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Soc. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2018)

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Open AccessEditorial Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control: An Introduction
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120271
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
As Cornel West (1993) asserted, ‘race matters’ because it has mattered so much and so significantly in the lives of millions of people. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
Open AccessArticle Existence and Resistance: The Social Model of Community Education in Ireland
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120270
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Community education in the Republic of Ireland exists in several forms and in several sites. This article draws on two qualitative research projects in community education to identify the practices of the social model of community education that link them. The context of
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Community education in the Republic of Ireland exists in several forms and in several sites. This article draws on two qualitative research projects in community education to identify the practices of the social model of community education that link them. The context of the research is the impact of policy changes as experienced by the practitioners and providers. The social model can be spoken of in different terms, depending on the practice of the speaker; it can be a process model of curriculum, critical literacy, or feminist emancipatory pedagogy. The article describes different discourses of practice and considers how practitioners could, while differentiating aspects of their practice, find common ground and resist the erosion of adult education for social justice by the state’s drive for vocational education for the labour market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Adult Education and Lifelong Learning)
Open AccessArticle Both Parents Working: Challenges and Strains in Managing the Reconciliation of Career and Family Life in Dual-Career Families. Empirical Evidence from Austria
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120269
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
The presented empirical data analysis aims to shed light on the persistence of gender inequalities in sharing parenting responsibilities and addresses possible improvements for realising gender equality. In recent decades, family policies in the European Union have targeted the increase of men’s shares
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The presented empirical data analysis aims to shed light on the persistence of gender inequalities in sharing parenting responsibilities and addresses possible improvements for realising gender equality. In recent decades, family policies in the European Union have targeted the increase of men’s shares in parental leave (=paternal leave) as well as women’s participation in the labour market. Following the results of the Lisbon Treaty in 2000, many EU member states including Austria introduced non-transferable fathers’ quotas in their regulations on parental leave. Subsequently, the share of men on parental leave increased. Nevertheless, both in number and duration, men’s childcare allowance claims have remained lower than women’s claims. This paper investigates shared parental leave practices based on 36 interviews with fathers on paternal leave, and 14 follow-up interviews with parents after paternal leave. The qualitative data reveal the challenges that arise when both parents are faced with reconciling work and family during and after parental leave. Although the data showed that progress has been made in reducing gender inequality, the interviews make clear that employers’ attitudes perpetuate traditional gendered expectations of parental leave claims and still focus on images of a male breadwinner. Also, the distribution of gainful and family work reveals gender inequalities. The paper therefore discusses challenges that arise in the realisation of current gender and family policies in order to provide a basis for making changes that further enhance the opportunities for dual-career couples within the organisation of parental leave laws. Full article
Open AccessArticle Noise Complaints between Japanese Neighbors and Migrants in Rural Japan: From the Perspectives of Noisemakers
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120268
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the narratives and embodiment of noisemakers in noise complaints in a small town of rural Japan. By building on the intersection of sound studies, body, and migration, this paper aims to critically address the longstanding concept of ‘noise’ through
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This paper focuses on the narratives and embodiment of noisemakers in noise complaints in a small town of rural Japan. By building on the intersection of sound studies, body, and migration, this paper aims to critically address the longstanding concept of ‘noise’ through the overlooked perspectives of migrants who are perceived as ‘noisemakers’ in the neighbor relations between Japanese neighbors and migrants. This study was conducted through months of fieldwork in a small town in Japan, wherein an ethnic concentration of Japanese descendants from North Sulawesi, Indonesia has been established for almost two decades. Sensory ethnography was adopted in addition to participant observation and in-depth interviews that presented the narratives of five Japanese descendants working in seafood processing factories. The findings suggest that perception of the ‘unwanted’ bodily presence becomes a salient metaphorical sense of ‘noise’ which is embodied in migrants as byproducts of the psychological noise of the hearers. This ‘noise’ evokes series of complaints which also escalate into space control in the neighborhood. More than just neighbor relations in negotiating private–public spaces, the phenomena of noisemaking and noise complaints in this study are layered with overlapping unequal social and power structures concerning neighbors, workers, and migrants with stigma of gaijin and ‘noisemakers’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
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Open AccessReview Educational Leadership Training, the Construction of Learning Communities. A Systematic Review
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120267
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Instructional leadership notions and practices allow educators to engage in relevant roles within schools. Instead of implementing these concepts in professional programs, Mexican and Spanish education systems still preserve a “technically oriented” training model that separates educational and professional aims. Diverse studies have
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Instructional leadership notions and practices allow educators to engage in relevant roles within schools. Instead of implementing these concepts in professional programs, Mexican and Spanish education systems still preserve a “technically oriented” training model that separates educational and professional aims. Diverse studies have identified the benefits of implementing instructional leadership orientations within “Educational cooperation”, “Cooperative education”, “Team teaching” and “Teacher leadership” at schools. This systematic review conducted using Web of Science—contributes by organizing the produced knowledge and identifies the main findings reported by the academic literature on this topic. It seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What are the contributions of this research to the education systems examined? (2) What kind of knowledge about educational leadership and professional learning communities can be inferred from them? Results from the majority of studies found that instructional leadership offers a useful tool to promote shared responsibility between teachers and head teachers and supports professional learning communities. A main conclusions of the present study is that it highlights the importance of bypassing existing bureaucratic practices within schools in order to replace the traditional “technical orientation” of training programs. Instructional leadership may facilitate some of the required transformations in the context of global educational reform. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green Jobs: The Present and Future of the Building Industry. Evolution Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120266
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
In the recent context of environmental sustainability awareness, a new trend has emerged in the construction industry: the use of green energy and green jobs. Such practices are particularly frequent in the mentioned sector, precisely because it is amongst those with the greatest
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In the recent context of environmental sustainability awareness, a new trend has emerged in the construction industry: the use of green energy and green jobs. Such practices are particularly frequent in the mentioned sector, precisely because it is amongst those with the greatest energy use and workforce demand. Such a trend characterizes the green building phenomenon, on which the present work aims at achieving a deeper understanding of by analyzing its evolution, examining the most studied topics, and verifying whether they are related to current studies. To this end, a literature review of the most recent works, as well as a bibliometric analysis of papers published in the Scopus database, have been carried out. Next, the collected material was subjected to a deductive content analysis, followed by an Intraclass Correlation Analysis. Findings point to a convergence of the most studied topics within the three analyzed fields (green building, green jobs, and renewable energy), which are also strongly correlated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cyberbullying Victimization and Perpetration, Connectedness, and Monitoring of Online Activities: Protection from Parental Figures
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120265
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are associated with poor mental health outcomes for adolescents, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, and suicide ideation. Although most cyberbullying occurs at home, few interventions have been developed for parents of adolescents. We examined parental connectedness and parental online monitoring
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Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are associated with poor mental health outcomes for adolescents, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, and suicide ideation. Although most cyberbullying occurs at home, few interventions have been developed for parents of adolescents. We examined parental connectedness and parental online monitoring in relation to cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, with the goal of understanding how parents buffer young teens from involvement in cyberbullying. We leveraged data from an existing study involving three racially and ethnically diverse middle schools in a metropolitan area in the Midwest of the U.S. (n = 570). In the spring of sixth grade, students reported on cyberbullying involvement, parental connectedness, and parental monitoring. Greater parental connectedness was related to a lower likelihood of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in logistic regression models. Parental monitoring of online activities was not related to cyberbullying victimization but was marginally related to a lower likelihood of cyberbullying perpetration. Results suggest that cyberbullying prevention programs should consider ways to foster parent/youth connectedness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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Open AccessArticle Researching Culture through Big Data: Computational Engineering and the Human and Social Sciences
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120264
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
The emergence of big data and data science has caused the human and social sciences to reconsider their aims, theories, and methods. New forms of inquiry into culture have arisen, reshaping quantitative methodologies, the ties between theory and empirical work. The starting point
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The emergence of big data and data science has caused the human and social sciences to reconsider their aims, theories, and methods. New forms of inquiry into culture have arisen, reshaping quantitative methodologies, the ties between theory and empirical work. The starting point for this article is two influential approaches which have gained a strong following, using computational engineering for the study of cultural phenomena on a large scale: ‘distant reading’ and ‘cultural analytics’. The aim is to show the possibilities and limitations of these approaches in the pursuit of scientific knowledge. The article also focuses on statistics of culture, where integration of big data is challenging procedures. The article concludes that analyses of extensive corpora based on computing may offer significant clues and reveal trends in research on culture. It argues that the human and social sciences, in joining up with computational engineering, need to continue to exercise their ability to perceive societal issues, contextualize objects of study, and discuss the symbolic meanings of extensive worlds of artefacts and discourses. In this way, they may help to overcome the perceived restrictions of large-scale analysis such as the limited attention given to individual actors and the meanings of their actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and the Human and Social Sciences)
Open AccessViewpoint Refuge in the City
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120263
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper highlights the changing nature of refugee displacement and the resultant challenges in addressing the needs of refugees in urban areas. It reflects on the failures of traditional models in delivering needed services in these complex environments. It argues that current humanitarian
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This paper highlights the changing nature of refugee displacement and the resultant challenges in addressing the needs of refugees in urban areas. It reflects on the failures of traditional models in delivering needed services in these complex environments. It argues that current humanitarian program models are outdated, expensive, and ill-equipped for an effective response in urban areas. The article goes on to propose a myriad of new and emerging models and approaches that could increase efficiencies and enhance sustainability in humanitarian response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Open AccessEditorial Editorial: Tourism and Social Regeneration
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120262
Received: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Research on social regeneration is a very specific area that needs more attention in the tourism and social sciences literature. Whilst much research has focused attention on tourism developments and regeneration efforts, this work is more concerning with the physical transformation of spaces
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Research on social regeneration is a very specific area that needs more attention in the tourism and social sciences literature. Whilst much research has focused attention on tourism developments and regeneration efforts, this work is more concerning with the physical transformation of spaces (such as upgrading facilities and infrastructures) or expanding investments in tourism and visitor attractions. Planners and policy makers are concerned with maintaining a competitive advantage, resulting in policies and investments aimed at developing spaces in transition for the purpose of economic gain and/or image revival. To go beyond the focus on economic impacts of tourism-led regeneration, the purpose of this special issue is to address the importance of, and the need to, critically assess issues, problems and solutions surrounding social regeneration resulting from tourism change, developments or initiatives. More research considering how members of a community and event attendees engage with spaces and places transformed for tourism is needed. Paying closer attention to intangible impacts to extend recent debates surrounding tourism initiatives, involvement and futures is needed, emphasizing improved welfare and empowering local communities and its residents. The papers included in this special issue all put emphasis on the community and/or local residents and how they are impacted by tourism investments or initiatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Social Regeneration)
Open AccessArticle Integrated Public Value Creation through Community Initiatives—Evidence from Dutch Water Management
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120261
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Governments are increasingly challenged by self-organizing community initiatives that seek to contribute to or even take the lead in public value creation. The reason for citizen-led instead of government-led public value creation is part of two larger governance trends. The first is the
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Governments are increasingly challenged by self-organizing community initiatives that seek to contribute to or even take the lead in public value creation. The reason for citizen-led instead of government-led public value creation is part of two larger governance trends. The first is the increased specialized, mission-oriented approach to large social challenges by government agencies. The second trend is the increased emphasis on accountability, productivity, and efficiency, following the New Public Management philosophy. As a response to these trends, community initiatives challenge the usual mechanisms, principles, and practices of government agencies. These initiatives are characterized by more integrated and inclusive approaches for dealing with societal problems. In turn, government agencies struggle with the way they can organize productive responses to the initiatives communities take in creating public value. In this study, we explore the rationales behind processes of public value creation in which communities take the lead. We explored these processes in Dutch water management. In this highly functionally specialized domain, we compared two cases in which communities take on leadership for integrated initiatives, including other societal functions and tasks adjacent to water management. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Towards a Framework for Building Community-University Resilience Research Agendas
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120260
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we ask: “How can we scope multiyear, multiscalar community–university collaborations that draw on the university’s diverse resources and contribute to community resilience”? We approach this question by presenting the development and application of the Advancing Collaborative Transdisciplinary Scholarship Framework (the
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In this paper, we ask: “How can we scope multiyear, multiscalar community–university collaborations that draw on the university’s diverse resources and contribute to community resilience”? We approach this question by presenting the development and application of the Advancing Collaborative Transdisciplinary Scholarship Framework (the “ACTS Framework”) which we argue has been successful at helping us better understand, foster, and work towards communities’ resilience. The ACTS Framework, informed by our collective expertise in critical community-engaged scholarship (CES) and community resilience, contributes to knowledge and practice in critical CES, in particular by providing guidance for scoping and sustaining complex community–university collaborations. The structured yet iterative process involved in the framework development and application affirms and extends the work of other scholars interested in the links between CES and community resilience. Our contributions offer two other important practices—centring community concerns and facilitating cross-project collaboration—to critical CES knowledge and practice and highlight two promising practices of linking structures that facilitate community–university collaborations—specifically, a well-organized institutional memory and holding and bridging relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
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Open AccessArticle Mining Corporations, Democratic Meddling, and Environmental Justice in South Africa
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120259
Received: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
During Apartheid, the mining industry operated without restraint and compromised the ecology, the health of mining workers, and local communities. The lines between the mining industry and government was often unclear with the former influencing government decisions to favour uncontrolled operations. Although new
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During Apartheid, the mining industry operated without restraint and compromised the ecology, the health of mining workers, and local communities. The lines between the mining industry and government was often unclear with the former influencing government decisions to favour uncontrolled operations. Although new post-Apartheid regulations were designed to control negative mining impacts, the mining industry and the state still have a close relationship. Limited academic research has empirically examined how mining corporations influence democracy in South Africa. Through empirical investigation focusing on Dullstroom, Mpumalanga and St. Lucia, KwaZulu-Natal, this paper examines how mining corporations, directly and indirectly, influence democratic processes at the macro state and micro community levels. At the macro level, this includes examining mining companies influencing government decision-making and enforcement to hold mines accountable for non-compliance. At the micro level, the paper examines mining companies influencing democratic processes at the local community level to get mining developments approved. Findings reveal that political connections between the mining industry and government, including collusion between mining corporations and local community leadership, have influenced mining approval and development, whilst excluding local communities from decision-making processes. Industrial manipulation has also influenced government in holding corporations accountable. This has contributed towards not fully addressing citizen concerns over mining development. Democracy in post-Apartheid South Africa, especially for mining development is, therefore, understood in the narrow sense and exposures the realities of the ruling party embracing capitalism. Despite challenges, civil society may provide the avenue for upholding democratic values to counter mining domination and for an enabling political settlement environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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Open AccessArticle On Service Innovation as an Interactive Process: A Case Study of the Engagement with Innovation of a Tourism Service
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120258
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
In the innovation studies literature, the process of innovation has been described as an interactive process that engages many different actors over time in the development and regeneration of goods and services. In the development and regeneration of tourism services, this often includes
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In the innovation studies literature, the process of innovation has been described as an interactive process that engages many different actors over time in the development and regeneration of goods and services. In the development and regeneration of tourism services, this often includes community actors. Yet, little attention has been paid to the way in which actors grasp the societal environment with which they interact, for example in intimate relationships or interactions with a wider community, and how such interaction formats may in turn affect the innovation process; for example, its desirability and visibility. The paper contributes to service and tourism innovation research by drawing on the concept of engagement to explain three cognitive formats of social interaction between innovators and their social environment. These are familiar engagement, engagement in plan, and engagement in justifiable action. The contribution to service and tourism innovation literature is to show how the varied capabilities of engagement impact innovation. Furthermore, based on a case study on a tourism service, the paper argues that the different formats of engagement typically must be combined and balanced in the innovation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Social Regeneration)
Open AccessArticle Parenting under Adversity: Birth Parents’ Accounts of Inequality and Adoption
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120257
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper aims to highlight inequality in current adoption processes and procedures in England and Wales. Whilst inequality has been recognised in adoption research, the role of social structures is often neglected. Inequality within social structures plays a role in the process of
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This paper aims to highlight inequality in current adoption processes and procedures in England and Wales. Whilst inequality has been recognised in adoption research, the role of social structures is often neglected. Inequality within social structures plays a role in the process of the permanent removal of children to be adopted and is worthy of further attention. Birth parent voices can contribute to a wider understanding of adoption, but often remain hidden. Empirical research findings highlight how birth parents may find that their adverse experiences are exacerbated by the adoption process, the emotional impact causing existing problems to increase, and through the impact of the adoption process on birth parent’s socio-economic status. Findings also illustrate how birth parents’ experiences were influenced by ideals of motherhood and ideas about ‘risk’ to children. The paper contributes to the growing area of research which illuminates the intersection of poverty, deprivation and child protection services and the wider contemporaneous debate concerning adoption in England and Wales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Social Inequality)
Open AccessReview Social Representations in Studying Information, Knowledge, and Mediations: A Critical Review
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120256
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
This text addresses the concept of social representations, as well as its uses and epistemological limits in the processes of production, distribution, and appropriation of information and knowledge. From a critical and systematic documentary–bibliographical analysis, this paper aims at shedding light on the
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This text addresses the concept of social representations, as well as its uses and epistemological limits in the processes of production, distribution, and appropriation of information and knowledge. From a critical and systematic documentary–bibliographical analysis, this paper aims at shedding light on the conditions of emergency and functioning of social representations and their role in building up shared meanings. The article connects objectification and anchoring mechanisms from the formation processes of social representations with strategies of meaning construction, and therefore, of knowledge acquisition, in relation to information exchange in different psychosocial stages. Finally, we aim at trying to reflect on the socio-cultural aspects that shape information and communication phenomena, and the significance of the mediations paradigm in this regard. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Paradigms of Industry 4.0 and Circular Economy as Enabling Drivers for the Competitiveness of Businesses and Territories: The Case of an Italian Ceramic Tiles Manufacturing Company
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120255
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
Sustainable development and the circular economy are two important issues for the future and the competitiveness of businesses. The programs for the integration of sustainability into industrial activities include the reconfiguration of production processes with a view to reducing their impact on the
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Sustainable development and the circular economy are two important issues for the future and the competitiveness of businesses. The programs for the integration of sustainability into industrial activities include the reconfiguration of production processes with a view to reducing their impact on the natural system, the development of new eco-sustainable products and the redesign of the business model. This paradigm shift requires the participation and commitment of different stakeholder groups and industry can completely redesign supply chains, aiming at resource efficiency and circularity. Developments in key ICT technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), help this systemic transition. This paper explores the phases of the transition from a linear to a circular economy and proposes a procedure for introducing the principles of sustainability (environmental, economic and social) in a manufacturing environment, through the design of a new Circular Business Model (CBM). The new procedure has been tested and validated in an Italian company producing ceramic tiles, using the digitalization of the production processes of the Industry 4.0 environment, to implement the impact assessment tools (LCA—Life Cycle Assessment, LCC—Life Cycle Costing and S-LCA—Social Life Cycle Assessment) and the business intelligence systems to provide appropriate sustainability performance indicators essential for the definition of the new CBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle Climatic Impacts and Responses of Migratory and Non-Migratory Fishers of the Padma River, Bangladesh
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120254
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
This study empirically assesses the impacts of climatic events on the inland fishers (i.e., migratory and non-migratory) in Bangladesh and explores their responses to those events. Here, the migratory refers to the fishers who change their fishing location seasonally and voluntarily, whereas the
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This study empirically assesses the impacts of climatic events on the inland fishers (i.e., migratory and non-migratory) in Bangladesh and explores their responses to those events. Here, the migratory refers to the fishers who change their fishing location seasonally and voluntarily, whereas the non-migratory fishers fish in the same area. It is assumed that there exist differences in both the impacts of an event and the responses to the event between migratory and non-migratory fishers and therefore, a ‘difference triangle’ conceptual framework is developed and tested empirically under this research. Employing mix-method (qualitative and quantitative), a field study was conducted during July–October 2015 from the Padma River depended fishers. Identified climatic events under this study are: storms, changes in rainfall and temperature and riverbank erosion. The migratory and non-migratory fishers were affected quite similarly by storms and changes in rainfall and temperature. However, riverbank erosion affected only non-migratory fishers. Both the migratory and non-migratory fishers adopted different strategies to cope with different climatic events, like, they took shelter in safe places, sold productive assets, reduced food consumption, took credit from informal sources and employed their school-going children. As adaptation strategies, they modernized their fishing boats, intensified fishing, built embankments and diversified livelihoods. Unlike the impacts, considerable differences were found in their coping and adaptation strategies. Comparing to non-migratory fishers, a smaller number of migratory fishers sold their assets, took informal credit and intensified fishing and diversified their livelihoods. The result of this study indicates the significance of differences in the impacts of climatic events for the migratory and non-migratory fishers and therefore, this research has policy implication for the betterment of fishers’ community in general. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Capability Deprivation, and the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Disadvantages—Empirical Evidence from Selected Countries
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120253
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
Based on longitudinal data from the Cross-National Equivalent File 1980–2016 (CNEF 1980–2016) the paper analyzes the extent of income inequality and capability deprivation and the driving forces of the intergenerational transmission of social and economic status of two birth cohorts in Germany, and
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Based on longitudinal data from the Cross-National Equivalent File 1980–2016 (CNEF 1980–2016) the paper analyzes the extent of income inequality and capability deprivation and the driving forces of the intergenerational transmission of social and economic status of two birth cohorts in Germany, and the United States. In both the countries the empirical results show increasing inequality of the real equivalent household income, and younger cohorts experience a higher persistence of social and economic status. In the United States income inequality is more expressed than in Germany, which is in accordance with lower intergenerational income mobility. The contribution of individual and family background characteristics and capability deprivation indicators to intergenerational income mobility is more pronounced in the United States than in Germany. The significant impact of capability deprivation in childhood on the intergenerational transmission of economic chances emphasizes the importance of economic and social policy designated to guarantee the equality of opportunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality and Poverty)
Open AccessArticle Citizen Initiatives in the Post-Welfare State
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120252
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Recently we have seen the emergence of citizen-led community initiatives and civic enterprises, taking over governmental tasks in providing public services in various sectors, such as energy, care, landscape maintenance, and culture. This phenomenon can be explained by a renewed interest in community,
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Recently we have seen the emergence of citizen-led community initiatives and civic enterprises, taking over governmental tasks in providing public services in various sectors, such as energy, care, landscape maintenance, and culture. This phenomenon can be explained by a renewed interest in community, place, and ‘local identity’; the erosion of the welfare state; the privatization of public services; a re-emergence of the social economy; and tensions between ‘bottom-up’ initiatives and the changing role of the state. The co-production of governments and initiatives can potentially result in a shift from government-led to community-led planning. This, however, raises questions about their innovative potential, the democratic consequences, and the potential roles of governments in enabling these societal dynamics. This article discusses these issues theoretically, illustrated with empirical examples from Portugal, the Netherlands, and Wales, in a context of uncertainty regarding the future of the traditional European welfare state. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Parents Can Do to Prevent Cyberbullying: Students’ and Educators’ Perspectives
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120251
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 24 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
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Abstract
This article presents findings related to the role parents can play in the prevention of cyberbullying and the promotion of cyber-kindness. The findings are drawn from a study conducted at a private school in Western Canada, involving 177 student survey participants in Grades
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This article presents findings related to the role parents can play in the prevention of cyberbullying and the promotion of cyber-kindness. The findings are drawn from a study conducted at a private school in Western Canada, involving 177 student survey participants in Grades 8 through 10 (including both day students and boarding students) and interviews with 15 educators employed at the same school. Findings relate to parental supervision of computer usage, students’ willingness to inform parents about cyberbullying, and how students and educators view the role of parents in relation to the prevention of cyberbullying and the promotion of cyber-kindness. Education, dialogue, relationship strengthening, computer usage monitoring, and partnerships between schools and parents are emphasized as solutions, which are highly consistent with the existing research literature on this topic. Additionally, the study reveals the particular vulnerability of boarding students to cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
Open AccessArticle Social Solidarity, Collective Identity, Resilient Communities: Two Case Studies from the Rural U.S. and Uruguay
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120250
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Worldwide, communities face disruptions driven by phenomena such as climate change and globalization. Socio-ecological resilience theorists have called for greater attention to the social dynamics that inform whether and how communities are reorganized and sustained in response to such challenges. Scholars increasingly stress
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Worldwide, communities face disruptions driven by phenomena such as climate change and globalization. Socio-ecological resilience theorists have called for greater attention to the social dynamics that inform whether and how communities are reorganized and sustained in response to such challenges. Scholars increasingly stress that social heterogeneities provide resources that communities can mobilize to adapt and sustain themselves in response to disruptions. Utilizing the sociological literature that emphasizes that social solidarities and collective identities are centrally important to community responses to socio-ecological disruptions, we argue that solidarities grounded in collective identities can act as important mediators between social heterogeneity and resilience. Drawing on qualitative data from rural communities in the central United States and southwestern Uruguay, we explore how group solidarity enabled individuals to more effectively draw on their diverse knowledges, skills, and resources to sustain their communities. Linked by a collective identity grounded in rurality, in each setting, individuals effectively worked together to adapt to emerging socio-ecological disruptions. These results suggest that we can better understand how social heterogeneities inform resilience by considering how solidarities grounded in collective identities influence whether and how individuals can successfully cooperate to rearrange and sustain their communities. When working with rural communities, specifically, it will be especially important to account for solidarities and collective identities tied to rurality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
Open AccessArticle Resilience and Community-Based Tourism: Mapuche Experiences in Pre-Cordilleran Areas (Puyehue and Panguipulli) of Southern Chile
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120249
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Local responses to global problems: this is the premise used in this work to approach the studies of community-based tourism (CBT) in Latin America. Resilience is a fertile concept to analytically delve into the emergency conditions of this form of tourism organization. The
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Local responses to global problems: this is the premise used in this work to approach the studies of community-based tourism (CBT) in Latin America. Resilience is a fertile concept to analytically delve into the emergency conditions of this form of tourism organization. The socio-ecological and situated narratives of resilience are enriched and used in this work to examine experiences of CBT in mapuche communities in the south of Chile. This was done through the systematization of relevant data available from the execution of participatory action research projects developed since 2013 in the communes of Panguipulli and Puyehue. This data was categorized and processed according to the variables identified for the proposed analyzes. It was found that the socio-ecological narrative is useful, but insufficient. The relevance of the situated narrative seems to be more effective to engage in dialogues and joint work with mapuche communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Social Regeneration)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Training and Support Interventions on Small Businesses in the Expanded Public Works Programme—Pretoria Region
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120248
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
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Abstract
The small business sector is regarded as a catalyst of employment for the largest number of people around the world. To reduce massive unemployment and inequality in the country, the Government of South Africa introduced various initiatives to stimulate and support small businesses,
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The small business sector is regarded as a catalyst of employment for the largest number of people around the world. To reduce massive unemployment and inequality in the country, the Government of South Africa introduced various initiatives to stimulate and support small businesses, and the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) is one such initiative. The enterprise development approach, which seeks to transfer income to poor households in the short to medium term, is one of the delivery mechanisms of the EPWP. This study critically assesses the impact and effectiveness of the training and support interventions provided to small businesses through the EPWP. The study employs a quantitative research method due to the size, availability, and ease of access of the participants, and the entire population of 20 small businesses, supported by the EPWP in the Pretoria region, was sampled. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The study demonstrates that the training intervention provided by the EPWP has a positive impact and achieves its intended goal of enhancing the business management skills of participants. It also reveals an interesting outcome, i.e., that the majority of the participants are women. The study also identified some weaknesses in the programme, which led to the recommendation that long-term support mechanisms are essential for ensuring the sustainability of emerging enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable Community Development or Voluntourism: Sustainable Housing in Rural Maharashtra
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120247
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
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Abstract
Volunteer tourism (‘voluntourism’) packages development and poverty as culturally exotic and ethical experiences for tourists from industrialized countries. Among the various sectors promoting voluntourism, university sector short term study abroad tours network voluntourism agencies, local actors (e.g., NGOs), universities, and government funding to
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Volunteer tourism (‘voluntourism’) packages development and poverty as culturally exotic and ethical experiences for tourists from industrialized countries. Among the various sectors promoting voluntourism, university sector short term study abroad tours network voluntourism agencies, local actors (e.g., NGOs), universities, and government funding to offer students ‘life changing’ community sustainable development experiences. Alongside the purported benefits for all stakeholders, recent criticism points to the commodification of development and poverty through such tours and multiple pernicious effects of such travel, especially the failure to deliver community impact. Given the significant financial, political, and other interests involved, monitoring and evaluating such initiatives against transparent independent sustainability principles has proved complicated. Case studies employing ethical covert research, fieldwork, and secondary data analysis offer one approach. This case study of a purported sustainable housing project in rural Maharashtra, involving a bilateral university-government-local NGO voluntourism ecosystem lead by an Australian Green NGO (AGC) analyses the multiple gaps between participatory community sustainable development and voluntourism. This case study employs content analysis of project reports, visual data from a field visit, recent village documentary analysis, anonymized email communication, and secondary analysis of contextual data to evaluate the claims of participatory sustainable development and project outcomes of a bilateral NGO voluntourism housing project. The study findings signal lack of financial transparency, incompetent assessment of material needs, limited local participation and control, and failure to deliver on objectives. The conclusion recommends that socially responsible short-term international exchanges should be carefully monitored and exchanges should prefer knowledge exchange. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Industry 4.0 on the Production and Service Sectors in Pakistan: Evidence from Textile and Logistics Industries
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120246
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
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Abstract
This research aims to investigate the role of Industry 4.0 in the production and service sector in Pakistan. It therefore considers five Industry 4.0 factors, namely big data, smart factory, cyber physical systems (CPS), Internet of things (IoT), and interoperability. In order to
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This research aims to investigate the role of Industry 4.0 in the production and service sector in Pakistan. It therefore considers five Industry 4.0 factors, namely big data, smart factory, cyber physical systems (CPS), Internet of things (IoT), and interoperability. In order to analyze the role of Industry 4.0, the textile industry is taken as a production industry, while the logistics industry is considered as a service industry. Both are facing various challenges in production and services causing below standard overall performance. To address this issue, a quantitative research approach with cross-sectional research design was selected. First hand data was collected through a survey questionnaire from a total of 224 employees of textile and logistics companies. Smart partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was preferred to analyze the collected data. Findings of the study revealed that Industry 4.0 has a key role in promoting the production and services sector in Pakistan, as it has a significant impact on the overall performance of the considered sectors. This research is one of the pioneer studies that examines the role of Industry 4.0 on the textile and logistics industry of Pakistan. Thus, this research also contributes in a practical dimension by explaining the implementation of Industry 4.0 for improving the performance of the textile and logistics industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle The Rise of the Androgynous Princess: Examining Representations of Gender in Prince and Princess Characters of Disney Movies Released 2009–2016
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120245
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract
Previous quantitative research examining Disney movies has highlighted that whilst prince characters display largely balanced gender profiles, princesses exhibit biased gender role portrayals—performing mostly feminine characteristics, rarely participating in rescue behavior, and concluding movies in romantic relationships with the prince. However, such research,
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Previous quantitative research examining Disney movies has highlighted that whilst prince characters display largely balanced gender profiles, princesses exhibit biased gender role portrayals—performing mostly feminine characteristics, rarely participating in rescue behavior, and concluding movies in romantic relationships with the prince. However, such research, as well as public commentary, has also suggested that princess characters in movies released across the 2000s and 2010s may have more positive gender role portrayals. This study aimed to test these assertions by utilizing content coding analysis to examine the behavioral characteristics, rescue behavior, and romantic conclusions of prince and princess characters in five iconic Disney films released between 2009 and 2016 (The Princess and the Frog, Tangled, Brave (released under Pixar), Frozen, and Moana). Comparisons were also made with earlier titles to assess historical changes. Results showed that princesses in “2000s to 2010s” movies exhibited an almost equal number of masculine and feminine behaviors, thus demonstrating more egalitarian profiles over time. In contrast, princes appeared to adopt a more feminine behavioral profile in later movies. In addition, characters engaged in equal numbers of rescue behaviors, and princesses were more likely to remain single in “2000s to 2010s” movies. Results therefore suggest that Disney is indeed presenting more diverse, androgynous, balanced characters to viewers, and the theoretical and practical implications for the socialization of young child viewers are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria: A Persisting Challenge for Women’s Rights
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120244
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract
Although considered a violation of human rights, female genital mutilation (FGM) is a commonly accepted practice in Nigeria in the ritual and sociocultural context of the population. In recent years, there have been strong policy actions by Nigerian legislature to curb this practice.
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Although considered a violation of human rights, female genital mutilation (FGM) is a commonly accepted practice in Nigeria in the ritual and sociocultural context of the population. In recent years, there have been strong policy actions by Nigerian legislature to curb this practice. Despite that, FGM continues to be a widespread phenomenon. In this study, we aimed to report on the prevalence of FGM, women’s attitude towards this practice, and its association with selected sociodemographic factors. Methods: Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2003, 2008 and 2013 provided the data for this study. The participants were married women aged between 15 and 49 years. Owing to the clustered nature of the data, a complex survey plan was created to account for cluster effects and sampling weights. Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Results: Overall prevalence of FGM was 38.9% (95% CI = 36.4–40.1), and that among their daughters was 17.4% (95% CI = 15.3–19.7). There has been a substantial increase in the prevalence of FGM in 2013 compared to its 2003 level. Respondents who had undergone circumcision were more likely to have their daughters circumcised. In all three surveys, almost all of the circumcisions were performed by traditional practitioners. In the regression analysis, respondent’s age, area and region of residency, religious affiliation, educational status, and household wealth appeared to be significant predictors of FGM. Conclusion: In Nigeria, FGM remains a widely prevalent phenomenon with an increasing number of women experiencing this practice. Important regional and socioeconomic disparities were observed in the prevalence which merit urgent policy attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice)
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Open AccessArticle Privileging the Privileged: The Effects of International University Rankings on a Chilean Fellowship Program for Graduate Studies Abroad
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120243
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract
In the last few decades, many developing countries have dramatically expanded the number of government-sponsored fellowships for graduate studies abroad to increase their participation in the knowledge economy. To award these grants, these programs have typically relied on international university rankings as their
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In the last few decades, many developing countries have dramatically expanded the number of government-sponsored fellowships for graduate studies abroad to increase their participation in the knowledge economy. To award these grants, these programs have typically relied on international university rankings as their main selection criterion. Existing studies suggest these fellowships have been disproportionally awarded to applicants from privileged social backgrounds, thus intensifying existing national educational inequalities. However, this evidence is mostly anecdotal and descriptive in nature. In this article, we focus on a Chilean fellowship program, an iconic example of these policies. Using a causal path analysis mediation model and relying on social reproduction and stratification theories, we investigated whether the distribution of fellowships varied across applicants from different socioeconomic backgrounds and how university rankings affect applicants’ chances of obtaining the fellowship. Our findings revealed that, in a context of high social inequalities and a stratified education system, using international rankings as an awarding criterion reinforced the position of privilege of individuals who accrued educational advantages in high school, as well as the disadvantages of those less fortunate who faced fewer prior educational opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
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