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Buildings, Volume 14, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 303 articles

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18 pages, 3998 KiB  
Article
Risk Analysis and Simulation of Large Bridge Construction Based on System Dynamics
by Xu Fu, Meng Yang, Huanqin Liu, Lintai Wang and Qian Li
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051488 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 338
Abstract
To reduce risk incidents in large bridge construction, it is necessary to study the interaction mechanisms and dynamic changes among various risk factors during the construction of large bridges. First, the evolution mechanism of construction risks for large bridges is analyzed, and a [...] Read more.
To reduce risk incidents in large bridge construction, it is necessary to study the interaction mechanisms and dynamic changes among various risk factors during the construction of large bridges. First, the evolution mechanism of construction risks for large bridges is analyzed, and a risk factor structure system is established. Then, based on system dynamics theory, a causal loop diagram and flow–stock diagram are constructed, and system dynamics equations for each variable in the flow diagram are established to build a system dynamics model. Finally, taking a large bridge construction project as an example, the variable equations are assigned actual values, and the construction risk level is simulated and analyzed. The results show that, ➀ continuous investment in safety funds can effectively reduce the overall risk level of the system, ➁ changes in the management risk subsystem have a significant impact on the overall risk level of large bridge construction, and ➂ increasing the safety investment ratio in both the personnel risk subsystem and the management risk subsystem can effectively reduce the total risk level of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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33 pages, 21722 KiB  
Article
Bearing Behavior of Engineered Cementitious Composite and Ultra-High-Performance Concrete Filled-In Double Steel Tubular Composite Columns Subjected to Eccentrical Load
by Liangqin Jiang, Yigang Hong, Jing Ji, Yingchun Liu, Zhanbin Zhang, Xuan Chu and Guiling Ma
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051487 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 240
Abstract
To study the eccentric compression mechanical properties of ECC and UHPC filled-in double steel tubular (EUFDST) composite columns, 35 full-scale EUCFDST composite column specimens were designed by ABAQUS software with the slenderness ratio (λ), UHPC cylinder compressive strength (fcu [...] Read more.
To study the eccentric compression mechanical properties of ECC and UHPC filled-in double steel tubular (EUFDST) composite columns, 35 full-scale EUCFDST composite column specimens were designed by ABAQUS software with the slenderness ratio (λ), UHPC cylinder compressive strength (fcu), inner and outer steel tubular strength (fy1, fy2), inner and outer steel tubular thickness (t1, t2), inner and outer steel tubular diameter ratio (Ω), eccentricity (e), and fiber content (γ) as the main parameters. By comparison with the simulation of the existing test, the correctness of the finite element modeling is verified. The parameter analysis of 35 full-scale EUFDST composite columns was carried out to obtain the eccentric load-mid-span deflection curve of the specimens. The failure mechanism, ductility coefficient, and stiffness degradation of the composite columns under different parameters were analyzed, and the section of the composite column was verified to satisfy the plane section assumption. The variation trend of maximum load-bearing capacity and the ductility of composite columns under different parameter conditions was obtained. By introducing the eccentricity correction coefficient and slenderness ratio correction coefficient, the calculation equation of the eccentric maximum load-bearing capacity of EUCFDST composite columns is statistically regressed, which provides a basis for the practical use of these columns. Full article
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34 pages, 1771 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Effects of Waste Textile Polymer Fiber on Concrete Strength: Exploring the Key Parameters
by Soorya Sasi, Paul Joseph, Robert Haigh, Malindu Sandanayake, Zora Vrcelj and Ehsan Yaghoubi
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1486; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051486 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 367
Abstract
The construction industry is one of the largest users of natural resources and can, thus, lead to significant environmental issues. Therefore, there is elevated interest worldwide in developing sustainable construction materials and techniques that can reduce these associated environmental impacts. In this context, [...] Read more.
The construction industry is one of the largest users of natural resources and can, thus, lead to significant environmental issues. Therefore, there is elevated interest worldwide in developing sustainable construction materials and techniques that can reduce these associated environmental impacts. In this context, one substantial area of focus is the incorporation of textile waste in construction materials, such as concrete. Textile waste is generated in large quantities from the production stage through to the consumption and end-of-life disposal periods. Hence, it is prudent to devise effective ways of recycling this waste, which can, in turn, reduce the environmental implications of textile production and cut down the quantity of waste sent to landfills. Furthermore, fibers obtained from recycled textile waste can be used to reinforce concrete, thus replacing the need for synthetic fibers. This review focuses on the use and effects of incorporating polymer fibers from recycled textile waste in concrete and the use of textile polymer fiber in the construction of various structures, and challenges in the use of recycled fibers in concrete and the parameters affecting the resultant strength of concrete structures, such as stress transfer, crack control, bond strength, and spalling, etc., are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Sustainable Infrastructure: Theory and Practice)
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18 pages, 2102 KiB  
Article
Research on Multi-Objective Optimization of Renovation Projects in Old Residential Areas Based on Evolutionary Algorithms
by Jiaji Zhang, Chuxiong Shen, Chao Tang, Liang Feng, Yuliang Chen, Shize Yang and Zhigang Ren
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051485 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Old residential areas present unique challenges in terms of design, stakeholders, and renovation requirements compared to traditional building projects. However, unreasonable construction plans can lead to delays, cost overruns, poor quality, and conflicts between the construction party and local residents. This article proposes [...] Read more.
Old residential areas present unique challenges in terms of design, stakeholders, and renovation requirements compared to traditional building projects. However, unreasonable construction plans can lead to delays, cost overruns, poor quality, and conflicts between the construction party and local residents. This article proposes an optimization model that prioritizes progress, quality, and cost as the key control objectives, leveraging the actual conditions of renovating old residential areas. The NSGA-II genetic algorithm is employed to solve the mathematical model. To validate the effectiveness and scientific rigor of the algorithm, a renovation project in an old residential area in Wuhan is used as a case study. The findings of this study offer valuable theoretical support for decision makers in selecting appropriate construction plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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16 pages, 5986 KiB  
Article
Simulation Study on Student Residential Energy Use Behaviors: A Case Study of University Dormitories in Sichuan, China
by Yingzi Zhang, Bo Zhang and Jingwen Hou
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051484 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Studying the energy use behavior of occupants is crucial for accurately predicting building energy consumption. However, few studies have considered the impact of occupant behaviors on energy consumption in university dormitories. The objective of this study is to establish an agent-based model of [...] Read more.
Studying the energy use behavior of occupants is crucial for accurately predicting building energy consumption. However, few studies have considered the impact of occupant behaviors on energy consumption in university dormitories. The objective of this study is to establish an agent-based model of energy consumption for university dormitories based on energy use behavior. The dormitories of a typical university in Sichuan, China, were subdivided into three clusters using a two-step cluster analysis. Subsequently, the energy use behaviors of occupants in each type of dormitory were characterized to establish a stochastic energy use behavior model. On the basis of the above, NETLOGO was used to construct an agent-based model for dormitories’ energy consumption to dynamically simulate energy use behavior. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the simulated values with the measured data. Finally, a building-energy-friendly retrofit scheme was proposed, and it was found that the optimized dormitory reduced energy consumption by 16.07%. Therefore, the results can provide information support for energy-saving decisions during the early design and retrofit phases of buildings. With the popularity of centralized supply, the research methodology may provide an extensive reference for energy management policies and sustainable strategies in the building sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Climate and Energy Efficiency in Buildings)
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20 pages, 7371 KiB  
Article
Push-Out Analysis on the Shear Performance of a New Type of Bellow-Sleeved Stud
by Disheng Zou, Qingtian Su, Fei Wu, Zhiping Lin and Peiran Li
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051483 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 342
Abstract
For continuous steel–concrete composite girder bridges based on the post-combined method, the conventional rectangular group studs contribute to the isolation of the steel girder and the concrete slab before prestressing, leading to the majority of prestress forces being introduced to the concrete slab. [...] Read more.
For continuous steel–concrete composite girder bridges based on the post-combined method, the conventional rectangular group studs contribute to the isolation of the steel girder and the concrete slab before prestressing, leading to the majority of prestress forces being introduced to the concrete slab. However, rectangular-group stud holes cause the prestress forces to be unevenly distributed. In this study, a new type of bellow-sleeved stud (BSS) was developed to mitigate the weakening effects of rectangular group stud holes on the slab. A steel corrugated sleeve with a diameter of 60 mm was employed to cover the stud, which served as an internal formwork to prevent the concrete from bonding with the root of the stud. After prestressing was complete, the steel sleeve was filled with ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) to create a reliable combination between the concrete slab and the steel girder. To investigate the shear performance of this new type of connection, eight push-out test specimens were designed, and finite-element models were built. This study drew a comparison between the BSS and the ordinary headed stud (OHS). The research findings suggested that the BSS is subjected to less bending–shear coupling and offers a 4.5% increase in shear strength and a 31.9% increase in shear stiffness compared with the OHS. The study also analyzed the structural parameters influencing the shear performance of the BSS. It is found that the steel sleeve of the BSS has a negative effect on shear performance, but this can be mitigated by infusing high-strength material into the sleeve. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of construction quality on shear performance and suggested that sleeve deviation and grout leakage considerably reduced the shear performance of the BSS. Accordingly, strict control over the construction quality of the BSS is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Steel–Concrete Composite Structures)
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22 pages, 3386 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Galfenol Cantilever Energy Harvester Considering Geometric Nonlinear with a Nonlinear Energy Sink
by Lingzhi Wang, Chao Liu, Weidong Liu, Zhitao Yan and Xiaochun Nie
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051482 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The nonlinear energy sink (NES) and Galfenol material can achieve vibration suppression and energy harvesting of the structure, respectively. Compared with a linear structure, the geometric nonlinearity can affect the output performances of the cantilever beam structure. This investigation aims to present a [...] Read more.
The nonlinear energy sink (NES) and Galfenol material can achieve vibration suppression and energy harvesting of the structure, respectively. Compared with a linear structure, the geometric nonlinearity can affect the output performances of the cantilever beam structure. This investigation aims to present a coupled system consisting of a nonlinear energy sink (NES) and a cantilever Galfenol energy harvesting beam with geometric nonlinearity. Based on Hamilton’s principle, linear constitutive equations of magnetostrictive material, and Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, the theoretical dynamic model of the coupled system is proposed. Utilizing the Galliakin decomposition method and Runge–Kutta method, the harvested power of the external load resistance, and tip vibration displacements of the Galfenol energy harvesting model are analyzed. The influences of the external excitation, external resistance, and NES parameters on the output characteristic of the proposed coupling system have been investigated. Results reveal that introducing NES can reduce the cantilever beam’s vibration while considering the geometric nonlinearity of the cantilever beam can induce a nonlinear softening phenomenon for the output behaviors. Compared to the linear system without NES, the coupling model proposed in this work can achieve dual efficacy goals over a wide range of excitation frequencies when selecting appropriate parameters. In general, large excitation amplitude and NES stiffness, small external resistance, and small or large NES damping values can achieve the effect of broadband energy harvesting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Foundation Analysis: Soil–Structure Interaction)
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14 pages, 6575 KiB  
Article
Investigation on the Impacts of Three Sea Salt Ions on the Performance of CSA-OPC Binary System
by Chuanlin Wang, Shupeng Zhou, Qingyou Ou and Yuxuan Zhang
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051481 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the impact of three corrosive ions—SO42−, Cl, and Mg2+—on the hydration property of calcium sulphoaluminate (CSA) cement. Cement paste was prepared using three types of sea salt ion solutions with varying [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the impact of three corrosive ions—SO42−, Cl, and Mg2+—on the hydration property of calcium sulphoaluminate (CSA) cement. Cement paste was prepared using three types of sea salt ion solutions with varying concentrations as mixing water. The experimental program encompassed assessments of porosity, compressive/flexural strength, heat of hydration, pH of pore solution, XRD, and SEM analysis. To modulate the hydration environment, Ordinary Portland cement (10%) was incorporated to elevate the pH and enhance the stability of ettringite, thereby facilitating the formation of additional C-S-H gel for the observation of M-S-H and other compounds. Findings revealed that the Cl accelerated the hydration of CSA, resulting in heightened heat release. However, it also decreased the length-to-diameter ratio of ettringite, leading to cracking in CSA test blocks. The addition of SO42− resulted in elevated internal alkalinity, prompting alterations in hydration product types and subsequent reduction in CSA strength. Conversely, Mg2+ was observed to ameliorate the microstructure of CSA test blocks, diminishing porosity and augmenting strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brittle Behaviour of High-Performance Concrete Structures)
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16 pages, 12720 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Folding Arch Frame Joints for Unmanned Arch Erection
by Changfu Huang, Shaohua Li, Dewu Li, Wenbing Li, Tiejun Yao and Yong Xiao
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051480 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 290
Abstract
The application of folding arch frames is deemed crucial for unmanned arch frame erection, with the selection of the joint form being a determining factor in the overall mechanical performance of the folding arch frame, particularly in influencing the primary support safety. In [...] Read more.
The application of folding arch frames is deemed crucial for unmanned arch frame erection, with the selection of the joint form being a determining factor in the overall mechanical performance of the folding arch frame, particularly in influencing the primary support safety. In light of the geological conditions of the New Wushaoling Tunnel project, three feasible joint forms for folding arch frames were proposed: buckle, adhesive, and interference-fit joints. Numerical simulations were conducted to analyze the arch’s overall mechanical and the joints’ local mechanical performances, aiming to identify the optimal joint form. On-site construction data were collected, and the effectiveness of unmanned arch frame erection was evaluated. The design requirements for the vertical displacement results of the steel arches with different joints were met. The maximum shear stress of the buckled arch frame was found to be the lowest, whereas that of the interference-fitted arch frame was the highest. The local shear stress of the adhesive joints was the lowest, while that of the interference-fit joint was the highest. Considering the material application limitations and calculation results, buckle joints are recommended. Unmanned arch frame erection, compared with manual arch frame erection, can save 66.6% of human resources and reduce the construction time by 33.3% to 50%. Statistical analysis has confirmed that the quality of automated arch construction can be guaranteed. Full article
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28 pages, 2901 KiB  
Article
Integrating Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Maintenance of Historic Buildings
by Eduard Hromada, Daniel Macek, Renata Schneiderova Heralova, Lucie Brožová and Iveta Střelcová
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051479 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
This study examines the strategic use of life cycle cost analyses (LCCAs) in the management and conservation of heritage sites, emphasizing the need for comprehensive financial planning. With an increasing number of heritage sites showing signs of deterioration, our aim was to improve [...] Read more.
This study examines the strategic use of life cycle cost analyses (LCCAs) in the management and conservation of heritage sites, emphasizing the need for comprehensive financial planning. With an increasing number of heritage sites showing signs of deterioration, our aim was to improve the sustainability and effectiveness of restoration practices. We used dynamic life cycle costing methods and developed the MONUREV software V2 to simulate different restoration scenarios, providing accurate, data-driven projections for maintaining structural, functional and aesthetic integrity. The field research involved testing these methods through case studies of heritage buildings in the Czech Republic, focusing on holistic cost management from initial analysis to practical application. The results showed that LCC analysis can significantly assist in making informed decisions, balancing economic and cultural values, and ensuring long-term conservation outcomes. This study concludes that the integration of a detailed LCC analysis into heritage conservation strategies represents a methodological advance that can significantly improve the economic and operational planning of the maintenance of heritage buildings, thereby ensuring their preservation for future generations. Full article
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13 pages, 8481 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of Comprehensive Similarity in Restoration of Ancient Building Walls Using Hue–Saturation–Value Color Space and Circular Local Binary Pattern
by Chun Gong, Shuisheng Zeng and Dunwen Liu
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051478 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Evaluating the effects of wall restoration on ancient buildings has been a difficult task, and it is important that the overall appearance of the restored walls of ancient buildings is similar, harmonious, and uniform. This paper used a hue–saturation–value (HSV) color space and [...] Read more.
Evaluating the effects of wall restoration on ancient buildings has been a difficult task, and it is important that the overall appearance of the restored walls of ancient buildings is similar, harmonious, and uniform. This paper used a hue–saturation–value (HSV) color space and Circular Local Binary Pattern (CLBP) to analyze the comprehensive similarity between a restored wall and the original walls in Qi Li Ancient Town. The results show that the values of the comprehensive similarity calculation of ancient buildings based on the color and texture were consistent with the actual situation. The method is suitable for evaluating the degree of matching between wall repair materials and the appearance of the original wall materials of ancient buildings, and it can also be used to assess the comprehensive similarity between the repair materials and the original building walls before carrying out the wall repair in order to select more suitable materials for wall repair and achieve the best repair effect. And it is flexible and objective compared to human judgement. Through the accurate restoration of ancient buildings, not only can we protect cultural heritage and continue the historical lineage, we can also enhance the aesthetic value of buildings and meet people’s needs for historical and cultural tracing. Full article
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21 pages, 3965 KiB  
Article
Calculation of Column Pile Heave in Deep Excavation Based on the Rebound–Recompression Method
by Kaiwen Yang, Yun Chen and Zhuofeng Li
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051477 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Excessive column pile heave may result in engineering disasters such as instability of retaining structures and cracking of existing engineering piles in deep excavations. However, factors such as support weight, changeable support restraint resistance, and soil disturbance at the bottom of the excavation [...] Read more.
Excessive column pile heave may result in engineering disasters such as instability of retaining structures and cracking of existing engineering piles in deep excavations. However, factors such as support weight, changeable support restraint resistance, and soil disturbance at the bottom of the excavation are often ignored or simplified in existing calculation methods but have a significant impact on the calculation results. Based on field soil parameters obtained by the rebound–recompression method, a semi-analytical method is proposed for estimating column pile heaves in a deep excavation. This method considers the influence of soil disturbance, the weight of the retaining structure, and the changeable horizontal support restraint, making the calculation result more consistent with the realistic situation. This method can also be used to analyze load transfer between the pile and the surrounding soil. The rationality of this proposed calculation method is verified by measured data, where the variation in pile stress state during deep excavation is analyzed. Finally, a parametric study is conducted, and the results show that the excavation size and the excavation depth have a great influence. However, the heave is hardly affected by the value of the limit relative displacement. The use of long piles with small diameter and the method of small block excavation are effective means to control the column pile heave. When the excavation area is large or the effective pile length is short, the factor of the position of the column pile cannot be ignored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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24 pages, 6940 KiB  
Article
Research on the Decoupling Relationship and Driving Factors of Carbon Emissions in the Construction Industry of the East China Core Economic Zone
by Simin Zheng, Xiaorui He, Xian Liang and Liyan Yu
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051476 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 398
Abstract
This study focuses on the core economic zone of East China, utilizing the decoupling model to investigate the relationship between carbon emissions and economic development in the construction industry. Furthermore, it analyzes the driving factors through the application of the logarithmic mean index [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the core economic zone of East China, utilizing the decoupling model to investigate the relationship between carbon emissions and economic development in the construction industry. Furthermore, it analyzes the driving factors through the application of the logarithmic mean index method. The findings reveal that, firstly, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces exhibit higher total carbon emissions in the construction industry. Except for Fujian Province, the other regions exhibit a downward trend after 2019. Secondly, there is considerable spatial variability in carbon emissions in the construction industry within the core economic zone of East China, and it gradually decreases over the study period. While economically developed regions like Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces tend to concentrate and consume more resources and energy, their impact on surrounding neighboring provinces or cities is relatively limited. Thirdly, carbon emissions from the construction industry in the core economic zone of East China show a development trend shifting from weak decoupling to strong decoupling, indicating a healthy growth in the construction industry. Specifically, different regions show different trends. Lastly, regarding influencing factors, the impact direction of carbon intensity on total carbon emissions shows instability. Energy intensity consistently exhibits inhibitory effects, and the economy and the population scale act as driving forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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15 pages, 2963 KiB  
Article
Health Risk Prediction of Operational Subsea Tunnel Structure Based on Bayesian Network
by Hongmei Ni, Xia Li, Jingqi Huang and Shuming Zhou
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051475 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Recently, subsea tunnel construction has developed rapidly in China. The traffic volume of subsea metro tunnels is large. Once a safety accident occurs, economic losses and social impacts will be extremely serious. To eliminate accidents in operational subsea metro tunnel structures, a health [...] Read more.
Recently, subsea tunnel construction has developed rapidly in China. The traffic volume of subsea metro tunnels is large. Once a safety accident occurs, economic losses and social impacts will be extremely serious. To eliminate accidents in operational subsea metro tunnel structures, a health risk prediction method is proposed based on a discrete Bayesian network. Detecting and monitoring data of the tunnel structures in operation were used to evaluate the health risk by employing the proposed method. This method establishes a Bayesian network model for the health risk prediction of the shield tunnel structure through the dependency relationship between the health risk of the operational tunnel structure and 13 risk factors in five aspects: the mechanical condition, material performance, integrity state, environmental state, and deformation state. By utilizing actual detection and monitoring data of various risk factors for the health risk of the operational subsea metro shield tunnel structure, this method reflects the actual state of the tunnel structure and improves the accuracy of health risk predictions. The validity of the proposed method is verified through expert knowledge and the subsea shield tunnel structure of the Dalian Subway Line 5. The results demonstrate that the health risk prediction outcomes effectively reflect the actual service state of the shield tunnel structure, thus providing decision support for the control of health risks in the subsea metro shield tunnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Response Analysis of Underground Structure)
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18 pages, 18984 KiB  
Article
Effect of Air Parameters on LiCl-H2O Film Flow Behavior in Liquid Desiccant Systems
by Yue Lyu, Yonggao Yin and Jingjing Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051474 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
The wettability and stability of a solution’s film on the filler surface are the key factors determining heat and mass transfer efficiency in liquid desiccant air conditioning systems. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of different air parameters on the flow behavior of [...] Read more.
The wettability and stability of a solution’s film on the filler surface are the key factors determining heat and mass transfer efficiency in liquid desiccant air conditioning systems. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of different air parameters on the flow behavior of a lithium chloride solution’s film. The effects of air velocity, air flow pattern, and pressure on the wettability and critical amount of spray are discussed. The results show that the main mechanism by which the air velocity affects the wettability is that the shear stress generated by the direction of the air velocity disperses the direction of the surface tension and weakens its effect on the liquid film distribution. In addition, in the counter flow pattern, the air flow blocks the liquid film from spreading longitudinally and destroys the stability of the liquid film at the liquid outlet, which increases the critical amount of spray. The pressure distribution is similar under different operating pressures when the flow is stable; thus, pressure has little effect on wettability. The simulation results under 8 atm are compared with the experimental results. It is found that the sudden increase in the amount of moisture removal when the amount of spray changes from 0.05 to 0.1 m3/(m·h) in the experiment is caused by the change in the liquid film flow state. In addition, the results show that within the range of air flow parameters for the liquid desiccant air conditioning system, air flow shear force is not the main factor affecting the stability of the solution’s film, and there is no secondary breakage of the solution’s film during the falling-film flow process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Indoor Air Environment and Energy Conservation)
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24 pages, 15502 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Satisfaction with Spatial Reuse of Industrial Heritage in High-Density Urban Areas: A Case Study of the Core Area of Beijing’s Central City
by Fanlei Meng, Xinyu Zhang and Yuxiang Pang
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051473 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Industrial heritage is regarded as an important stock of spatial resources in cities, which highlights its utilization value for urban regeneration in high-density urban areas. With the dramatic increase in the number of industrial heritage reuse projects, how to scientifically evaluate the satisfaction [...] Read more.
Industrial heritage is regarded as an important stock of spatial resources in cities, which highlights its utilization value for urban regeneration in high-density urban areas. With the dramatic increase in the number of industrial heritage reuse projects, how to scientifically evaluate the satisfaction with their spatial reuse is a key part of the solution for the mutual balance between heritage preservation and urban renewal. This paper takes eight industrial heritage conversion and utilization projects in the high-density core area of Beijing’s central city as examples; establishes an evaluation system for the satisfaction with the spatial reuse through six dimensions, namely, functional replacement, transportation accessibility, carrying capacity, public space, boundary form, and recognition of value; and uses the IPA method to evaluate the cases. This method is used to determine the degree of user satisfaction with the spatial reuse of industrial heritage in the core area of Beijing’s central city and to summarize the advantages and problems of its reuse. The results of this study reveal a trend toward the “community-oriented” re-generation of industrial heritage in the core area of Beijing’s central city, and this paper proposes recommendations for adaptive use to support high-quality urban regeneration work. Full article
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26 pages, 17656 KiB  
Article
Towards an Effective Architectural Form: The Composition of Squareness and Roundness Based on Scale Proportion—Evidence from the Yingxian Wooden Pagoda
by Lu Shi, Xu Chen, Yuqian Xu, Xing Gao, Jialong Lai and Shusheng Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051472 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Investigating the mathematical and geometric principles embedded in ancient classic architecture is a significant tradition in the history of architectural development. Drawing inspiration from the modular design and creative ideology based on the geometric proportions of squareness and roundness in ancient Chinese architecture, [...] Read more.
Investigating the mathematical and geometric principles embedded in ancient classic architecture is a significant tradition in the history of architectural development. Drawing inspiration from the modular design and creative ideology based on the geometric proportions of squareness and roundness in ancient Chinese architecture, we propose a new mode of squareness and roundness composition based on scale proportion specifically for the design of multi-story buildings. Taking Yingxian Wooden Pagoda as the case study, we not only re-evaluate the modular system and proportional rules followed in the design of the entire pagoda, but also reveal the technical approaches and geometric rules for effectively controlling the form of multi-story buildings. In particular, the mode of squareness and roundness composition based on scale proportion, utilizing a modular grid combined with squareness and roundness drawings as decision-making tools, can control the scale and proportion of buildings across different design dimensions and organically coordinate the design of multi-story buildings’ plans and elevations. Thus, it can achieve an effective balance of multi-story architectural forms. This study has potential applications in the creation of traditional multi-story buildings and heritage restoration projects, and offers valuable insights for future research on ancient multi-story buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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31 pages, 2977 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Insights: Exploring Key Factors Influencing Sale-to-List Ratio—Insights from SVM Classification and Recursive Feature Selection in the US Real Estate Market
by Janusz Sobieraj and Dominik Metelski
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051471 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 303
Abstract
The US real estate market is a complex ecosystem influenced by multiple factors, making it critical for stakeholders to understand its dynamics. This study uses Zillow Econ (monthly) data from January 2018 to October 2023 across 100 major regions gathered through Metropolitan Statistical [...] Read more.
The US real estate market is a complex ecosystem influenced by multiple factors, making it critical for stakeholders to understand its dynamics. This study uses Zillow Econ (monthly) data from January 2018 to October 2023 across 100 major regions gathered through Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and advanced machine learning techniques, including radial kernel Support Vector Machines (SVMs), used to predict the sale-to-list ratio, a key metric that indicates the market health and competitiveness of the US real estate. Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) is used to identify influential variables that provide insight into market dynamics. Results show that SVM achieves approximately 85% accuracy, with temporal indicators such as Days to Pending and Days to Close, pricing dynamics such as Listing Price Cut and Share of Listings with Price Cut, and rental market conditions captured by the Zillow Observed Rent Index (ZORI) emerging as critical factors influencing the sale-to-list ratio. The comparison between SVM alphas and RFE highlights the importance of time, price, and rental market indicators in understanding market trends. This study underscores the interplay between these variables and provides actionable insights for stakeholders. By contextualizing the findings within the existing literature, this study emphasizes the importance of considering multiple factors in housing market analysis. Recommendations include using pricing dynamics and rental market conditions to inform pricing strategies and negotiation tactics. This study adds to the body of knowledge in real estate research and provides a foundation for informed decision-making in the ever-evolving real estate landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Digital Trend for Achieving Sustainable Building and Construction)
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27 pages, 1655 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Evolution Mechanisms of Social Risks Associated with Urban Renewal from the Perspective of Stakeholders
by Hong Xie, Lei Zhang, Peng Cui, Jingfeng Yuan and Qiming Li
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051470 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 275
Abstract
The urban renewal (UR) process involves various stakeholders and related activities, and the various risks arising from this endeavor can affect these stakeholders. Additionally, the impact of adverse factors such as policy discontinuity and inequitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders can easily result [...] Read more.
The urban renewal (UR) process involves various stakeholders and related activities, and the various risks arising from this endeavor can affect these stakeholders. Additionally, the impact of adverse factors such as policy discontinuity and inequitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders can easily result in collective tensions or conflicts, as well as the gradual emergence of potential social frictions and confrontations. These social risks (SRs) not only impede the smooth execution of urban renewal projects but also pose challenges to social harmony and stability. Hence, to mitigate and control the SRs in the UR process (URSRs) and ensure the successful implementation of effective and sustainable UR projects, it is of paramount importance to gain a comprehensive understanding of the occurrence and evolution mechanisms of these SRs. Although existing studies have touched upon the influence of stakeholder conflicts on URSRs, there remains a lack of systematic examination of the evolution mechanisms of these risks from the perspective of stakeholder theory. The resulting fragmented and specialized comprehension of URSRs has hindered the effectiveness of risk governance strategies. This study adopts stakeholder theory to analyze the potential sources of risk throughout the entire UR process. By considering the conflicts of interests among stakeholders, a systematic analysis of the evolution mechanisms of URSRs is explored and targeted governance recommendations for URSRs are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Infrastructure and Resilient, Sustainable Buildings)
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21 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
A Systematic Review of the Socio-Legal Dimensions of Responsible AI and Its Role in Improving Health and Safety in Construction
by Andrew Agapiou
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051469 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) in the construction industry could revolutionise workplace safety and efficiency. However, this integration also carries complex socio-legal implications that require further investigation. Presently, there is a research gap in the socio-legal dimensions of AI use to enhance health and [...] Read more.
Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) in the construction industry could revolutionise workplace safety and efficiency. However, this integration also carries complex socio-legal implications that require further investigation. Presently, there is a research gap in the socio-legal dimensions of AI use to enhance health and safety regulations and protocols for the construction sector in the United Kingdom, particularly in understanding how the existing legal frameworks can adapt to AI integration effectively. Comprehensive research is indispensable to identify where the existing regulations may fall short or require more specificity in addressing the unique implications introduced by AI technologies. This article aims to address the pressing socio-legal challenges surrounding the integration of AI in the UK construction industry, specifically in enhancing health and safety protocols on construction sites, through a systematic review encompassing the PRISMA protocol. The review has identified that the existing legal and regulatory framework provides a strong foundation for risk management. Still, it needs to sufficiently account for the socio-legal dimensions introduced by AI deployment and how AI may evolve in the future. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) will require standardised authorities to effectively oversee the use of AI in the UK construction industry. This will enable the HSE to collect data related to AI processes and carry out technical, empirical, and governance audits. The provision of sufficient resources and the empowerment of the HSE within the context of the construction industry are critical factors that must be taken into consideration to ensure effective oversight of AI implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Digital Construction Management)
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28 pages, 9546 KiB  
Article
Fortifying Slab Resilience against Touch-Off Explosions: Integration of Innovative Stud Reinforcements and Computational Analysis
by S. M. Anas, Rayeh Nasr Al-Dala’ien, Mohd Shariq and Mehtab Alam
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051468 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Explosions, once limited to military and accidental contexts, now occur frequently due to advances in warfare, local disputes, and global conflicts. Recent incidents, like urban bombings, emphasize the urgent need for infrastructure to withstand explosions. Slabs, critical in architectural frameworks, are vulnerable to [...] Read more.
Explosions, once limited to military and accidental contexts, now occur frequently due to advances in warfare, local disputes, and global conflicts. Recent incidents, like urban bombings, emphasize the urgent need for infrastructure to withstand explosions. Slabs, critical in architectural frameworks, are vulnerable to explosive forces due to their slimness, making them prime targets for sabotage. Scholars have explored various strategies to fortify slabs, including the use of advanced materials like CFRP laminates/strips, steel sheets and ultra-high-strength concrete, along with reinforcement techniques such as two-mesh and diagonal reinforcements. A novel approach introduced in current research involves integrating vertical short bars, or studs, to enhance slab resilience against touch-off explosions. The aim of this research endeavor is to assess the impact of studs and their utilization in bolstering the anti-contact-blast capabilities of a concrete slab. To achieve this goal, a specialized framework within the ABAQUS/Explicit 2020 software is employed for comprehensive analysis. Initially, a conventionally reinforced slab devoid of studs serves as the benchmark model for numerical validation, facilitating a comparative assessment of its anti-contact-blast effectiveness against the findings outlined by Zhao and colleagues in 2019. Following successful validation, six additional distinct slab models are formulated utilizing sophisticated software, incorporating studs of varying heights, namely, 15 mm and 10 mm. Each configuration encompasses three distinct welding scenarios: (i) integration with upper-layer bars, (ii) attachment to bottom-layer bars, and (iii) connection to both upper- and bottom-layer bars. The comparative merits of the slabs are evaluated and deliberated upon through the examination of diverse response parameters. The research revealed that the incorporation of studs within slabs yielded notable enhancements in blast resistance. Specifically, taller studs demonstrated exceptional resilience against deformation, cracking, and perforation, while also diminishing plastic damage energy. Particularly noteworthy was the superior performance observed in slabs with studs welded to both upper and lower layers of re-bars. This highlights the critical significance of both the integration of studs and their precise positioning in fortifying structural integrity against blast-induced loadings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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17 pages, 5102 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Properties of Attapulgite-Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Composite Poly (Acrylic Acid-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic Acid) Concrete Internal Curing Material
by Younan Zhao, Laifa Wang, Yongqing Li, Rui Xiong and Fuyang Lu
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051467 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Attapulgite-hydroxyethyl cellulose-poly (acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (ATP-HEC-P(AA-co-AMPS)) in-concrete curing material was synthesized by aqueous solution polymerization using attapulgite (ATP) as an inorganic filler and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as a backbone. The effects of relevant factors such as ATP dosage, HEC dosage, degree of neutralization, [...] Read more.
Attapulgite-hydroxyethyl cellulose-poly (acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (ATP-HEC-P(AA-co-AMPS)) in-concrete curing material was synthesized by aqueous solution polymerization using attapulgite (ATP) as an inorganic filler and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as a backbone. The effects of relevant factors such as ATP dosage, HEC dosage, degree of neutralization, initiator quality, and cross-linking agent quality on the water absorption characteristics of ATP-HEC-P (AA-co-AMPS) were investigated through expansion tests. The micro-morphology of ATP-HEC-P (AA-co-AMPS) was also comprehensively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, a thermal analysis, and other applicable means. The results showed that the prepared ATP-HEC-P (AA-co-AMPS) had a strong water absorption and water retention capacity, with a water absorption multiplicity of 382 g/g in deionized water and 21.55% water retention capacity after being placed at room temperature for 7 d in a bare environment. Additionally, ATP-HEC-P (AA-co-AMPS) showed good performance for absorbing liquids within the pH range of 7–12. The material’s thermal stability and mechanical properties were also significantly improved after the addition of ATP. The preparation cost is low, the process is simple, and the material meets the requirements for concrete curing materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Infrastructure Construction and Management)
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18 pages, 4055 KiB  
Article
Unveiling Key Factors Shaping Energy Storage Strategies for Sustainable Energy Communities
by José Andrés Palacios-Ferrer, Francisco J. Rey-Martínez, Christian A. Repenning-Bzdigian and Javier M. Rey-Hernández
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051466 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 420
Abstract
This research delves into a case study of a photovoltaic (PV) energy community, leveraging empirical data to explore the integration of renewable energy sources and storage solutions. By evaluating energy generation and consumption patterns within real-world energy communities (a nominal generation capacity of [...] Read more.
This research delves into a case study of a photovoltaic (PV) energy community, leveraging empirical data to explore the integration of renewable energy sources and storage solutions. By evaluating energy generation and consumption patterns within real-world energy communities (a nominal generation capacity of 33 kWn) in Gipuzkoa, Spain, from May 2022 to May 2023, this study comprehensively examines operational dynamics and performance metrics. This study highlights the critical role of energy consumption patterns in facilitating the integration of renewable energy sources and underscores the importance of proactive strategies to manage demand fluctuations effectively. Against the backdrop of rising energy costs and environmental concerns, renewable energies and storage solutions emerge as compelling alternatives, offering financial feasibility and environmental benefits within energy communities. This study emphasizes the necessity of research and development efforts to develop efficient energy storage technologies and the importance of economic incentives and collaborative initiatives to drive investments in renewable energy infrastructure. The analyzed results provide valuable insights into operational dynamics and performance metrics, further advancing our understanding of their transformative potential in achieving a sustainable energy future. Specifically, our study suggests that storage capacity should ideally support an average annual capacity of 23%, with fluctuations observed where this capacity may double or reduce to a minimum in certain months. Given the current market conditions, our findings indicate the necessity of significant public subsidies, amounting to no less than 67%, to facilitate the installation of storage infrastructure, especially in cases where initial investments are not covered by the energy community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects for Energy Communities in Europe)
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22 pages, 11057 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Performance of Cement-Stabilized Base External Curing Agent in a Desert Environment
by Chenhao Wei, Zewen He, Jiachen Ma, Xiaohui Sun, Yana Shi, Qiang Yi and Maoqing Li
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051465 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 320
Abstract
To explore and deal with the difficulty in curing cement-stabilized bases in desert environments, curing agents were prepared to enhance the curing effect on the base in this research. The composite curing agent was prepared through orthogonal experiments and the durability of the [...] Read more.
To explore and deal with the difficulty in curing cement-stabilized bases in desert environments, curing agents were prepared to enhance the curing effect on the base in this research. The composite curing agent was prepared through orthogonal experiments and the durability of the curing agent coating were studied by simulating a desert environment. Subsequently, the curing effect on the performance of bases was analyzed. Finally, the hydration degree of cement was studied via scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and the curing mechanism of the curing agent was explored. The results show that the composite (paraffin emulsion is the main component of the film, vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymer dosage is 20%, ethanol ester-12 dosage is 10%, and sodium silicate dosage is 18%) could effectively improve the water-retention performance (water-loss ratio: 2.36%) and mechanical properties of the specimen (7 d compressive strength: 7.48 MPa; 7 d indirect tensile strength: 0.70 MPa). The dry shrinkage coefficient of the specimen with composite curing agent was reduced by 116.26% at 28 days. The compressive strength of dry and wet freeze could reach 7.48 MPa and 6.88 MPa, respectively. The durability of the curing agent-coated base met the requirements of pavement performance in desert areas. The results of XRD, TG, and SEM indicated that the curing agent promoted hydration. In addition, the number of C-S-H gel and AFt crystals significantly increased. The curing difficulty of road bases in desert areas could be reduced effectively through the application presented in this study, which contributes to the conservation of natural and human resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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17 pages, 3616 KiB  
Article
Research on Deformation Safety Risk Warning of Super-Large and Ultra-Deep Foundation Pits Based on Long Short-Term Memory
by Yanhui Guo, Chengjin Li, Ming Yan, Rui Ma and Wei Bi
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051464 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 247
Abstract
This paper proposes transforming actual monitoring data into risk quantities and establishing a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) safety risk warning model for predicting the deformation of super-large and ultra-deep foundation pits in river–round gravel strata based on safety evaluation methods. Using this model, [...] Read more.
This paper proposes transforming actual monitoring data into risk quantities and establishing a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) safety risk warning model for predicting the deformation of super-large and ultra-deep foundation pits in river–round gravel strata based on safety evaluation methods. Using this model, short-term deformation predictions at various monitoring points of the foundation pits are made and compared with monitoring data. The results from the LSTM safety risk warning model indicate an absolute error range between the predicted deformation values and on-site monitoring values of −0.24 to 0.16 mm, demonstrating the model’s accuracy in predicting pit deformation. Additionally, calculations reveal that both the overall risk level based on on-site monitoring data and the overall safety risk level based on predicted data are classified as level four. The acceptance criteria for the overall risk level of the foundation pit are defined as “unacceptable and requiring decision-making”, with the risk warning control scheme being “requiring decision-making, formulation of control, and warning measures”. These research findings offer valuable insights for predicting and warning about safety risks in similar foundation pit engineering projects. Full article
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17 pages, 4157 KiB  
Article
Segmentation of Apparent Multi-Defect Images of Concrete Bridges Based on PID Encoder and Multi-Feature Fusion
by Yanna Liao, Chaoyang Huang and Yafang Yin
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051463 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 306
Abstract
To address the issue of insufficient deep contextual information mining in the semantic segmentation task of multiple defects in concrete bridges, due to the diversity in texture, shape, and scale of the defects as well as significant differences in the background, we propose [...] Read more.
To address the issue of insufficient deep contextual information mining in the semantic segmentation task of multiple defects in concrete bridges, due to the diversity in texture, shape, and scale of the defects as well as significant differences in the background, we propose the Concrete Bridge Apparent Multi-Defect Segmentation Network (PID-MHENet) based on a PID encoder and multi-feature fusion. PID-MHENet consists of a PID encoder, skip connection, and decoder. The PID encoder adopts a multi-branch structure, including an integral branch and a proportional branch with a “thick and long” design principle and a differential branch with a “thin and short” design principle. The PID Aggregation Enhancement (PAE) combines the detail information of the proportional branch and the semantic information of the differential branch to enhance the fusion of contextual information and, at the same time, introduces the self-learning parameters, which can effectively extract the information of the boundary details of the lesions, the texture, and the background differences. The Multi-Feature Fusion Enhancement Decoding Block (MFEDB) in the decoding stage enhances the information and globally fuses the different feature maps introduced by the three-channel skip connection, which improves the segmentation accuracy of the network for the background similarity and the micro-defects. The experimental results show that the mean Pixel accuracy (mPa) and mean Intersection over Union (mIoU) values of PID-MHENet on the concrete bridge multi-defect semantic segmentation dataset improved by 5.17% and 5.46%, respectively, compared to the UNet network. Full article
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20 pages, 2515 KiB  
Review
Effects of Niobium Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Microalloyed Steels: A Review
by André Vitor Benedito, Carlos Alberto Benedetty Torres, Rebecca Mansur de Castro Silva, Pablo Augusto Krahl, Daniel Carlos Taissum Cardoso, Flávio de Andrade Silva and Carlos Humberto Martins
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051462 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Steel structures are prone to corrosion, a chemical reaction between steel and the atmosphere that gradually weakens the material. Over time, this reaction can significantly reduce the structural integrity and lifespan of steel elements. Without intervention, corrosion can cause structures to fail, leading [...] Read more.
Steel structures are prone to corrosion, a chemical reaction between steel and the atmosphere that gradually weakens the material. Over time, this reaction can significantly reduce the structural integrity and lifespan of steel elements. Without intervention, corrosion can cause structures to fail, leading to financial, environmental, and potential human losses. Enhancing steel’s corrosion resistance is crucial, and one method involves adding niobium (Nb). Niobium microalloyed steels are known for their increased strength, and some research indicates that Nb may also improve corrosion resistance by making the grain structure of the steel finer. However, the complete potential of Nb in corrosion prevention remains underexplored, with significant research gaps across various scales, from microstructural impacts on durability to macroscopic effects on mechanical properties. The research community has utilized numerous experimental approaches to test corrosion resistance under different conditions, but there is a lack of comprehensive studies that aggregate and analyze these findings. This paper seeks to fill that void by reviewing the impact of Nb on the strength and corrosion resistance of structural steels, examining how steel beams’ ultimate capacity degrades over time and identifying key areas where further research is needed to understand Nb’s role in mitigating corrosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Protection for Buildings and Structures)
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17 pages, 2861 KiB  
Article
Learning from the Past, Looking to Resilience: Housing in Serbia in the Post-Pandemic Era
by Milica Zivkovic, Mirko Stanimirovic, Marija Stamenkovic, Slavisa Kondic and Vladana Petrovic
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051461 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 318
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly reshaped life across the globe, significantly influencing the future of housing. The enactment and densification of diverse activities within one place have resulted in varying degrees of conflict between the built and social environment. This conflict is directly [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly reshaped life across the globe, significantly influencing the future of housing. The enactment and densification of diverse activities within one place have resulted in varying degrees of conflict between the built and social environment. This conflict is directly related to the degree of housing adaptability to new life, work, and leisure conditions. Movement restrictions and distance learning have significantly impacted the young population, which is susceptible to ‘enforced togetherness’ conditions. However, studies on post-pandemic housing in Serbia are rare. This paper investigates the relationship between the built and social environment, focusing on current trends in multi-family housing from the perspective of the progressive change of life standards in the post-pandemic era. It also includes a survey of the living conditions of architecture students in Serbia during lockdown and distance learning, offering insights into the impact of the physical environment on virus transmission and social dynamics. The main objective of this study is to formulate guidelines for developing a resilient housing model in Serbia that will address both current and future crises. From the findings, it can be concluded that radical changes in housing policy are necessary to enable less interdependence among layers within the system striving to be resilient. Full article
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22 pages, 33285 KiB  
Article
Rising Damp Treatment in Historical Buildings by Electro-Osmosis: A Case Study
by Aliihsan Koca, Mehmet Nurettin Uğural and Ergün Yaman
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051460 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Throughout the past century, numerous technologies have been suggested to deal with the capillary rise of water through the soil in historic masonry buildings. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of capillary moisture repulsion apparatus that uses the electro-osmosis [...] Read more.
Throughout the past century, numerous technologies have been suggested to deal with the capillary rise of water through the soil in historic masonry buildings. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of capillary moisture repulsion apparatus that uses the electro-osmosis approach over a prolonged period of time. The Gül mosque was selected as a sample historical building affected by structural problems caused by the absorption of water through small channels on its walls due to capillary action. The moisture repulsion mechanism efficiently decreased the moisture level in the walls from a ‘wet’ state to a ‘dry’ state in roughly 9 months. After the installation of the equipment, the water mass ratio of the building decreased from 14.48% to 2.90%. It was determined that the majority of the water in the building was relocated during the initial measurement period. Furthermore, it inhibited the absorption of water by capillary action by protecting the construction elements that were in contact with the wet ground. Lastly, capillary water repulsion coefficients (C) for various measurement durations and time factors were proposed. The average value of C was calculated to be 0.152 kg/m2 s0.5 by measuring the point at which the water repulsion remained nearly constant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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16 pages, 2625 KiB  
Article
A Novel Calculate Model of Shear Deformation and Relative Displacement of Pile–Soil Interface in Warm Frozen Soil Foundation
by Gaochen Sun, Lijun Gu, Long Li, Yufan Huo, Zhengzhong Wang and Hongzu Dang
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051459 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 304
Abstract
In permafrost regions with warm frozen soil, the pile foundation is commonly used, but most currently available models for the WFS foundation pile–soil system are either highly empirical or overcomplicated, without a simplified theoretical manner in engineering. This study derives a novel and [...] Read more.
In permafrost regions with warm frozen soil, the pile foundation is commonly used, but most currently available models for the WFS foundation pile–soil system are either highly empirical or overcomplicated, without a simplified theoretical manner in engineering. This study derives a novel and simplified calculated model of the WFS pile–soil system. The model is formulated in terms of the shear deformation theory and load transfer method based on the rigorous deformation mechanism of the WFS foundation soil around the pile. Considering the different depth soil features and the equilibrium state of the pile–soil system, dividing warm frozen soil foundation into three regions (TPPR, ER, and BPPR) to calculate the Dp and Ds can simply obtain the total displacement of pile under different loads. The results demonstrate that the present theoretical model can well predict the WFS foundation load–displacement response of the pile. The present model provides a simple, practical, and effective approach for the estimation of the load–displacement behavior of piles installed in the WFS foundation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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