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Buildings, Volume 14, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 364 articles

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15 pages, 1009 KiB  
Article
Early-Age Shrinkage Stress of Alkali-Activated Cement-Free Mortar Using Shrinkage Reducing Agent and Expansive Additive
by Seok-ho Yoon, Sung-rok Oh, Ji-young Kim and Sung Choi
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061852 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 52
Abstract
Cement-free concrete has a superior physical performance, such as in its strength and durability, compared to OPC concrete; however, it has the disadvantage of large shrinkage. Large shrinkage can cause cracks due to shrinkage stress in the long term. In this study, a [...] Read more.
Cement-free concrete has a superior physical performance, such as in its strength and durability, compared to OPC concrete; however, it has the disadvantage of large shrinkage. Large shrinkage can cause cracks due to shrinkage stress in the long term. In this study, a shrinkage reducing agent (SRA) was used to reduce the shrinkage of cement-free mortar; its content was increased from 0.0 to 1.5%. For an SRA content of 1.0%, a calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) expansive additive (EA) (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5%) was added. To calculate the shrinkage stress of cement-free mortar using the SRA and EA, the compressive strength, elastic modulus, and total and autogenous shrinkage were measured. The unit shrinkage stress of cement-free mortar was obtained by multiplying the elastic modulus by the length change and accumulated to obtain the shrinkage stress acting on the mortar according to the age. The shrinkage stress of cement-free mortar showed different tendencies as the age increased. At early ages, the shrinkage rate of the mortar occupied a large proportion of the shrinkage stress. In the long term, the shrinkage stress was significantly affected by the elastic modulus. As a result, SRA was found to be effective in reducing the shrinkage stress by decreasing both the elastic modulus and shrinkage. However, EA increased the shrinkage stress over the long term due to an increase in the elastic modulus even though it compensated for early-ages shrinkage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Cementitious Materials)
26 pages, 2799 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties and Energy Damage Evolution Mechanism of Basalt Fiber-Modified Tailing Sand Cementation and Filling Body Mechanics
by Rongsen Chen and Yaoping Zhang
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1851; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061851 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 57
Abstract
In order to investigate the mechanical properties of basalt fiber-doped tailing sand cemented filler and the evolution of energy damage, a uniaxial compression test was carried out on the basalt fiber-doped tailing sand cemented filler specimens to analyze the energy dissipation characteristics, and [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the mechanical properties of basalt fiber-doped tailing sand cemented filler and the evolution of energy damage, a uniaxial compression test was carried out on the basalt fiber-doped tailing sand cemented filler specimens to analyze the energy dissipation characteristics, and the damage constitutive equations with different basalt fiber contents were established based on damage mechanics. The results show that with the increase of fiber doping and fiber length, the uniaxial compressive strength and ductility of the filling body show a trend of increasing and then decreasing; the optimal value of fiber doping is 0.6%, and the optimal value of fiber length is 9 mm; the total strain energy, elastic strain energy and dissipation energy of basalt fiber-modified tailing sand cemented filling body at peak stress show a trend of increasing and then decreasing, and the energy dissipation energy of the filling body shows a trend of increasing and then decreasing. The energy dissipation energy shows a trend of increasing and then decreasing, and the energy dissipation energy shows a trend of increasing and then decreasing. The total strain energy, elastic strain energy, and dissipation energy at the peak stress show a trend of decreasing after increasing with the fiber doping and fiber length, and the energy damage evolution process can be divided into four stages: no damage stage, stable damage development stage, accelerated damage growth stage, and damage destruction; in addition, the existing damage constitutive model of the fiber-filled body was optimized, and the damage correction factor was introduced to obtain the damage constitutive model of the filled body with different fiber contents, and finally, after the verification of experimental and theoretical models, it was found that the two stress–strain curves coincided well. Finally, after the test and theoretical model verification, it is found that the stress–strain curves of the two are in good agreement, which indicates that the established theoretical model has a certain reference value for engineering practice, and at the same time, it has certain limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
26 pages, 9632 KiB  
Review
Reverse Logistics in the Construction Industry: Status Quo, Challenges and Opportunities
by Xiaomin Chen, Dong Qiu and Yunxin Chen
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061850 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Implementing reverse logistics in the construction industry is considered a crucial method to achieve a circular economy. Despite a wealth of research focusing on improving reverse logistics systems, businesses still encounter challenges during the implementation process. Therefore, this study conducted a systematic literature [...] Read more.
Implementing reverse logistics in the construction industry is considered a crucial method to achieve a circular economy. Despite a wealth of research focusing on improving reverse logistics systems, businesses still encounter challenges during the implementation process. Therefore, this study conducted a systematic literature review utilizing bibliometric methods to analyze 623 articles on reverse logistics in the construction industry published on Web of Science from 1995 to 2023. Additionally, a comprehensive review of 56 high-quality literature on obstacles to implementing reverse logistics in the construction industry and optimizing reverse supply chains was conducted. This review uncovered the current status and challenges of implementing reverse logistics in the construction industry and proposed potential solutions to address these issues. The main findings of this study include: (1) increasing academic interest in construction waste reverse logistics, with Chinese scholars leading the way and publications predominantly in environmental and construction journals, with limited coverage in logistics journals; (2) the primary obstacles to implementing reverse logistics in the construction industry lie in supply chain management, such as lacking deconstruction designs, incomplete recycling markets, difficulties in evaluating the quality of secondary materials, and insufficient supply chain integration; (3) proposing a framework for a construction industry reverse logistics supply chain ecosystem, aiming to establish a platform to facilitate online collection of construction waste, online transactions of secondary materials, end-to-end monitoring, and data analytics for consultation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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23 pages, 6298 KiB  
Article
Environmentally Sustainable Raised Access Flooring Product Development
by Wenjie Peng, Daizhong Su, Shuyi Wang and Anton Ianakiev
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061849 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 95
Abstract
Raised access floors are nowadays widely used in buildings. A novel raised access flooring product is developed by this research, with a set of sustainable features, including less environmental impact and high strength. Its floor panels are made of polyurethane (PU) reinforced with [...] Read more.
Raised access floors are nowadays widely used in buildings. A novel raised access flooring product is developed by this research, with a set of sustainable features, including less environmental impact and high strength. Its floor panels are made of polyurethane (PU) reinforced with glass fibre, which is light-weight and fire-resistant, replacing the traditional floor panel materials, and the panels are supported by simplified steel stringers to reinforce the strength of the flooring product. Instead of the conventional sandwich design consisting of a core material encapsulated by outer layers, the new floor panel design adopts the reinforced PU as its sole material, which not only simplifies the structure but also reduces floor weight and costs. The sustainable advantage is further approved by the environmental life cycle assessments of the new raised flooring product in comparison to traditional ones made of cement and woodchips, with results showing that the new floor product’s total environmental impact is 52% less than cement floor and 47% less than woodchip board floor. Further, the finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out, and the experimental test was conducted to verify the FEA results, indicating that the new product’s strength is higher than the requirements of the raised access flooring product standards. There is no raised access flooring product made of PU reinforced with glass fibre available in the market, and, hence, the new product developed by this research is a novel contribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Low-Carbon Buildings)
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23 pages, 9215 KiB  
Article
Numerical Integration Study of Penetration and Blasting Damage for Composite Underground Protective Structure with Reinforcement Layers
by Xingji Zhu, Can Zhao, Longjun Xu, Yujin Wang, Shibin Lin and Guochen Zhao
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061848 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 87
Abstract
In response to the increasing threat of powerful earth-penetrating weapons, underground protective structures typically employ composite structural systems with reinforced steel layers. However, current numerical studies often simplify the entire structural system to plain concrete when assessing damage effects, and penetration and blasting [...] Read more.
In response to the increasing threat of powerful earth-penetrating weapons, underground protective structures typically employ composite structural systems with reinforced steel layers. However, current numerical studies often simplify the entire structural system to plain concrete when assessing damage effects, and penetration and blasting processes are treated separately using a restart method. In this paper, we adopt an integrated simulation approach to analyze the resistance performance of composite protective structures with reinforcement layers. The results reveal significant differences in failure modes between plain concrete and reinforced concrete protective structures. The diameter of the steel bars and the spacing between mesh layers notably impact the penetration and blasting damage. Based on the results of a parameter analysis, we propose a method for optimizing the design of reinforcements in composite underground protective structures. The results of the study show the following: (1) The penetration and blast damage patterns of EPWs on plain concrete and composite protective structures with reinforcing mesh are significantly different. Compared to the plain concrete layer, the composite protection structure can effectively resist the damage of EPWs. (2) With the increase in reinforcement diameter, the decrease in reinforcement mesh spacing, and the increase in reinforcement dosage, the penetration depth gradually decreases; the amount and range of the blast damage also decrease accordingly. (3) Under the condition of the same reinforcement ratio, reducing the number of layers of reinforcement mesh, increasing the diameter of reinforcement, and configuring the reinforcement on the top of the protective structure as much as possible can improve the performance of the protective layer against penetration. At the same time, the reasonable arrangement of the reinforcement mesh can also enhance the ability of the protective structure to resist blasting damage. Full article
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31 pages, 8218 KiB  
Article
Evaluating and Comparing Human Perceptions of Streets in Two Megacities by Integrating Street-View Images, Deep Learning, and Space Syntax
by Yalun Lei, Hongtao Zhou, Liang Xue, Libin Yuan, Yigang Liu, Meng Wang and Chuan Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061847 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 118
Abstract
Street quality plays a crucial role in promoting urban development. There is still no consensus on how to quantify human street quality perception on a large scale or explore the relationship between street quality and street composition elements. This study investigates a new [...] Read more.
Street quality plays a crucial role in promoting urban development. There is still no consensus on how to quantify human street quality perception on a large scale or explore the relationship between street quality and street composition elements. This study investigates a new approach for evaluating and comparing street quality perception and accessibility in Shanghai and Chengdu, two megacities with distinct geographic characteristics, using street-view images, deep learning, and space syntax. The result indicates significant differences in street quality perception between Shanghai and Chengdu. In Chengdu, there is a curvilinear distribution of the highest positive perceptions along the riverfront space and a radioactive spatial distribution of the highest negative perceptions along the ring road and main roads. Shanghai displays a fragmented cross-aggregation and polycentric distribution of the streets with the highest positive and negative perceptions. Thus, it is reasonable to hypothesize that street quality perception closely correlates with the urban planning and construction process of streets. Moreover, we used multiple linear regression to explain the relationship between street quality perception and street elements. The results show that buildings in Shanghai and trees, pavement, and grass in Chengdu were positively associated with positive perceptions. Walls in both Shanghai and Chengdu show a consistent positive correlation with negative perceptions and a consistent negative correlation with other positive perceptions, and are most likely to contribute to the perception of low street quality. Ceilings were positively associated with negative perceptions in Shanghai but are not the major street elements in Chengdu, while the grass is the opposite of the above results. Our research can provide a cost-effective and rapid solution for large-scale, highly detailed urban street quality perception assessments to inform human-scale urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Cities and Their Downtowns: Urban Studies and Planning)
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27 pages, 6887 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Analysis of Low-Carbon Design Strategies for China’s Higher Education Parks Based on Building and Urban Scale in Sustainability Rating Systems
by Qiyuan Li, Yu Zeng, Yuanyue Meng, Weici Kong and Zhichao Pei
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061846 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 107
Abstract
In the global context of carbon neutrality, higher education parks are an important strategic position for achieving China’s goal of carbon peaking and carbon neutralization. Strategies from the perspective of life cycle to guide early low-carbon planning and design are an effective way [...] Read more.
In the global context of carbon neutrality, higher education parks are an important strategic position for achieving China’s goal of carbon peaking and carbon neutralization. Strategies from the perspective of life cycle to guide early low-carbon planning and design are an effective way to achieve carbon emission reduction goals. As the scale of university construction gradually expands, the “urban” attributes of them are becoming prominent. However, there is no quantitative study on analyzing the life cycle carbon emission strategies at both the building and urban scale based on sustainability rating systems. This study first extracts the design strategies according to BREEAM, LEED, DGNB and relative assessment standards for campuses and cities in China at the building and urban scale based on the 7-dimensional low-carbon strategy framework, then sorts out and compares the proportions of carbon-emission-related strategies across various dimensions and life cycle stages. It then summarizes the applications and concerns of low-carbon design strategies at different design scales. Finally, the weighting and calculation methods of life cycle carbon emissions in different sustainability rating systems are compared, the scope and methods of carbon emission benchmarks under different standards are compiled, and the evaluation method for locally applicable carbon emission benchmarks in China is proposed in light of China’s national conditions, which provides guidance for the design process and standard formulation. Full article
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25 pages, 7720 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning for Pedestrian-Level Wind Comfort Analysis
by Miray Gür and Ilker Karadag
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061845 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 123
Abstract
(1) Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) techniques are being more widely employed in the field of wind engineering. Nevertheless, there is a scarcity of research on the comfort of pedestrians in terms of wind conditions with respect to building design, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) techniques are being more widely employed in the field of wind engineering. Nevertheless, there is a scarcity of research on the comfort of pedestrians in terms of wind conditions with respect to building design, particularly in historic sites. (2) Objectives: This research aims to evaluate ML- and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based pedestrian wind comfort (PWC) analysis outputs using a novel method that relies on the sophisticated handling of image data. The goal is to propose a novel assessment method to enhance the efficiency of AI models over different urban scenarios. (3) Methodology: The stages include the analysis of climate data, CFD analysis with OpenFOAM, ML analysis using Autodesk Forma, and comparisons of the CFD and ML results using a novel image similarity assessment method based on the SSIM, MSE, and PSNR metrics. (4) Conclusions: This study effectively demonstrates the considerable potential of utilizing ML as a supplementary tool for evaluating PWC. It maintains a high degree of accuracy and precision, allowing for rapid and effective assessments. The methodology for precise comparison of two visual outputs in the absence of numerical data allows for more objective and pertinent comparisons, as it eliminates any potential distortions. (5) Recommendations: Additional research can explore the integration of ML models with climate data and different case studies, thus expanding the scope of wind comfort studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings, Resilient Cities and Infrastructure Systems)
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19 pages, 3628 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Contingency Estimation for Residential Turnkey Projects in Saudi Arabia: A Neural Network Approach
by Alaa Salman
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061844 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 123
Abstract
Utilizing a turnkey approach to deliver a construction project entails significant risks from the contractor’s perspective. Essentially, the owner awaits project completion without commitments regarding additional expenditures incurred by the contractor during the project’s duration. This paper specifically focuses on estimating and analyzing [...] Read more.
Utilizing a turnkey approach to deliver a construction project entails significant risks from the contractor’s perspective. Essentially, the owner awaits project completion without commitments regarding additional expenditures incurred by the contractor during the project’s duration. This paper specifically focuses on estimating and analyzing the contingency value for residential turnkey projects in Saudi Arabia. The contingency value across the project’s life cycle is estimated using six Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models, which are compared to identify the best-trained network according to project complexity, contingency factor, and contingency impact during the project phases. The output layer provides the contingency factor percentages for each project phase. A 13-story reinforced concrete (RC) residential building established in one of Saudi Arabia’s cities was selected to implement the developed methodology. The contingency estimation, performed using @Risk 7.5 and NeuralTools 7.5, was determined to be 11.34% and was distributed across the five phases of the project’s life cycle: 0.30% for predesign, 0.99% for design, 2.61% for preconstruction, 6.33% for construction, and 1.12% for postconstruction. Furthermore, it was found that the estimated contingency varies based on project complexity, which is 7.20% for low complexity, 8.16% for medium complexity, 9.41% for complicated, and 11.34% for very complicated projects. Historical data and peer review approaches are employed to validate the results, both of which are endorsed by professionals in this field. This paper highlights two main contributions: Firstly, it significantly enhances risk management by facilitating a comprehensive understanding and systematic analysis of risks, thus improving the contractors’ ability to mitigate potential negative impacts on projects. Secondly, it supports more informed decision-making through the use of advanced techniques to estimate and analyze contingency values. These contributions are critical for contractors engaged in Saudi construction projects, particularly those involving residential buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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19 pages, 29067 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Steel-Polyethylene Fiber-Reinforced Iron Ore Tailing Concrete: Mechanical, Sulfate Freeze–Thaw Resistance, and Microscopic Characteristics
by Jing Wang and Xiaopeng Li
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061843 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 136
Abstract
This study examines the effects of iron ore tailing (IOT) replacement ratios and the hybridization of steel fiber (SF) and polyethylene (PE) fiber (PF) on the mechanical, sulfate freeze–thaw (F–T) resistance, and microscopic characteristics of IOT concrete. The mechanical properties of specimens including [...] Read more.
This study examines the effects of iron ore tailing (IOT) replacement ratios and the hybridization of steel fiber (SF) and polyethylene (PE) fiber (PF) on the mechanical, sulfate freeze–thaw (F–T) resistance, and microscopic characteristics of IOT concrete. The mechanical properties of specimens including compressive strength (fcu) and splitting tensile strength (fsts) were evaluated. Sulfate F–T cycle indices of specimens including surface damage, fcu loss, relative dynamic elastic modulus (RDEM), and mass loss are examined. Meanwhile, microscopic characteristics are analyzed using industrial computer technology (CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicated that IOT replacement ratios below 40% positively influenced mechanical properties and sulfate F–T resistance, whereas ratios exceeding 40% exhibited adverse effects. Incorporating hybrid SF and PF further enhanced the mechanical properties and sulfate F–T resistance of IOT concrete. The IOT concrete containing 1.5% SF and 0.6% PF (designated T40S1.5P0.6) demonstrates significantly improved mechanical properties and sulfate F–T resistance. A set of parameters was proposed to predict the fsts. The Weibull damage model, capable of quantitatively reflecting the F–T damage of IOT concrete, was established. The pore structure of IOT concrete gradually deteriorates with increasing sulfate F–T cycles. The pore characteristics of T40S1.5P0.6 were superior. This was further validated through SEM observations. Full article
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18 pages, 4468 KiB  
Article
Parametric Modeling and Numerical Simulation of a Three-Dimensional Random Aggregate Model of Lime–Sand Piles Based on Python–Abaqus
by Jia Yuan, Jianhui Si, Yong Qiao, Wenshuo Sun, Shibo Qiao, Xiaoyu Niu, Ming Zhou and Junpeng Ju
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1842; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061842 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 240
Abstract
A lime–sand pile is a three-phase particle composite material composed of a lime matrix, sand, and a loess aggregate at the meso level. Establishing a random aggregate model that can reflect the actual aggregate gradation, content, and morphology is the premise of numerical [...] Read more.
A lime–sand pile is a three-phase particle composite material composed of a lime matrix, sand, and a loess aggregate at the meso level. Establishing a random aggregate model that can reflect the actual aggregate gradation, content, and morphology is the premise of numerical simulations of the meso-mechanics of lime–sand piles. In this paper, the secondary development of Abaqus 2022 is realized by writing Python 3.12 scripts, and a parameterized three-phase mixed lime–sand pile random meso-spherical aggregate model is obtained. A meso-modeling idea of lime–sand piles is creatively proposed, the integrated-generation algorithm of a spherical aggregate of different materials is written, and the material’s properties and mesh generation are given by the algorithm. Finally, a numerical simulation of temperature–expansion statics is carried out using an established mesoscopic model. Under different mixing ratios, the expansion force increases with an increase in the lime proportion. The increase in the expansion force is approximately 45% of that without an increased lime proportion. The simulated expansion forces are 8.81 kN, 12.61 kN, and 18.89 kN, respectively, which are similar to the experimental results for laboratory specimens, and the relative error is less than 3%. In the case of different height ratios, with increases in height, the change in the expansion force is very small, and the relative error between the simulated value and the experimental value is less than 2%, which further verifies the reliability of the mesoscopic random model of lime–sand piles. The model can be used to guide the practical application of engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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44 pages, 12820 KiB  
Article
A Comparison Analysis of Buildings as per Norwegian and Ethiopia ES-EN1998-1 Seismic Code
by Mistreselasie Abate, Ana Catarina Jorge Evangelista and Vivian W. Y. Tam
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061841 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 194
Abstract
An earthquake is one of the most significant and shocking natural disasters ever documented anywhere on the planet. Throughout history, it has claimed millions of lives and wreaked devastation on infrastructure. Because earthquake forces are spontaneous and unpredictable, engineering methods must be honed [...] Read more.
An earthquake is one of the most significant and shocking natural disasters ever documented anywhere on the planet. Throughout history, it has claimed millions of lives and wreaked devastation on infrastructure. Because earthquake forces are spontaneous and unpredictable, engineering methods must be honed to investigate buildings under the impact of these forces. The dynamic and static computations of four RC multistory structure prototypes with various elevations in a high seismic zone are compared in this paper. The project under review is modeled as a 3, 6, 12, and 18-story establishment, and it is analyzed employing ETABS vs. 2019. The Equivalent Lateral Force (ELF) Procedure is used for static experimentation, while the Response Spectrum (RS) Procedure is employed for dynamic investigation. Both calculations are performed as per the EUROCODE 8-2004 recommendation. The ELF seismic load practice utilized was for the country of Norway, which has similar parameters to the ES-EN 8-15 seismic regulation Type I target RS, with ag/g = 0.1, spectrum type = I, soil factor S = 1.3 ground type, spectrum period (Tb, Tc, and Td) 0.1 s, 0.25 s, and 1.5 s. For the RS investigation, the parameters employed are as per ESEN-2015, ag/g = 0.1, and the spectrum type = I and ground type = B parameters were involved in the same manner for the RS analysis. The soil factor was set to 1.35; the spectrum period was set to (Tb, Tc, and Td) 0.05 s, 0.25 s, and 1.2 s. The behavior factor = 3.8, the lower bound factor = 0.2, and the damping ratio = 0.05. The results are then compared by employing different components such as displacement, story drift, story stiffness, base story shear, and story moment. Ultimately, a comparison of static and dynamic investigations has been carried out. Compared to the RS approach, the ELF technique produces more additional displacement, total drift, and base shear. As per the findings of this paper, for high-rise and tall buildings, dynamic analysis such as RS should be used rather than static analysis (ELF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Concrete Structures)
23 pages, 2607 KiB  
Article
Disentangling the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem in Housing Density and Price Associations
by Ka-Shing Cheung, Chiu-Wing Sham and Chung-Yim Yiu
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1840; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061840 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 204
Abstract
Urban planning education must address the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP) to comprehend the critical impact of urban density on sustainable city development. Quantitative studies using administrative area units face indefinite aggregate level biases. This paper introduces an efficient block-searching method to calculate [...] Read more.
Urban planning education must address the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP) to comprehend the critical impact of urban density on sustainable city development. Quantitative studies using administrative area units face indefinite aggregate level biases. This paper introduces an efficient block-searching method to calculate property densities around residences of various boundary scales and empirically examines their relationship with housing prices in Auckland, New Zealand. Results reveal negative associations between housing prices and densities within neighbourhoods, emphasising the limitations of administrative boundaries. These findings underscore the necessity for planning education to navigate MAUP’s complexities in shaping urban development policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Property Economics in the Post-COVID-19 Era)
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32 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Challenges and Strategies for Achieving High Energy Efficiency in Building Districts
by Xiaoting Chen, Behrang Vand and Simone Baldi
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061839 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Achieving climate neutrality requires reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the building sector, which has prompted increasing attention towards nearly zero energy, zero energy, and positive energy communities of buildings; there is a need to determine how individual buildings up to [...] Read more.
Achieving climate neutrality requires reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the building sector, which has prompted increasing attention towards nearly zero energy, zero energy, and positive energy communities of buildings; there is a need to determine how individual buildings up to communities of buildings can become more energy efficient. This study addresses the scientific problem of optimizing energy efficiency strategies in building areas and identifies gaps in existing theories related to passive design strategies, active energy systems, and renewable energy integration. This study delineates boundaries at the building and community scales to examine the challenges of attaining energy efficiency goals and to emphasize the intricate processes of selecting, integrating, and optimizing energy systems in buildings. The four boundaries describe: (B1) energy flows through the building envelope; (B2) energy flows through heating, ventilation, air conditioning and energy systems; (B3) energy flows through individual buildings; (B4) energy flows through a community of buildings. Current theories often treat these elements in isolation, and significant gaps exist in interdisciplinary integration, scalable frameworks, and the consideration of behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Achieving nearly zero energy, zero energy, and positive energy communities requires seamless integration of renewable energy sources, energy storage systems, and energy management systems. The proposed boundaries B1–B4 can help not only in analyzing the various challenges for achieving high energy efficiency in building communities but also in defining and evaluating these communities and establishing fair methods for energy distribution within them. The results demonstrate that these boundaries provide a comprehensive framework for energy-efficient designs, constructions, and operational practices across multiple buildings, ensuring equitable energy distribution and optimized performance. In addition, the definition of boundaries as B1-B4 contributes to providing an interface for energy-efficient designs, constructions and operational practices across multiple buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Smart Energy Systems in the Built Environment)
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17 pages, 5174 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Critical Thresholds for Surrounding Rock Stability in TBM Tunnels Utilizing Limit State Analysis
by Fawang Guo, Xiaoxuan Yu, Yipeng Shi, Chunyong Shen, Baoqiang Zhu, Hao Peng and Haizuo Zhou
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1838; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061838 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 184
Abstract
The safety and stability of tunnel construction are paramount concerns in tunnel engineering. Traditionally, the assessment of tunnel stability involves evaluating whether tunnel displacement and deformation velocities exceed acceptable thresholds, using specifications and analogical reasoning. However, standardized cautionary indicators often lack adaptability and [...] Read more.
The safety and stability of tunnel construction are paramount concerns in tunnel engineering. Traditionally, the assessment of tunnel stability involves evaluating whether tunnel displacement and deformation velocities exceed acceptable thresholds, using specifications and analogical reasoning. However, standardized cautionary indicators often lack adaptability and can result in unnecessary reinforcement and increase economic costs. This study presents a method for determining limit displacement and deformation velocities based on tunnel deformation limit states. Based on the finite difference method, which considers the quality of surrounding rock mass and tunnel geometric configuration, a parametric analysis of these velocities is presented. The vault settlement, relative spandrel displacement, relative hance displacement, and deformation velocity are investigated to establish the thresholds for displacement and deformation velocities. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis using a multivariate adaptive spline regression model is performed to measure the parameter effects on the early allowance values. Finally, a response surface method is developed to estimate the indicators in order to provide criteria for assessing and warning about surrounding rock stability. The obtained results show that the proposed limit state analysis method is effective for providing a standardized criterion for tunnel excavation, and the sensitivity analysis indicates tunnel depth as the most influential factor on tunnel reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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14 pages, 3610 KiB  
Article
Multi-Dimensional Iterative Constitutive Model of Concrete under Complex Stress Conditions in Composite Structures
by Chong Rong, Zhipeng Duan and Jun Tang
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061837 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 166
Abstract
In composite structures or complex concrete members, some concrete bears multiple forces, called core concrete. The properties of the core concrete are variable under complex stress conditions, which will influence the structure performance analysis. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an accurate and [...] Read more.
In composite structures or complex concrete members, some concrete bears multiple forces, called core concrete. The properties of the core concrete are variable under complex stress conditions, which will influence the structure performance analysis. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an accurate and theoretical constitutive model of concrete under complex stress conditions. The elastic–plastic properties of concrete in complex stress conditions were analyzed first. Then, the failure criterion of concrete in complex stress conditions was discussed to identify the key parameters. And the relationship between the stress–strain curve and failure criterion was analyzed through mathematical derivation. Finally, the multi-dimensional iterative constitutive model of concrete under complex stress conditions was established and verified. Based on the analysis results, the concrete under multi-axial stress conditions shows a spindle-shape stress envelope diagram. The failure criterion should be established by the analysis of concrete under high multi-axial compression conditions, tension–compression conditions, and shear–compression conditions. The plastic modulus is the key to reflecting the plastic strain development trend and the stress–strain relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquake Resistant and Vibration Control of Concrete Structures)
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20 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Financial Policies for Single-Person Household Housing in South Korea
by Seran Jeon, Myounghoon Lee and Seiyong Kim
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061836 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 190
Abstract
We investigated the determinants of awareness, utilization, and satisfaction regarding financial aid programs for single-person households in South Korea and proposed policy enhancements. Our analysis employed logistic regression on microdata from the “2020 Housing Survey” by Statistics Korea, covering the nation and all [...] Read more.
We investigated the determinants of awareness, utilization, and satisfaction regarding financial aid programs for single-person households in South Korea and proposed policy enhancements. Our analysis employed logistic regression on microdata from the “2020 Housing Survey” by Statistics Korea, covering the nation and all age groups. We categorized single-person household traits affecting program awareness, utilization, and satisfaction into demographic, socio-economic, housing, and housing perception factors. The dependent variables included awareness, utilization status, and satisfaction levels of government-sponsored financial support programs, which were measured on a four-point Likert scale. The independent variables encompassed demographic, socio-economic, and housing characteristics, which were analyzed comprehensively. We identified factors that influenced awareness, utilization, and satisfaction and recommended tailored policy measures. The findings revealed lower awareness among elderly individuals, women, rural residents, and rental households. Moreover, older age, lower income, rental, and one-room dwelling households exhibited lower utilization rates, with decreased housing and residential environment satisfaction correlating with diminished program satisfaction. Due to the diverse characteristics of single-person households, strategic interventions are crucial. Measures to bridge information gaps, establish comprehensive long-term support systems, and develop differentiated policies tailored to single-person household traits are imperative for improving financial aid programs for this demographic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Real Estate and Housing Management)
15 pages, 2023 KiB  
Article
Fault Diagnosis of Centrifugal Chiller Based on Extreme Gradient Boosting
by Yaxiang Liu, Tao Liang, Mengxin Zhang, Nijie Jing, Yudong Xia and Qiang Ding
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061835 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 154
Abstract
Centrifugal chillers have been widely used in medium- and large-scale air conditioning projects. However, equipment running with faults will result in additional energy consumption. Meanwhile, it is difficult to diagnose the minor faults of the equipment. Therefore, the Extreme Gradient Boost (XGBoost) algorithm [...] Read more.
Centrifugal chillers have been widely used in medium- and large-scale air conditioning projects. However, equipment running with faults will result in additional energy consumption. Meanwhile, it is difficult to diagnose the minor faults of the equipment. Therefore, the Extreme Gradient Boost (XGBoost) algorithm was used to solve the above problem in this article. The ASHRAE RP-1043 dataset was employed for research, utilizing the feature splitting principle of XGBoost to reduce the data dimension to 23 dimensions. Subsequently, the five important parameters of the XGBoost algorithm were optimized using Multi-swarm Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization (MSPSO). The minor fault diagnosis model, MSPSO-XGBoost, was established. The results show that the ability of the proposed MSPSO-XGBoost model to diagnose eight different states is uniform, and the diagnostic accuracy of the model reaches 99.67%. The accuracy rate is significantly improved compared to that of the support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) diagnostic models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Building Technologies for Energy Savings and Decarbonization)
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20 pages, 6093 KiB  
Article
Parameter Design of a Photovoltaic Storage Battery Integrated System for Detached Houses Based on Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II
by Yaolong Hou, Quan Yuan, Xueting Wang, Han Chang, Chenlin Wei, Di Zhang, Yanan Dong, Yijun Yang and Jipeng Zhang
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061834 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 282
Abstract
With the deteriorating environment and excessive consumption of primary energy, solar energy has become used in buildings worldwide for renewable energy. Due to the fluctuations of solar radiation, a solar photovoltaic (PV) power system is often combined with a storage battery to improve [...] Read more.
With the deteriorating environment and excessive consumption of primary energy, solar energy has become used in buildings worldwide for renewable energy. Due to the fluctuations of solar radiation, a solar photovoltaic (PV) power system is often combined with a storage battery to improve the stability of a building’s energy supply. In addition, the real-time energy consumption pattern of the residual houses fluctuates; a larger size for a PV and battery integrated system can offer more solar energy but also bring a higher equipment cost, and a smaller size for the integrated system may achieve an energy-saving effect. The traditional methods to size a PV and battery integrated system for a detached house are based on the experience method or the traversal algorithm. However, the experience method cannot consider the real-time fluctuating energy demand of a detached house, and the traversal algorithm costs too much computation time. Therefore, this study applies Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) to size a PV and battery integrated system by optimizing total electricity cost and usage of the grid electricity simultaneously. By setting these two indicators as objectives separately, single-objective genetic algorithms (GAs) are also deployed to find the optimal size specifications of the PV and battery integrated system. The optimal solutions from NSGA-II and single-objective GAs are mutually verified, showing the high accuracy of NSGA-II, and the rapid convergence process demonstrates the time-saving effect of all these deployed genetic algorithms. The robustness of the deployed NSGA-II to various grid electricity prices is also tested, and similar optimal solutions are obtained. Compared with the experience method, the final optimal solution from NSGA-II saves 68.3% of total electricity cost with slightly more grid electricity used. Compared with the traversal algorithm, NSGA-II saves 94% of the computation time and provides more accurate size specifications for the PV and battery integrated system. This study suggests that NSGA-II is suitable for sizing a PV and battery integrated system for a detached house. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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24 pages, 7416 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of the Seismic-Induced Rocking Behavior of Unbonded Post-Tensioned Bridge Piers
by Zehua Bao, Wenjing Xu, Haoyuan Gao, Xueqi Zhong and Jianzhong Li
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061833 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 219
Abstract
It is essential and convenient to use accurate and validated numerical models to simulate the seismic performance of post-tensioned (PT) rocking bridge piers, with a particular emphasis on accurately capturing rocking behavior. The primary contribution of this study is a comparison of the [...] Read more.
It is essential and convenient to use accurate and validated numerical models to simulate the seismic performance of post-tensioned (PT) rocking bridge piers, with a particular emphasis on accurately capturing rocking behavior. The primary contribution of this study is a comparison of the effectiveness of four commonly used numerical base rocking models (namely, the lumped plasticity (LP) model and the multi-contact spring (MCS) models with linear elastic (MCS-LE), bilinear elastic–plastic (MCS-EP) and nonlinear plastic (MCS-NP) material behavior, respectively) in modeling both the cyclic and seismic responses of PT rocking bridge piers. Also, this study validates the 3D contact stiffness equation for numerical models and assesses the differences between the dynamic and static stiffness values of the contact springs. Both quasi-static and shaking table tests of typical PT rocking piers are adopted to calibrate/validate these numerical models. These models describing the PT rocking piers’ seismic performance are formulated and calibrated, showing good agreement with test results for test specimens. Additionally, the suggested values of model spring stiffness for dynamic and quasi-static analyses are identified by parametric analysis. All base rocking models can predict the pier’s cyclic and seismic behavior after the calibration of contact spring stiffness values. The recommended contact stiffness for the dynamic analysis of PT rocking piers is smaller than that used for the quasi-static analysis. The results and findings provide a valuable reference and solution for the numerical simulation of PT rocking piers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Resilience of Structures and Infrastructure Systems)
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19 pages, 8160 KiB  
Review
A Review of Factors Affecting the Lighting Performance of Light Shelves and Controlling Solar Heat Gain
by Shadan Masoud, Zahra Zamani, Seyed Morteza Hosseini and Shady Attia
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061832 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 244
Abstract
In areas with a deep floor plan, the distribution of natural light is not uniform. Consequently, relying solely on daylight may not suffice to meet the space’s lighting requirements, necessitating the use of artificial lighting in darker areas. Therefore, a lighting system is [...] Read more.
In areas with a deep floor plan, the distribution of natural light is not uniform. Consequently, relying solely on daylight may not suffice to meet the space’s lighting requirements, necessitating the use of artificial lighting in darker areas. Therefore, a lighting system is needed that not only controls the glare near the windows but also increases the light at the end of the room and provides uniform daylight. One of the widely used systems is the “light shelf”, which has three main functions: shading, increasing the depth of light penetration, and reducing glare. Review articles about light shelves were published in 2015 and 2017, while more than 80% of the studies have been carried out since 2016, and light shelves with more diverse forms and dynamic elements and many consolidations have been proposed. Therefore, there is a need for a more comprehensive review. The main question of this research is how different parameters (including climate, material, ceiling, and integrated systems) can help to increase the efficiency of light shelves. By using a systematic review, studies in the past three decades were classified in order to determine the effect of these parameters on improving lighting performance and controlling solar heat gain. Full article
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15 pages, 8758 KiB  
Article
A Classification Method of Earthquake Ground Motion Records Based on the Results of K-Means Clustering Analysis
by Yanqiong Ding, Minggang Nie, Yazhou Xu and Huiquan Miao
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061831 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 220
Abstract
This paper presents a classification method for earthquake ground motion records utilizing the results of K-means cluster analysis. The moment magnitude and Joyner–Boore distance are utilized as the primary parameters for clustering the earthquake ground motion records. The classification boundaries are established through [...] Read more.
This paper presents a classification method for earthquake ground motion records utilizing the results of K-means cluster analysis. The moment magnitude and Joyner–Boore distance are utilized as the primary parameters for clustering the earthquake ground motion records. The classification boundaries are established through an examination of moment magnitude ranges, Joyner–Boore distance ranges, and spectral characteristics within each cluster. In this study, a comprehensive dataset comprising 7627 horizontal earthquake acceleration records was meticulously curated for analysis. The data were subjected to separate clustering and grouping procedures, allowing for insightful comparisons between the resultant clusters. Significant disparities in spectral characteristics across the classification groups were demonstrated. These differences become particularly pronounced when a moment magnitude threshold of 6 and a Joyner–Boore distance threshold of 140 km are employed to categorize the ground motion records. The approach underscores the substantial impact of classification based on earthquake ground motion spectral characteristics, while also mitigating the potential instabilities inherent in cluster analysis results. A refined and quantitatively robust framework for understanding and categorizing earthquake ground motions is provided, offering valuable insights for seismic data analysis and contributing to more accurate and reliable assessments of seismic activity. Full article
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17 pages, 4655 KiB  
Article
Human Behavior Adaptability in Responsive Buildings: An Exploratory Study in Workplace Settings
by Davide Schaumann
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061830 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 184
Abstract
The increased uptake of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is fostering the development of responsive buildings that are aware of and respond to human needs. Current approaches mainly focus on adapting building systems to enhance people’s comfort and energy performance. Little is known [...] Read more.
The increased uptake of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is fostering the development of responsive buildings that are aware of and respond to human needs. Current approaches mainly focus on adapting building systems to enhance people’s comfort and energy performance. Little is known about how responsive buildings can inform human behavior adaptability to meet the diverse needs of individuals and organizations within built environments. This study recorded the outcomes of six multi-agent simulation projects exploring human behavior adaptability in different workplace settings. The results have been analyzed through the lenses of ‘place’ theory to extrapolate a framework for human behavior adaptability, jointly considering the characteristics of the spaces, the people that inhabit them, and their activities. This framework provides analytical insights on the design and development of adaptability strategies that consider non-linear interactions and dependencies between the characteristics of the built environment, the needs of the inhabitants, and the goals of organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Fabrication and Construction in the Post-heuristic Era)
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22 pages, 3561 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review on the Barriers and Challenges of Organisations in Delivering New Net Zero Emissions Buildings
by Masoud Mahmoodi, Eziaku Rasheed and An Le
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1829; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061829 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Achieving the net zero emissions target that was set in the Paris Agreement to mitigate the risks of climate change seems increasingly difficult as countries and sectors of the economy are falling behind the expected trajectory. The building and construction industry, as one [...] Read more.
Achieving the net zero emissions target that was set in the Paris Agreement to mitigate the risks of climate change seems increasingly difficult as countries and sectors of the economy are falling behind the expected trajectory. The building and construction industry, as one of the main contributors to global emissions, has an essential role to play toward this aim. Net zero emissions target has been introduced to this sector as well; however, achieving it is a very challenging and complex task. Many studies have been undertaken on implementing different measures and strategies to reduce the industry’s carbon footprint. These studies identified many challenges and barriers in transforming the industry. This paper aims to provide a systematic review of challenges that organisations face in delivering new net zero emissions buildings. The relevant journal articles published since the Paris Agreement were identified and analysed using mixed-method data analysis, including quantitative (science mapping) and qualitative (thematic) analysis. The result showed increased attention to the subject over this period, with China, the UK, and Australia being the top contexts for research. The most discussed groups of barriers were “economic”, “knowledge”, and “technical”, respectively, followed by “organisational”, “market”, “technological”, and “legal” barriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zero-Emission Buildings and the Sustainable Built Environment)
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16 pages, 1113 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation and Degradation Analysis of Suspended Dense Broken Stone Road Foundation Stabilized by Cement under Conditions of Freezing and Thawing
by Haihong Deng, Kainan Huang, Fei Wu and Yinghan Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061828 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 242
Abstract
A suspended dense graded broken stone road foundation stabilized by cement is a commonly employed material in roadworks, which is vulnerable to harm caused by freezing and thawing processes. This investigation intends to evaluate the laboratory behavior and the characteristics of freezing and [...] Read more.
A suspended dense graded broken stone road foundation stabilized by cement is a commonly employed material in roadworks, which is vulnerable to harm caused by freezing and thawing processes. This investigation intends to evaluate the laboratory behavior and the characteristics of freezing and thawing process-induced deterioration in a broken stone road foundation stabilized by cement with suspended dense grading, employing mechanical examinations and acoustical methods. The rate of mass loss in the broken stone road foundation stabilized by cement progressively rises, and the rate of decline in the compressive strength could potentially intensify as freezing and thawing processes augment. The modulus of resilience diminishes as freezing and thawing processes progress, and ultrasonic wave velocity also decreases. The patterns of mass loss, compressive strength decline, resilience modulus reduction, and ultrasonic wave velocity alteration adhere to a parabolic fitting relationship with freeze–thaw cycles, with an R2 above 0.95. The curves depicting the relationship of mass, compressive strength, resilience modulus, and ultrasonic wave velocity exhibit a steeper trend significantly after 10–15 cycles, which can be ascribed to the emergence of microcracks and the progression of flaws within the material. The evolution of damage in the broken stone road foundation stabilized by cement is monitored to progress through three distinct stages based on acoustic emission: initial, stationary, and failure. As freezing and thawing processes accumulate to 20 cycles, the length of initial phase correspondingly rises to three times, the length of failure stage diminishes to about one fifth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Advanced Materials in Road Engineering)
22 pages, 3486 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing the Usage Frequency of Community Elderly Care Facilities and Their Functional Spaces: A Multilevel Based Study
by Fang Wen, Yan Zhang, Pengcheng Du, Ziqi Zhang, Bo Zhang and Yuyang Zhang
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061827 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 274
Abstract
The construction of community elderly care facilities (CECF) is pivotal for promoting healthy aging and “aging in place” for older people. This study focuses on the low utilization rates of community elderly care facilities in the Dongcheng and Xicheng Districts, core areas of [...] Read more.
The construction of community elderly care facilities (CECF) is pivotal for promoting healthy aging and “aging in place” for older people. This study focuses on the low utilization rates of community elderly care facilities in the Dongcheng and Xicheng Districts, core areas of Beijing. The explainable machine learning method is used to analyze data across three dimensions: the elderly’s individual attributes, characteristics of the community elderly care station (CECS), and features of the built environment around CECS and subdistrict, to identify the important factors that influence the usage frequency of overall CECS and its different functional spaces, and also the correlation between factors and usage frequency of CECS. It shows that the most important factors are the features of CSCF, including the degree of space acceptance and satisfaction with services provided, which influence the usage frequency of nine functional spaces (R2 ≥ 0.68) and overall (R2 = 0.56). In addition, older people’s individual factors, such as age and physical condition, significantly influence the usage of specific spaces such as rehabilitation therapy rooms and assistive bathing rooms. The influence of built environment characteristics is relatively low, with factors such as the density of bus stations and housing prices within the subdistrict and the mean distance from CECF to the nearest subway stations being more important. These findings provide a reference for the construction of indoor environments, management of service quality, and optimal site selection for future community elderly care facilities. Full article
18 pages, 12642 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Small-Scale Shake Table Testing of Cable-Stiffened Single-Layer Spherical Latticed Shell
by Ying Zhao, Zhiyu Zhang, Yuzhen Chen, Cheng Lu, Yu Zhou, Tianhao Zhang, Pengcheng Li and Gang Xiong
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061826 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
The cable-stiffened single-layer latticed shell is an innovative structural design that achieves a perfect balance between lightweight and stability by combining cables and a latticed shell. However, the study on dynamic response and failure mechanism of cable-stiffened single-layer latticed shell under seismic action [...] Read more.
The cable-stiffened single-layer latticed shell is an innovative structural design that achieves a perfect balance between lightweight and stability by combining cables and a latticed shell. However, the study on dynamic response and failure mechanism of cable-stiffened single-layer latticed shell under seismic action is still lacking. Therefore, small-scale shaking table tests of two kinds of single-layer spherical latticed shells are carried out; the dynamic response and failure mode of the two shells under sine wave earthquake are investigated by using time history analysis. The conclusions show that the introduction of the prestressed cable plays an important role in improving the seismic performance of the single-layer latticed shell, and the cable-stiffened single-layer latticed shell has better load capacity and seismic performance under earthquake action than the ordinary single-layer latticed shell structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Recent Developments in Building Structures)
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19 pages, 8897 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Support System of a Shallow Buried Tunnel under Unsymmetrical Pressure
by Yongsheng Liu, Kewei Liu, Xiang Li and Zhaoxi Yan
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061825 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 262
Abstract
In the construction process of tunnel inlet sections, the rock mass can sustain unsymmetrical pressure due to asymmetrical terrain on the two sides of the tunnel. The fact that the inlet sections are usually under shallow buried conditions with strongly weathered rock mass [...] Read more.
In the construction process of tunnel inlet sections, the rock mass can sustain unsymmetrical pressure due to asymmetrical terrain on the two sides of the tunnel. The fact that the inlet sections are usually under shallow buried conditions with strongly weathered rock mass exacerbates the issue. This paper discusses optimization strategies of the initial support of a shallow buried tunnel based on the analytical results of asymmetrical loading characteristics. Numerical simulation is performed with particle flow code (PFC) using the Jianshanji tunnel project as an example. The simulation results show that the bench excavation has slightly less total deformation than the full-section excavation but the deformation range is wider, especially in the tunnel arch. Both lining support and slope reduction treatments can effectively improve rock deformation, with lining support demonstrating better performance in controlling deformation and adjusting stress distribution. Based on the simulation results, the bench excavation and lining support are used in the actual project, and the corresponding optimization control measures were adopted to address deformation issues, including crushed-stone backfilling for compression resistance, advanced grouting reinforcement, and grouting. The field data show that the tunnel stability is effectively improved by adopting the optimization schemes, which further validates the effectiveness of the proposed unsymmetrical control method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Damage and Fracture Analysis in Rocks and Concretes)
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19 pages, 12643 KiB  
Article
Decarbonization Potential of Energy Used in Detached Houses—Case Study
by Ferenc Kalmár, Béla Bodó, Baizhan Li and Tünde Kalmár
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1824; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061824 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 219
Abstract
The main objectives of this study were the energy assessment of detached houses built in different periods in a central European city. A total of 236 detached houses built between 1930 and 2023 in Debrecen (Hungary) were analyzed from an energy perspective, and [...] Read more.
The main objectives of this study were the energy assessment of detached houses built in different periods in a central European city. A total of 236 detached houses built between 1930 and 2023 in Debrecen (Hungary) were analyzed from an energy perspective, and their CO2 emissions were measured. It was found that the net floor area of family houses built in recent years has increased but that the compactness of buildings has increased as well. The specific heat loss coefficient and the specific energy demand for heating in new buildings have decreased to 15.2% and 18.5%, respectively, over the last 90 years. Furthermore, around one third of the analyzed buildings built several decades ago must have already been renovated at least once for energy efficiency, as their heat demands are 27.6–41.4% lower than estimated. Energy consumption in six houses built in recent years was measured and studied. It was found that the occupants’ behavior may increase CO2 emissions from heating by 26%, while CO2 emissions from hot-water preparation may decrease by 38.2%. The potential of the locally available sources of renewable energy was calculated, and the costs of decarbonization packages for eight building groups were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Smart Energy Systems in the Built Environment)
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25 pages, 9955 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Interpolation Methods and Point Distances for Accurate Earthquake Hazard Mapping
by Sayyed Hadi Alavi, Alireza Bahrami, Mohammadreza Mashayekhi and Mohammadreza Zolfaghari
Buildings 2024, 14(6), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14061823 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Earthquake hazard mapping assesses and visualizes seismic hazards in a region using data from specific points. Conducting a seismic hazard analysis for each point is essential, while continuous assessment for all points is impractical. The practical approach involves identifying hazards at specific points [...] Read more.
Earthquake hazard mapping assesses and visualizes seismic hazards in a region using data from specific points. Conducting a seismic hazard analysis for each point is essential, while continuous assessment for all points is impractical. The practical approach involves identifying hazards at specific points and utilizing interpolation for the rest. This method considers grid point spacing and chooses the right interpolation technique for estimating hazards at other points. This article examines different point distances and interpolation methods through a case study. To gauge accuracy, it tests 15 point distances and employs two interpolation methods, inverse distance weighted and ordinary kriging. Point distances are chosen as a percentage of longitude and latitude, ranging from 0.02 to 0.3. A baseline distance of 0.02 is set, and other distances and interpolation methods are compared with it. Five statistical indicators assess the methods. Ordinary kriging interpolation shows greater accuracy. With error rates and hazard map similarities in mind, a distance of 0.14 points seems optimal, balancing computational time and accuracy needs. Based on the research findings, this approach offers a cost-effective method for creating seismic hazard maps. It enables informed risk assessments for structures spanning various geographic areas, like linear infrastructures. Full article
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