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Buildings, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Acoustics of a Music Venue/Bar—A Case Study
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010011 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2892
Abstract
A vacant unit, once used by a Portuguese Deli, was converted to a bar/music room in Toronto. The unit was divided into two spaces along its north-south axis. The western portion was designed as a music room that would provide a performance space [...] Read more.
A vacant unit, once used by a Portuguese Deli, was converted to a bar/music room in Toronto. The unit was divided into two spaces along its north-south axis. The western portion was designed as a music room that would provide a performance space from a solo artist to a Jazz combo to a small rock band. The eastern part was designed as a regular bar/dining area. The plan also called for a microbrewery unit at the back of the unit. The bar music can be loud, while the music room can be pianissimo to forte depending on the type of performance. The acoustical design aspects are critical for the music room. In addition, the acoustical separation between the two spaces is equally important. The music room/bar is currently in use. The design results are compared to actual field measurements. The results showed that the music venue performed satisfactorily. The acoustical separation between the music venue and the bar/restaurant was better than expected other than an installation deficiency of the south side sound lock doors. The background sound along the northern portion was NC-35 or less. However, the southern portion’s background sound exceeded NC-35 due to the hissing of the return air grille. The acoustical design and the performance results of the music venue-bar/restaurant are presented in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers on Building and Architectural Acoustics from ICSV22)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of the Heating Time of Small-Scale Buildings Using Dynamic Models
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010010 - 07 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Most buildings are not continuously occupied, such as office buildings, schools, churches and many residential buildings. Maintaining comfortable conditions only during the occupied periods reduces the energy costs. This can be done by lowering the temperature as much as possible during unoccupied periods [...] Read more.
Most buildings are not continuously occupied, such as office buildings, schools, churches and many residential buildings. Maintaining comfortable conditions only during the occupied periods reduces the energy costs. This can be done by lowering the temperature as much as possible during unoccupied periods and at nights and then raising the temperature for occupation. More energy can be saved by using this method. The estimation of the time taken for the temperature increase is important in determining the optimal time for switching the heating equipment on. A dynamic model for single-zone buildings is developed for estimating the heating time, and the model is validated using four case studies with real measurements. The model computes the heating time with an error of less than 3%. It can also be used to obtain a rough prediction of the space heating energy use. Further, it was observed that starting the heating at the right time returns the lowest energy cost with the introduction of usage-based energy tariff systems. The model is quick in predicting the results, and hence, physics-based models can play an influential role in building system control with advanced control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Heating and Cooling in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
The SALIENT Checklist: Gathering up the Ways in Which Built Environments Affect What We Do and How We Feel
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010009 - 01 Mar 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
In recent years, behavioural science has emerged as an additional tool to explore the impact of built environments on behaviour and wellbeing. Recognising the potential for further research in this field, we have sought to better understand how built environments affect what we [...] Read more.
In recent years, behavioural science has emerged as an additional tool to explore the impact of built environments on behaviour and wellbeing. Recognising the potential for further research in this field, we have sought to better understand how built environments affect what we do, as well as how they make us feel. We began this process through a review of the behavioural science literature, and have brought together evidence to develop a checklist for design with wellbeing in mind. In this paper, we present Sound, Air, Light, Image, Ergonomics and Tint as the mnemonic SALIENT, which forms a checklist. We outline an example where elements of the checklist have been applied in a real-world setting to examine subjective wellbeing (SWB). We present this example to illustrate how the SALIENT checklist could potentially be applied more extensively to measure the impact of built environments on wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of the Building Environment on Health and Well-Being)
Open AccessArticle
Development of BIM Execution Plan for BIM Model Management during the Pre-Operation Phase: A Case Study
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010008 - 17 Feb 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4395
Abstract
Building information modeling (BIM) technologies use precise geometry and relevant data to enhance and improve the maintenance performance of facilities integrated with 3D object-oriented computer aided design (CAD). Although most owners agree on the potential benefits of integrating BIM technologies with facility management [...] Read more.
Building information modeling (BIM) technologies use precise geometry and relevant data to enhance and improve the maintenance performance of facilities integrated with 3D object-oriented computer aided design (CAD). Although most owners agree on the potential benefits of integrating BIM technologies with facility management (FM), they must overcome many problems to plan and develop effective BIM execution plans for FM implementation. This study proposes and develops a BIM execution plan for BIM model management for FM during the pre-operation phase. Through the application of the proposed BIM execution plan, BIM can be effectively implemented during the operation and maintenance phases. In order to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in practice, the BIM execution plan is then applied in a selected case study of a building project in Taiwan. The combined results demonstrate that the proposed BIM execution plan is an effective approach for operation and maintenance management. The advantage of the proposed BIM execution plan lies not only in improving the efficiency of maintenance management work when integrated with BIM technologies, but also in maximizing the value and benefits of BIM to support maintenance management. Finally, limitations, difficulties, and suggestions are summarized for further development of the BIM execution plan for BIM model management during the pre-operation phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Lifecycle)
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Open AccessReview
Exploring the Relationship between Research and BIM Standardization: A Systematic Mapping of Early Studies on the IFC Standard (1997–2007)
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010007 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
It has long been argued that the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data model standard is the key to unlocking the potential of interoperable Building Information Modeling (BIM). Despite a wealth of published research literature incorporating IFC, there have been no attempts at systematically [...] Read more.
It has long been argued that the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data model standard is the key to unlocking the potential of interoperable Building Information Modeling (BIM). Despite a wealth of published research literature incorporating IFC, there have been no attempts at systematically summarizing the literature related to the standard. Targeting both summation and analysis of thematic developments over time, we performed a comprehensive systematic literature review of IFC‐related research published between 1997 and 2007: the first 11 years of research on the standard. Through a systematic web‐retrieval process, 170 unique publications were collected, read, and mapped to a custom framework. The results reveal that journals and conferences have been an integral part of the technical evaluation and development of the standard. The full classification data is provided as an appendix to facilitate future research on IFC and other standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Lifecycle)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Model for Designing Cost Effective Zero Carbon Homes: Minimizing Commercial Viability Issues and Improving the Economics for Both the Developer and Purchaser
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010006 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2210
Abstract
There is a limited penetration of housing which offsets all operational carbon emissions within UK housing developer portfolios. This paper develops a balanced approach to zero carbon housing design from both architectural and national house builder perspectives. The paper discusses the techniques which [...] Read more.
There is a limited penetration of housing which offsets all operational carbon emissions within UK housing developer portfolios. This paper develops a balanced approach to zero carbon housing design from both architectural and national house builder perspectives. The paper discusses the techniques which can be used to reduce build costs, simplify designs and simplify renewable energy systems, resulting in more cost effective homes. The paper develops a technical and economic linked model to optimise a zero carbon design and then develops a home using this technique. It acknowledges that extra costs are inevitable but minimises them and details a lifecycle costing approach to provide economic justification. The paper then focuses on how the building designed can function more efficiently and economically than a Part L 2013 Building Regulation compliant building. Improved functionality is demonstrated both with and without the use of feed in tariffs. A key finding from this research is that zero carbon homes can benefit the consumer without impacting the developer. The results also demonstrate that homes could be better marketed on economic rather than environmental or technical attributes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Accounting for the Uncertainty Related to Building Occupants with Regards to Visual Comfort: A Literature Survey on Drivers and Models
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010005 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
The interactions between building occupants and control systems have a high influence on energy consumption and on indoor environmental quality. In the perspective of a future of “nearly-zero” energy buildings, it is crucial to analyse the energy-related interactions deeply to predict realistic energy [...] Read more.
The interactions between building occupants and control systems have a high influence on energy consumption and on indoor environmental quality. In the perspective of a future of “nearly-zero” energy buildings, it is crucial to analyse the energy-related interactions deeply to predict realistic energy use during the design stage. Since the reaction to thermal, acoustic, or visual stimuli is not the same for every human being, monitoring the behaviour inside buildings is an essential step to assert differences in energy consumption related to different interactions. Reliable information concerning occupants’ behaviours in a building could contribute to a better evaluation of building energy performances and design robustness, as well as supporting the development of occupants’ education to energy awareness. The present literature survey enlarges our understanding of which environmental conditions influence occupants’ manual controlling of the system in offices and by consequence the energy consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible drivers for light-switching to model occupant behaviour in office buildings. The probability of switching lighting systems on or off was related to the occupancy and differentiated for arrival, intermediate, and departure periods. The switching probability has been reported to be higher during the entering or the leaving time in relation to contextual variables. In the analysis of switch-on actions, users were often clustered between those who take daylight level into account and switch on lights only if necessary and people who totally disregard the natural lighting. This underlines the importance of how individuality is at the base of the definition of the different types of users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings: Design for Comfort and Users)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Buildings in 2015
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010004 - 21 Jan 2016
Viewed by 1550
Abstract
The editors of Buildings would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Performance of a Ventilated Window Coupled with a Heat Recovery Unit through the Co-Heating Test
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010003 - 08 Jan 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2405
Abstract
The aim of the article is to describe the results of an experimental campaign based on the assessment of a heat recovery unit coupled with a dynamic window. Two fully monitored and calibrated outdoor test cells are used, in order to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to describe the results of an experimental campaign based on the assessment of a heat recovery unit coupled with a dynamic window. Two fully monitored and calibrated outdoor test cells are used, in order to evaluate the energy performance and the related thermal comfort. The former presents a traditional window with double-glazing, aluminum frame and indoor blind and a centrifugal extractor for the air circulation. The latter is equipped with a dynamic window with ventilated and blinded double-glazing provided with a heat exchanger. The connection of the dynamic window and heat recovery unit provides different actions: heat recovery; heat transfer reduction; pre-heating before the exchanger. Different operating configurations allowed the trends of the dynamic system to be assessed in different seasons in terms of energy saving, thermal comfort behavior and energy efficiency. The results showed an overall lower consumption of the innovative system, both in winter and summer, with 20% and 15% energy saving, respectively. In general, the dynamic system provided the best comfort conditions, even if it involves a worse behavior than expected, in the summer season. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acoustic Intervention in a Cultural Heritage: The Chapel of the Royal Palace in Caserta, Italy
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010001 - 28 Dec 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3497
Abstract
The modern use of ancient heritage sites can be, to say the least, challenging from an acoustical perspective. In fact, modern needs may require acoustical interventions in contrast with the preservation issues of the cultural heritage. This paper deals with this topic in [...] Read more.
The modern use of ancient heritage sites can be, to say the least, challenging from an acoustical perspective. In fact, modern needs may require acoustical interventions in contrast with the preservation issues of the cultural heritage. This paper deals with this topic in an UNESCO designated world heritage site, the Palatine Chapel of the Royal Palace in Caserta, Italy. Since this chapel is currently being used for meetings and music chamber concerts, the acoustical characteristics of the chapel, originally used for religious purposes, are investigated. Field measurements were undertaken to evaluate the acoustical performance of the empty chapel. The measurements were then used to calibrate and validate a computer simulation model. Different acoustical treatments are then considered and simulations are used to determine the related acoustical improvements. Finally, the benefits of different acoustical treatments which are respectful of the aesthetic and historical value of this cultural heritage are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers on Building and Architectural Acoustics from ICSV22)
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Open AccessArticle
Diurnal Thermal Behavior of Pavements, Vegetation, and Water Pond in a Hot-Humid City
Buildings 2016, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010002 - 24 Dec 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
This study investigated the diurnal thermal behavior of several urban surfaces and landscape components, including pavements, vegetation, and a water pond. The field experiment was conducted in a university campus of Guangzhou, South China, which is characterized by a hot and humid summer. [...] Read more.
This study investigated the diurnal thermal behavior of several urban surfaces and landscape components, including pavements, vegetation, and a water pond. The field experiment was conducted in a university campus of Guangzhou, South China, which is characterized by a hot and humid summer. The temperature of ground surface and grass leaves and the air temperature and humidity from 0.1 to 1.5 m heights were measured for a period of 24 h under hot summer conditions. The results showed that the concrete and granite slab pavements elevated the temperature of the air above them throughout the day. In contrast, the trees and the pond lowered the air temperature near ground during the daytime but produced a slight warming effect during the nighttime. The influence of vegetation on air temperature and humidity is affected by the configurations of greenery. Compared to the open lawn, the grass shaded by trees was more effective in cooling and the mixture of shrub and grass created a stronger cooling effect during the nighttime. The knowledge of thermal behavior of various urban surfaces and landscape components is an important tool for planners and designers. If utilized properly, it can lead to climatic rehabilitation in urban areas and an improvement of the outdoor thermal environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings: Design for Comfort and Users)
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