usage, with a large number having either changed or having started to change their behaviour. When the same people were contacted three months later, 50% still used public transport. The conclusion is that negative attitudes and travel habits can be altered by experience. Although, a reduction of car use can only be achieved if several measures are implemented that make car driving less attractive and sustainable modes of transport more attractive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Transport and Social Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle Measurement Invariance of a Direct Behavior Rating Multi Item Scale across Occasions
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020046
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been mostly evaluated in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, [...] Read more.
Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been mostly evaluated in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, for a standardized use in the pedagogical field, a larger and broader sample is required in order to assess measurement invariance between different participant groups and over time. Therefore, we constructed a DBR, the Questionnaire for Monitoring Behavior in Schools (QMBS) with multiple items to measure the occurrence of specific externalizing and internalizing student classroom behaviors on a Likert scale (1 = never to 7 = always). In a pilot study, two trained raters observed 16 primary education students and rated the student behavior over all items with a satisfactory reliability. In the main study, 108 regular primary school students, 97 regular secondary students, and 14 students in a clinical setting were rated daily over one week (five measurement points). Item response theory (IRT) analyses confirmed the technical adequacy of the instrument and latent growth models demonstrated the instrument’s stability over time. Further development of the instrument and study designs to implement DBRs is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Term “Resilience” in Arctic Health and Well-Being Using a Sharing Circle as a Community-Centered Approach: Insights from a Conference Workshop
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020045
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
In the field of Arctic health, “resilience” is a term and concept used to describe capacity to recover from difficulties. While the term is widely used in Arctic policy contexts, there is debate at the community level on whether “resilience” is an appropriate [...] Read more.
In the field of Arctic health, “resilience” is a term and concept used to describe capacity to recover from difficulties. While the term is widely used in Arctic policy contexts, there is debate at the community level on whether “resilience” is an appropriate term to describe the human dimensions of health and wellness in the Arctic. Further, research methods used to investigate resilience have largely been limited to Western science research methodologies, which emphasize empirical quantitative studies and may not mirror the perspective of the Arctic communities under study. To explore conceptions of resilience in Arctic communities, a Sharing Circle was facilitated at the International Congress on Circumpolar Health in 2018. With participants engaging from seven of the eight Arctic countries, participants shared critiques of the term “resilience,” and their perspectives on key components of thriving communities. Upon reflection, this use of a Sharing Circle suggests that it may be a useful tool for deeper investigations into health-related issues affecting Arctic Peoples. The Sharing Circle may serve as a meaningful methodology for engaging communities using resonant research strategies to decolonize concepts of resilience and highlight new dimensions for promoting thriving communities in Arctic populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
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Open AccessArticle Child-Led Research: Questioning Knowledge
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020044
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
Over the last twenty years, childhood studies has challenged the schooled and developmental models of childhood. The children’s rights agenda has combined with academic childhood studies, to emphasise that children are and can be social actors and to seek ways to recognise and [...] Read more.
Over the last twenty years, childhood studies has challenged the schooled and developmental models of childhood. The children’s rights agenda has combined with academic childhood studies, to emphasise that children are and can be social actors and to seek ways to recognise and support their participation rights. For those who promote the participation of children and young people, there is considerable enthusiasm to involve them in all research stages—from research planning, fieldwork, and analysis to dissemination, leading to growth in what is often called ‘child-led research’. This article draws upon an empirical study of ‘child-led research’ projects, undertaken in Bangladesh, Jordan and Lebanon, for a critical examination of the meanings and implications of ‘child-led research’. In particular, this paper explores what counts as knowledge in social science research within contexts of generational difference and power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood and Society)
Open AccessArticle Difficulty Orientations, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: An Intersectional Analysis of Pathways to STEM Degrees
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020043
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
Is there a relationship between mathematics ability beliefs and STEM degrees? Fields such as physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC) are thought to require talent or brilliance. However, the potential effects of difficulty perceptions on students’ participation in STEM have yet to [...] Read more.
Is there a relationship between mathematics ability beliefs and STEM degrees? Fields such as physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC) are thought to require talent or brilliance. However, the potential effects of difficulty perceptions on students’ participation in STEM have yet to be examined using a gender and race/ethnicity intersectional lens. Using nationally representative U.S. longitudinal data, we measure gender and racial/ethnic variation in secondary students’ orientation towards mathematics difficulty. We observed nuanced relationships between mathematics difficulty orientation, gender, race/ethnicity, and PEMC major and degree outcomes. In secondary school, the gap between boys’ and girls’ mathematics difficulty orientations were wider than gaps between White and non-White students. Mathematics difficulty orientation was positively associated with both declaring majors and earning degrees in PEMC. This relationship varied more strongly based on gender than race/ethnicity. Notably, Black women show higher gains in predicted probability to declare a mathematics-intensive major as compared to all other women, given their mathematics difficulty orientations. This study’s findings show that both gender and racial/ethnic identities may influence the relationship between mathematics difficulty orientation and postsecondary STEM outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Male-Dominated Domains)
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Open AccessEditorial Child Protection and Social Inequality: Editorial
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020042
Received: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
In the UK and internationally, reducing inequalities in health and education has become accepted across the political spectrum as an essential component of government policy [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Social Inequality)
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