Exploring the Relationship between Research and BIM Standardization: A Systematic Mapping of Early Studies on the IFC Standard (1997–2007)
“A standard is an approved specification of a limited set of solutions to actual or potential matching problems, prepared for the benefits of the party or parties involved, balancing their needs, and intended and expected to be used repeatedly or continuously, during a certain period, by a substantial number of the parties for whom they are meant.”
1.1. The IFC Data Model Standard
1.2. Aim of the Study
1.3. Related Work
Earlier Mappings of the Construction-Informatics Research Literature
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Research Questions and Classification Framework
|1. Mode of research||Differentiates between research presenting new data/empirical material and research that builds upon previously published research|
|1.1 Primary||Research presenting new experiment/case/data/empirical material etc.||YES/NO|
|1.2 Secondary||Builds only upon previously published research, findings or data||YES/NO|
|2. Role of IFC in the study|
|2.1 Primary||IFC is the main focus of the research||YES/NO|
|2.2 Secondary||IFC is in secondary focus, the research is focused on some other main contribution||YES/NO|
|2.3 Tertiary||IFC is not a significant component of the research||YES/NO|
|3. Supplementary information|
|3.1 IFC version||Documents the exact IFC version used or discussed in the study||IFC version number|
|3.2 Public policy||The relationship between IFC and public policy is brought up (e.g., public procurement, building code checking)||YES/NO|
|3.3 Primary construction domain/Context of research||Classifies the main construction domain or research context||Free text description, category clustering|
|3.4 Representation syntax||The programming or data modeling language through which IFC is represented in software (applied research only)||Free text description|
|4. Applied research||Publications that describe an implementation of IFC in software|
|4.1–4.5 Evaluating||Incorporates evaluation of quality or usability of IFC (multiple YES codlings possible per study)|
|4.1 IFC data exchange||IFC data is imported or exported||YES/NO|
|4.2 Construction process||Support of the IFC standard is evaluated against construction processes||YES/NO|
|4.3 IFC use in simulations||IFC is used in the context of simulations||YES/NO|
|4.4 Single-case study||Contains a single real-world project case study||YES/NO|
|4.5 Multiple-case study||Contains multiple real-world project case studies||YES/NO|
|4.6–4.9 Extending||Involves extending the usability of IFC functionality in practice (multiple YES codlings possible per study)|
|4.6 Construction domain coverage||Construction domain coverage is extended||YES/NO|
|4.7 IFC information model||The IFC information model itself is extended||YES/NO|
|4.8 Functionality||Functionality of IFC is extended in some way, e.g., by prototyping the standard in a new software setting or workflow, or by describing how the standard can be used in conjunction with other data models||YES/NO|
|4.9 Relevance to integrated construction environments or model servers||IFC is used in the context of integrated construction environments, i.e., not just 1-to-1 data exchanges||YES/NO|
|5. Non-applied research||IFC is not implemented in software (multiple YES codlings possible per study)|
|5.1–5.3 Evaluating||Provides evaluation of quality or usability of IFC|
|5.1 Quality/usability of IFC||Incorporates evaluation of quality or usability of IFC||YES/NO|
|5.2 IFC standardization process||Incorporates some level of evaluation on the IFC standardization process||YES/NO|
|5.3 Industry survey/opinions||Opinions of industry members are present||YES/NO|
|5.4–5.6 Descriptive||Provides descriptive information about IFC (multiple YES codlings possible per study)|
|5.4 Status report||The publication reports on the status of IFC development||YES/NO|
|5.5 Roadmap||The publication presents a roadmap for IFC development||YES/NO|
|5.6 Documentation||The publication can be considered official IFC documentation||YES/NO|
2.2. Literature Selection and Retrieval
2.2.1. Direct Queries
2.2.2. Publication Databases
2.2.3. The Retrieved Literature
|Publication Source Title||Publication Count|
|Journal of Information Technology in Construction—ITcon||20|
|Proceedings of the 2005 CIB W78 Conference||12|
|Proceedings of the 2006 Joint CIB W78, W102, ICCCBE, ICCC, and DMUCE International Conference||12|
|Automation in Construction||10|
|Proceedings of the 2002 CIB W78 Conference||9|
|Proceedings of the 2007 CIB W78 Conference||9|
|Proceedings of the 2000 CIB W78 Conference||7|
|Proceedings of the 1999 CIB W78 Conference||6|
|Proceedings of the 2003 CIB W78 Conference||6|
|Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering||5|
|Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering||5|
|Energy and Buildings||4|
|Proceedings of the 1998 CIB W78 Conference||4|
|Proceedings of the 2006 ECPPM Conference||4|
|Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering||3|
|Advances in Engineering Software||2|
|Building and Environment||2|
|Proceedings of the 2002 ECPPM Conference||2|
|Advanced Engineering Informatics||1|
|Artificial Intelligence in Engineering||1|
|ASHRAE Winter Meetings CD, Technical and Symposium Papers||1|
|CAD Computer Aided Design||1|
|CIFE Technical Report||1|
|Construction Research Congress, Winds of Change: Integration and Innovation in Construction, Proceedings of the Congress||1|
|Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics||1|
|International Journal of Project Management||1|
|International Journal on Engineering Performance-Based Fire Codes||1|
|Journal of Architectural Engineering||1|
|Journal of Construction Engineering and Management||1|
|Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Transactions of the Chinese Institute of Engineers,Series A/Chung-kuo Kung Ch’eng Hsuch K’an||1|
|Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)||1|
|M.Sc. Thesis—School of Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand||1|
|NIST Special Publication||1|
|PhD Thesis—The Royal Institute of Technology, Construction Management and Economics||1|
|Proceedings of the 2005 CSCE Specialty Conference on Infrastructure Technologies||1|
|Proceedings of the 2003 ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering Research and Application, Enhanced Interoperable Systems||1|
|Proceedings of the 1997 CIB W78 Conference||1|
|Proceedings of the 1997 International Building Simulation Conference||1|
|Proceedings of the 1999 International Building Simulation Conference||1|
|Proceedings of the 2000 ICCCBE Conference||1|
|Proceedings of the 2000 International ASCE Conference on Computing and Building Engineering||1|
|Proceedings of the 2000 Product Data Technology Europe Symposium||1|
|Proceedings of the 2001 CIB W78 Conference||1|
|Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Systems Simulation of Buildings||1|
|Proceedings of the 2002 Systems Simulation in Buildings Conference||1|
|Proceedings of the 2003 International Building Simulation Conference||1|
|Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Building Fire Safety||1|
|Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management||1|
|Proceedings of the 2004 ICCCBE Conference||1|
|Proceedings of the 2004 SimBuild Conference||1|
|Proceedings of the 2005 ASCE International Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering||1|
|Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Information Visualisation||1|
|Proceedings of the 2005 National Symposium of The Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology||1|
|Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering||1|
|Proceedings of the 2007 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation||1|
|Proceedings of the 2007 International Crimean Conference on Microwave and Telecommunication Technology||1|
|Proceedings of the First International Conference on Semantics, Knowledge and Grid||1|
|Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Knowledge Engineering , IKE ’04||1|
|Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on 3D Web Technology 2007, Web3D 2007||1|
|Report prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC||1|
|Technical Report—Dresden University of Technology||1|
|Technical Report from the BLIS Project||1|
|Technical Report from the Pro-IT Project||1|
|Year||Journal Articles||Conference Proceedings||Other Publications||Total|
|Author||Number of Publications|
|Scherer, R J||5|
|Spearpoint, M J||5|
|van Leeuwen, J||3|
|data exchange and sharing||3|
|product data technology||3|
|Label||Number of Publications|
|Identified as primary research||148|
|Identified as secondary research||20|
|Identified as official documentation, technical guides, etc.; not research documents||2|
|Numner of Publications||Label|
|135||IFC in primary focus of research|
|28||IFC in secondary focus of research|
|5||IFC in tertiary focus|
|2||N/A, i.e., not research|
- 91 publications implement IFC as part of the research, indicating that over half of the reviewed publications relate to software implementations in a very direct manner.
- 31 publications could be identified as reporting information about the active development of the IFC standard itself, often by a researcher involved in the development activities of the standard.
- Only seven publications incorporate aspects of public policy, all of which were published in the latter half of the observation period (2003–2007). This finding indicates that such aspects received little scholarly attention in the early days of IFC research and only garnered marginal research attention later on.
Suggestions for Future Research
Conflicts of Interest
Building Information Modeling
Industry Alliance for Interoperability, changed to International Alliance for Interoperability in 1996
Industry Foundation Classes
Initial Graphics Exchange Specification
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Laakso, M.; Nyman, L. Exploring the Relationship between Research and BIM Standardization: A Systematic Mapping of Early Studies on the IFC Standard (1997–2007). Buildings 2016, 6, 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010007
Laakso M, Nyman L. Exploring the Relationship between Research and BIM Standardization: A Systematic Mapping of Early Studies on the IFC Standard (1997–2007). Buildings. 2016; 6(1):7. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010007Chicago/Turabian Style
Laakso, Mikael, and Linus Nyman. 2016. "Exploring the Relationship between Research and BIM Standardization: A Systematic Mapping of Early Studies on the IFC Standard (1997–2007)" Buildings 6, no. 1: 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings6010007