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Buildings, Volume 14, Issue 7 (July 2024) – 372 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study introduces an innovative framework for automated compliance checking in Building Information Modeling (BIM). By integrating large language models (LLMs), deep learning, and ontology knowledge models, the framework significantly enhances the accuracy and efficiency of compliance checks. The approach automates the processing of regulatory texts, reduces the need for manual intervention, and offers a scalable solution for architects, engineers, and regulators. This novel combination provides a robust understanding of language and faciliates the structured extraction of information, enhancing the compliance verification processes of the construction industry. View this paper
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22 pages, 1193 KiB  
Article
Five Machine Learning Models Predicting the Global Shear Capacity of Composite Cellular Beams with Hollow-Core Units
by Felipe Piana Vendramell Ferreira, Seong-Hoon Jeong, Ehsan Mansouri, Rabee Shamass, Konstantinos Daniel Tsavdaridis, Carlos Humberto Martins and Silvana De Nardin
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072256 - 22 Jul 2024
Abstract
The global shear capacity of steel–concrete composite downstand cellular beams with precast hollow-core units is an important calculation as it affects the span-to-depth ratios and the amount of material used, hence affecting the embodied CO2 calculation when designers are producing floor grids. [...] Read more.
The global shear capacity of steel–concrete composite downstand cellular beams with precast hollow-core units is an important calculation as it affects the span-to-depth ratios and the amount of material used, hence affecting the embodied CO2 calculation when designers are producing floor grids. This paper presents a reliable tool that can be used by designers to alter and optimise grip options during the preliminary design stages, without the need to run onerous calculations. The global shear capacity prediction formula is developed using five machine learning models. First, a finite element model database is developed. The influence of the opening diameter, web opening spacing, tee-section height, concrete topping thickness, interaction degree, and the number of shear studs above the web opening are investigated. Reliability analysis is conducted to assess the design method and propose new partial safety factors. The Catboost regressor algorithm presented better accuracy compared to the other algorithms. An equation to predict the shear capacity of composite cellular beams with hollow-core units is proposed using gene expression programming. In general, the partial safety factor for resistance, according to the reliability analysis, varied between 1.25 and 1.26. Full article
17 pages, 18374 KiB  
Article
Study on the Influence of Wind Fairing Parameters on the Aerodynamic Performance of Long-Span Double-Deck Steel Truss Suspension Bridge
by Yang Yang, Long Li, Gang Yao, Bo Wu, Dawu Wang, Hui Yu and Hao Qu
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072255 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 95
Abstract
A long-span double-deck steel truss suspension bridge is easy to produce vortex-induced vibration (VIV) at low air velocity, which affects bridge service life. Additional aerodynamic measures play a role in suppressing VIV by changing the aerodynamic shape, which is a common control method. [...] Read more.
A long-span double-deck steel truss suspension bridge is easy to produce vortex-induced vibration (VIV) at low air velocity, which affects bridge service life. Additional aerodynamic measures play a role in suppressing VIV by changing the aerodynamic shape, which is a common control method. As the main aerodynamic measure to suppress the VIV response, wind fairing is widely used in engineering practice. In order to obtain the optimal additional position and shape parameters of the fairing, Huangjuetuo Yangtze River Bridge is the research target. Through the combination of a wind tunnel test and numerical simulation, the VIV response of the original and fairing section is studied. Based on data analysis, it is revealed that these additional fairings to the upper chord can significantly reduce the VIV response. When the shape parameters of the fairing are h/D = 1/4 and l/D = 1, the VIV inhibition efficiency is the highest, which can reach 65.51%. By analyzing the flow distribution, it can be seen that VIV is caused mainly by vortex separation in the upper bridge board area. Although this wind fairing does not change the original vortex shedding forms, it changes the first separation point and movement direction of the airflow, making the vortex scale generated by the airflow smaller and the vorticity lower, thus effectively suppressing VIV. Full article
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21 pages, 5048 KiB  
Article
Seismic Strengthening of Elevated Reinforced Concrete Tanks: Analytical Framework and Validation Techniques
by Roberto Nascimbene, Ettore Fagà and Matteo Moratti
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072254 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 127
Abstract
The prevalence of elevated reinforced concrete tanks is widespread across Italian water distribution networks, particularly in flat or low-relief areas. Primarily constructed by the late 1970s, these tanks often suffer from outdated hydraulic efficiency, unable to cope with the increasing urban water demands. [...] Read more.
The prevalence of elevated reinforced concrete tanks is widespread across Italian water distribution networks, particularly in flat or low-relief areas. Primarily constructed by the late 1970s, these tanks often suffer from outdated hydraulic efficiency, unable to cope with the increasing urban water demands. With rising construction costs, the economic advantage has shifted toward underground tanks, leading to the decommissioning of many elevated tanks. Despite being obsolete, elevated tanks from the 1960s and 1970s still stand in densely urbanized regions. However, demolishing them may prove less cost-effective than retrofitting to restore their original structural capacity. The widespread presence of these structures, coupled with their susceptibility to decay from weathering and poor maintenance, necessitates a comprehensive assessment of their resilience against gravitational and lateral forces, including seismic activity. Consequently, there is a pressing need to develop an analysis and verification methodology, particularly focused on seismic resilience, tailored to existing elevated tanks. These structures, distinct from conventional reinforced concrete frames, are primarily designed to withstand vertical forces, emphasizing the importance of optimizing material usage in their retrofitting efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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14 pages, 5611 KiB  
Article
Study on the Bearing Capacity of the Polyethylene Pipe–Cured-In-Place Pipe Liner Composite Structure under External Pressure
by Xinyi Wang, Cong Zeng, Xuefeng Yan and Peng Zhang
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072253 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 133
Abstract
Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) technology is used to repair deformed municipal polyethylene (PE) pipes caused by design flaws, construction issues, or external loads. However, research on CIPP for PE pipes is limited, restricting its broader application. This research focuses on the mechanical response characteristics [...] Read more.
Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) technology is used to repair deformed municipal polyethylene (PE) pipes caused by design flaws, construction issues, or external loads. However, research on CIPP for PE pipes is limited, restricting its broader application. This research focuses on the mechanical response characteristics and failure modes of the composite PE pipe–CIPP liner structure under external loads. Using experimental setups involving comparative test groups with different diameters and wall thickness ratios (DR values, defined as the ratio of the pipe’s outer diameter to its wall thickness), this study evaluates the effects of the liner’s elastic modulus, the bonding effectiveness at the PE pipe–CIPP liner interface, and the initial ovality of the pipes on the load-bearing capacity. The experimental results reveal that CIPP liners substantially enhance the stiffness and load-bearing capacity of PE pipes, with improvements ranging from 200% to nearly 500% depending on the pipe’s DR value. A novel ring stiffness prediction model is also introduced and validated against the experimental data. This model provides a theoretical framework for understanding the complex interactions at the PE pipe–CIPP liner interface and aids in designing more resilient urban drainage systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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26 pages, 11140 KiB  
Article
An AprilTags-Based Approach for Progress Monitoring and Quality Control in Modular Construction
by Jindian Liu, Semiha Ergan and Qilin Zhang
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072252 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Traditional approaches to modular construction progress monitoring and quality control with stringent and tight tolerances for on-site and off-site assembly processes are usually based on 3D laser scanning, but the high equipment costs associated with acquiring point clouds have economic ramifications. This paper [...] Read more.
Traditional approaches to modular construction progress monitoring and quality control with stringent and tight tolerances for on-site and off-site assembly processes are usually based on 3D laser scanning, but the high equipment costs associated with acquiring point clouds have economic ramifications. This paper provides the details of a new and inexpensive method through the integration of AprilTags and an ordinary phone. By using AprilTags instead of QR codes to label modules, progress management is achieved through the rapid identification and association of multiple modules based on a single image. Moreover, a virtual multi-view vision algorithm based on AprilTags is proposed to generate 3D reverse models of the construction site; the quality result can be acquired by comparing the offset and rotation values of the reverse model and the BIM model. Finally, all the algorithms are validated through comparing the reverse models with the reference models made with 3D printing and 3D laser scanning, which verifies the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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21 pages, 5073 KiB  
Article
Adding Green to Architectures: Empirical Research Based on Indoor Vertical Greening of the Emotional Promotion on Adolescents
by Chengcheng Wang, Qizhi Hu, Zijun Zhou, Di Li and Linjia Wu
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072251 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 138
Abstract
Good architectural space design can bring positive emotional stimulation and relaxation to users, but few studies have investigated the quantitative indicators in architectural space design and their impact on user emotions. This study takes the right-angle sandwich interface system in architecture as an [...] Read more.
Good architectural space design can bring positive emotional stimulation and relaxation to users, but few studies have investigated the quantitative indicators in architectural space design and their impact on user emotions. This study takes the right-angle sandwich interface system in architecture as an example to guide the next vertical greening simulation experiment by comparing the spatial quantitative differences in connection value, integration degree, and population agglomeration. Eighty adolescent volunteers were recruited into a control (artificial decorative wall) and experimental (green wall) group based on wall type. We compared their physiological and psychological indicators, including blood pressure and blood oxygen, and psychological indicators, including POMS and SIAI-S scales. Then, we made predictive factor judgements on vertical green elements. The quantification of the interior space of the building showed consistency in parameter changes, with the central area being the area of connectivity, integration, and crowd aggregation values. After the experiment, the experimental group showed a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate (p = 0.00) and a significant decrease in tension, anger, fatigue, depression, and panic (p = 0.00). The quantitative relationship between vertical greening elements and emotional promotion using stepwise linear exploration shows that the “vine” element is a significant predictive factor for diastolic blood pressure, T-A emotion, and SIAI-S values. The results enrich the indoor optimization and creation expansion paths of interface systems for various spatial experiences and further provide guidance for urban indoor green construction plans and green landscape facility planning via the emotional influence of indoor vertical space greening on young people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Environmental Quality and Human Wellbeing)
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5 pages, 159 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Road Engineering: Innovation in Road Pavements and Materials
by Andrea Baliello and Di Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2250; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072250 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 242
Abstract
The road pavement sector is currently gaining more and more attractivity as a peculiar field of civil engineering [...] Full article
27 pages, 22071 KiB  
Article
FBG Sensing Data Motivated Dynamic Feature Assessment of the Complicated CFRP Antenna Beam under Various Vibration Modes
by Cong Chen, Chao Zhang, Jie Ma, Shi-Zhong He, Jian Chen, Liang Sun and Hua-Ping Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072249 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 196
Abstract
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) components were extensively used and current studies mainly refer to CFRP laminates. The dynamic performance of the complicated CFRP antenna beams is yet to be explored. Therefore, a sensor layout based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in series was [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) components were extensively used and current studies mainly refer to CFRP laminates. The dynamic performance of the complicated CFRP antenna beams is yet to be explored. Therefore, a sensor layout based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in series was designed to measure the dynamic response of the CFRP antenna beam, and various vibration tests (sweep frequency test, simulated long-life vibration test, shock vibration test, functional vibration test, and constant frequency vibration test) were conducted. The time and frequency domain analysis on FBG sensing signals was performed to check the vibration performance and assess the health condition of this novel CFRP structure. The results indicate that strain values reach a maximum of only 300 µε under different test conditions. The antenna beam exhibited clear vibration patterns, with the first four intrinsic frequencies identified at 44, 94.87, 107.1, and 193.45 Hz. It shows that strain distribution and vibration modes of the antenna beam can be characterized from the sensing data, and the dynamic feature can be much more accurately assessed. The FBG sensors attached on the surface of CFRP antenna beam can accurately and stably measure the dynamic response, which validates that the interfaces between optical fiber sensing elements and CFRP material have excellent interfacial bonding characteristics. The novel CFRP antenna beam exhibits the excellent dynamic performance and stability, offering the replacement of traditional steel antenna beams. The study can finally instruct the development of self-sensing CFRP antenna beams assembled with FBGs in series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Structural Health Monitoring)
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15 pages, 7305 KiB  
Article
Improving Mud Brick Durability in Ancient Closed-Box Tombs: A Graphene Oxide Nanoparticle Approach
by Ahmed Sallam, Ghazy Abdullah Albaqawy, Mabrouk Touahmia, Mustapha Boukendakdji and Mona M. E. Khalil
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072248 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 195
Abstract
This paper presents a novel concept for significantly enhancing the strength and durability of ancient closed-box tombs. These tombs hold significant philosophical values, and their architecture serves as a valuable data source, providing insights into the cultural stage of the society in which [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel concept for significantly enhancing the strength and durability of ancient closed-box tombs. These tombs hold significant philosophical values, and their architecture serves as a valuable data source, providing insights into the cultural stage of the society in which it was constructed. Throughout medieval and modern times, clay bricks remained a prevalent material for tomb construction due to their affordability and design flexibility. However, these structures currently face neglect and weakening, requiring imperative intervention of protection to prevent them from potential deterioration or extinction. The key objective of this research is to explore the potential use of graphene oxide (GO), a novel nanomaterial, as a treatment method to enhance the durability of mud brick tombs in Aswan, Egypt. Samples of mud bricks were examined and characterized using various techniques, including SEM-EDX, TEM, PLM, XRF, XRD, and mechanical properties analysis. The results indicated that GO nanomaterials significantly improve the mechanical properties of mud brick tombs, allowing them to resist more compressive loading and ultimately resulting in more durable and long-lasting structures. By using these innovative materials, effective restoration and preservation of these ancient structures for future generations could be viable. This research has the potential to revolutionize the preservation of closed-box tombs, ensuring these historical landmarks stand longer the test of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Cultural Heritage)
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14 pages, 9164 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Cluster-Connected Shear Wall Structures under Seismic Loading
by Zirui He, Xiaohan Zhang, Hailong Yang, Shuai Li, Jianguo Cai, Alfrendo Satyanaga, Ruize Zhang and Guoliang Dai
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072247 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 158
Abstract
The reinforced part at the bottom of high-rise assembled monolithic concrete shear wall structures generally uses cast-in-place concrete due to high elastic–plastic deformation capacity requirements, which limits the advantages of prefabricated shear wall structures. This study investigates the feasibility of using cluster connections [...] Read more.
The reinforced part at the bottom of high-rise assembled monolithic concrete shear wall structures generally uses cast-in-place concrete due to high elastic–plastic deformation capacity requirements, which limits the advantages of prefabricated shear wall structures. This study investigates the feasibility of using cluster connections to assemble integral shear wall structures at the bottom by modifying the vertical reinforcement of the cluster connection. Numerical simulations using ABAQUS (Version 2019) were validated with laboratory test results. The seismic performance of prefabricated shear walls with cluster connections was examined under varying axial compression ratios. Results indicate that the prefabricated shear wall demonstrates higher bearing and deformation capacity compared to cast-in-place shear walls. The degradation of strength and equivalent stiffness in prefabricated walls is slower, showing better seismic performance under higher axial compression ratios. The cluster connection ensures effective force transmission, maintaining wall integrity. After optimization, the prefabricated shear wall with cluster connection meets the expected seismic performance, providing a basis for its application in reinforced bottom sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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22 pages, 5261 KiB  
Article
Two-Stage Analysis Method for the Mechanical Response of Adjacent Existing Tunnels Caused by Foundation Pit Excavation
by Hongtao Mao, Zhinan Hu, Wenzheng Wang, Zhichun Liu, Huijun Yang, Biao Li and Yonggang Wang
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072246 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 219
Abstract
With the advancement of urban underground space networks, there has been a rise in foundation pit projects near existing tunnels. The construction of these foundation pits adjacent to existing tunnels can result in soil disturbance and stress redistribution, leading to additional deformation and [...] Read more.
With the advancement of urban underground space networks, there has been a rise in foundation pit projects near existing tunnels. The construction of these foundation pits adjacent to existing tunnels can result in soil disturbance and stress redistribution, leading to additional deformation and internal force within the tunnels. This paper delves into the two-stage analysis method, outlining the calculation of additional stress in the initial stage considering various engineering factors and the methods for determining tunnel displacement and internal force in the subsequent stage. Through an engineering example and numerical simulations, the theoretical calculations were validated. The maximum displacement generated by the tunnel is −4.85 mm and −5.10 mm, respectively. The maximum error is only 5.9%, which confirms the validity of the theoretical approach. The analysis demonstrates that incorporating the unloading model of the bottom and surrounding side walls of the foundation pit is essential when calculating additional stress in the first stage. Moreover, the presence of engineering dewatering and double-hole tunnels can counterbalance the additional stress, with deviations of only 4.4% and 2.5%, respectively. In the second stage, factoring in the shear action and lateral soil action in the foundation and tunnel model enhances the accuracy of stress mode representation (accuracy increased by 18.8% and 29.3%, respectively). Additionally, accounting for the buried depth effect of the tunnel, soil non-uniformity, and foundation nonlinearity helps prevent excessive foundation reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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23 pages, 5061 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Building Morphology on Energy Use Intensity of High-Rise Residential Clusters: A Case Study of Hangzhou, China
by Weijia Feng, Jintao Chen, Yi Yang, Weijun Gao, Qinfeng Zhao, Haowei Xing and Shuai Yu
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072245 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Building operations account for a large amount of energy use and CO2 emissions, and the morphology of buildings in residential clusters strongly impacts energy efficiency performance. However, little research has focused on the morphology and energy electricity usage of high-rise residential clusters [...] Read more.
Building operations account for a large amount of energy use and CO2 emissions, and the morphology of buildings in residential clusters strongly impacts energy efficiency performance. However, little research has focused on the morphology and energy electricity usage of high-rise residential clusters in hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) regions. We investigated 96 residential clusters in Hangzhou, China, and established a corresponding morphology database. Additionally, we obtained annual electricity consumption for 16 of these residential clusters. With this database, we performed optimization of morphological parameters upon energy use intensity (EUI) using a genetic algorithm (GA). Specifically, the cooling, heating, and lighting EUIs of high-rise residential clusters were studied. After implementing the optimized morphological parameters, there was a reduction of up to 7.73% in EUI. According to regression analysis, the average aspect ratio was the most significant factor influencing EUI (r = −0.907), followed by floor area ratio (r = −0.755), average orientation (r = 0.502), and average number of floors (r = −0.453). These results indicate that a higher intensity of land development with a greater floor area ratio, average aspect ratio, and average number of floors can reduce total energy consumption. Additionally, we found that an average building orientation of southwest 15° (with respect to south) is optimal. The findings of this study can assist urban planners and designers in developing more sustainable residential clusters, leading to decreased energy costs and CO2 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Building Energy and Environment, 2nd Volume)
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20 pages, 4806 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Prediction and Application Research on Soft Rock Tunnel Deformation Based on the ICPO-LSTM Model
by Chunpeng Zhang, Haiming Liu, Yongmei Peng, Wenyun Ding and Jing Cao
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072244 - 21 Jul 2024
Viewed by 357
Abstract
In tunnel construction, the prediction of the surrounding rock deformation is related to the construction safety and stability of the tunnel structure. In order to achieve an accurate prediction of the surrounding rock deformation in soft rock tunnel construction, a Long Short-Term Memory [...] Read more.
In tunnel construction, the prediction of the surrounding rock deformation is related to the construction safety and stability of the tunnel structure. In order to achieve an accurate prediction of the surrounding rock deformation in soft rock tunnel construction, a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network is used to construct a prediction model of the vault settlement and the horizontal convergence of the upper conductor in soft rock tunnels. The crested porcupine optimisation (CPO) algorithm is used to realise the hyper-parameter optimisation of the LSTM model and to construct the framework of the calculation process of the CPO-LSTM model. Taking the soft rock section of the Baoshishan Tunnel as an example, the large deformation of the surrounding rock is measured and analysed in situ, and the monitoring data of arch settlement and superconducting level convergence are obtained, which are substituted into the CPO-LSTM model for calculation, and compared and analysed with traditional machine learning and optimisation algorithms. The results show that the CPO-LSTM model has an R2 of 0.9982, a MAPE of 0.8595% and an RMSE of 0.1922, which are the best among all the models. In order to further improve the optimisation capability of the CPO, some improvements were made to the CPO and an Improved Crested Porcupine Optimiser (ICPO) was proposed. The ICPO-LSTM prediction model was established, and the ZK6 + 834 section was selected as a research object for comparison and analysis with the CPO-LSTM model. The results of the error analysis show that the prediction accuracy of the improved ICPO-LSTM model has been further improved, and the prediction accuracy of the model meets the requirements of guiding construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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19 pages, 18904 KiB  
Article
Seismic Response and Collapse Analysis of a Transmission Tower Structure: Assessing the Impact of the Damage Accumulation Effect
by Pingping Nie, Haiqing Liu, Yunlong Wang and Siyu Han
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072243 - 21 Jul 2024
Viewed by 314
Abstract
This paper delves into the impact of the damage accumulation effect, which leads to the degradation of material strength and stiffness, on the seismic resistance of transmission towers. Building upon the elastic–plastic finite element theory, a mixed hardening constitutive model is derived for [...] Read more.
This paper delves into the impact of the damage accumulation effect, which leads to the degradation of material strength and stiffness, on the seismic resistance of transmission towers. Building upon the elastic–plastic finite element theory, a mixed hardening constitutive model is derived for circular steel tubes, standard elements in transmission towers, incorporating the damage accumulation effect. A user material subroutine, UMAT, is created within the LS–DYNA framework. The program’s validity and reliability are established through axial constant–amplitude loading tests on single steel tubes. The subroutine is employed to conduct the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of an individual transmission tower and to contrast it with the structure utilizing the Plastic Kinematic material model, assessing the discrepancies in tower top displacements and segment damage indices (SDIs) at both macroscopic and microscopic scales. The results shows that the Plastic Kinematic model inflates the seismic performance of the transmission tower. When considering the damage accumulation effect in structural failure, the damage index of the members increases, leading to a reduction in both the structural strength and stiffness. The dynamic response in the plastic phase becomes more pronounced, and the onset of structural failure is accelerated. Consequently, structural analysis under seismic conditions should account for the damage accumulation process. Through the delineation of member and segment damage, the extent of damage to transmission tower segments can be quantitatively assessed. Subsequently, the ultimate load–bearing capacity and the most vulnerable location of the transmission tower can be ascertained. Finally, this paper provides a detailed analysis of the transmission tower collapse process under seismic action and summarizes the mechanism of collapse for the structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Performance and Durability of Engineering Structures)
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40 pages, 15325 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Energy Forecasting to Improve the Estimation of Demand Response Baselines in Residential Neighborhoods: Deep Learning vs. Machine Learning
by Abdo Abdullah Ahmed Gassar
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072242 - 21 Jul 2024
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Promoting flexible energy demand through response programs in residential neighborhoods would play a vital role in addressing the issues associated with increasing the share of distributed solar systems and balancing supply and demand in energy networks. However, accurately identifying baseline-related energy measurements when [...] Read more.
Promoting flexible energy demand through response programs in residential neighborhoods would play a vital role in addressing the issues associated with increasing the share of distributed solar systems and balancing supply and demand in energy networks. However, accurately identifying baseline-related energy measurements when activating energy demand response events remains challenging. In response, this study presents a deep learning-based, data-driven framework to improve short-term estimates of demand response baselines during the activation of response events. This framework includes bidirectional long-term memory (BiLSTM), long-term memory (LSTM), gated recurrent unit (GRU), convolutional neural networks (CNN), deep neural networks (DNN), and recurrent neural networks (RNN). Their performance is evaluated by considering different aggregation levels of the demand response baseline profile for 337 dwellings in the city of La Rochelle, France, over different time horizons, not exceeding 24 h. It is also compared with fifteen traditional statistical and machine learning methods in terms of forecasting accuracy. The results demonstrated that deep learning-based models, compared to others, significantly succeeded in minimizing the gap between the actual and forecasted values of demand response baselines at all different aggregation levels of dwelling units over the considered time-horizons. BiLSTM models, followed by GRU and LSTM, consistently demonstrated the lowest mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) in most comparison experiments, with values up to 9.08%, 8.71%, and 9.42%, respectively. Compared to traditional statistical and machine learning models, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) was among the best, with a value up to 11.56% of MAPE, but could not achieve the same level of forecasting accuracy in all comparison experiments. Such high performance reveals the potential of the proposed deep learning approach and highlights its importance for improving short-term estimates of future baselines when implementing demand response programs in residential neighborhood contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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18 pages, 6797 KiB  
Article
Local Deformation Analysis and Optimization of Steel Box Girder during Incremental Launching
by Lin Zhao, Runze Xu, Youzhi Wang, Changjin Tian and Kai Qiu
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072241 - 21 Jul 2024
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Due to the significant weight of the steel box girder and the substantial gap between temporary piers, the stress concentration and localized deformation of the girder’s bottom plate are pronounced during the incremental launching construction process. In this study, the multi-scale finite element [...] Read more.
Due to the significant weight of the steel box girder and the substantial gap between temporary piers, the stress concentration and localized deformation of the girder’s bottom plate are pronounced during the incremental launching construction process. In this study, the multi-scale finite element method was employed to simulate the incremental launching process of the steel box girder, analyze the pattern of localized deformation in the bottom plate contact area, and propose corresponding optimization control measures. Additionally, the entire incremental launching process was monitored, and the improvement in localized deformation before and after the optimization of the incremental launching scheme was analyzed. The results illustrate that the original incremental launching scheme led to substantial localized deformation in the bottom plate contact area of the steel box girder. Optimal control measures were implemented for the four incremental launching construction schemes. The optimal scheme significantly mitigated the localized deformation of the steel box girder’s bottom plate, with an average decrease in deformation of 48.32%. These findings can provide robust technical guidance and data support for the control of localized deformation in large-span steel box girders during the incremental launching construction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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48 pages, 28803 KiB  
Article
Cyclic Behavior of Concrete-Filled Tube Columns with Bidirectional Moment Connections Considering the Local Slenderness Effect
by Ramón Mata and Eduardo Nuñez
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072240 - 21 Jul 2024
Viewed by 323
Abstract
In this research, the cyclic behavior of concrete-filled thin tube (CFTT) columns with bidirectional moment connections was numerically studied within the context of thin-walled structures. Novel considerations in the design of CFTT columns with slenderness sections are proposed through a parametric study. A [...] Read more.
In this research, the cyclic behavior of concrete-filled thin tube (CFTT) columns with bidirectional moment connections was numerically studied within the context of thin-walled structures. Novel considerations in the design of CFTT columns with slenderness sections are proposed through a parametric study. A total of 70 high-fidelity finite element (FE) models are developed using ANSYS software v2022 calibrated from experimental research using similar 3D joint configurations. Furthermore, a comparison of different width-to-thickness ratios in columns was considered. The results showed that the models with a high slenderness ratio reached a stable cyclic behavior until 0.03 rad of drift, and a flexural strength of 0.8 Mp was reached for 4% of the drift ratio according to the Seismic Provisions. However, this effect slightly decreased the strength and the dissipated energy of the moment connection in comparison to columns with a high ductility ratio. Moreover, an evaluation of concrete damages shows concrete cracked for cyclic loads higher than 3% of drift. Finally, the joint configurations studied can achieve a good performance, avoiding brittle failure mechanisms and ensuring the plastic hinges in the beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Studies on Steel Structures)
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25 pages, 9689 KiB  
Review
Challenge for Chinese BIM Software Extension Comparison with International BIM Development
by Yao Wang, Bin Zhao, Ying Nie, Li Jiang and Xiaolong Zhang
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072239 - 20 Jul 2024
Viewed by 429
Abstract
This study provides an in-depth analysis of the current status of the promotion and application of BIM software in China, highlighting its differences from the international market. Chinese BIM software shows advantages in data security, cost-effectiveness, user habit adaptability, and localization standards, but [...] Read more.
This study provides an in-depth analysis of the current status of the promotion and application of BIM software in China, highlighting its differences from the international market. Chinese BIM software shows advantages in data security, cost-effectiveness, user habit adaptability, and localization standards, but faces challenges in terms of technological maturity and ecosystem development. By employing bibliometric methods and utilizing literature resources from CNKI and the Web of Science, the study offers a comprehensive analysis of the market and policy environment and proposes targeted recommendations. The study indicates that Chinese BIM software has significant advantages in enhancing data security and cost-effectiveness but lacks technological maturity and requires improvements in ecosystem development. User habits are crucial for the promotion of BIM software, and the localization and adaptability of the software need further enhancement. To promote the widespread application of BIM in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industries, a robust market mechanism needs to be established. The government should strengthen policy support and improve regulatory frameworks; software developers should enhance product functionality and work closely with users; and application enterprises should actively provide feedback to promote software improvements. Moreover, the introduction of reasonable capital and the collaboration between educational institutions and enterprises to cultivate professional talent are critical for the promotion and application of BIM technology. The research emphasizes that forming a cross-departmental joint mechanism to promote a virtuous cycle in the AEC market is key to achieving the widespread application of BIM technology. These measures can provide strong market impetus for the development of BIM software, accelerate the maturity and ecosystem construction of Chinese BIM software, and ultimately realize the comprehensive upgrading of informatization and digitization in the construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on BIM—Integrated Construction Operation Simulation)
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32 pages, 7628 KiB  
Article
Building Digital Twins to Overcome Digitalization Barriers for Automating Construction Site Management
by Jorge Torres, Rosa San-Mateos, Natalia Lasarte, Asier Mediavilla, Maialen Sagarna and Iñigo León
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072238 - 20 Jul 2024
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Construction sites are highly unpredictable environments involving a wide variety of stakeholders with complex information exchanges, which lead to the well-known inefficiencies and unproductivity of the construction sector. The adoption of Building Digital Twins (BDT) in the construction site is a promising solution [...] Read more.
Construction sites are highly unpredictable environments involving a wide variety of stakeholders with complex information exchanges, which lead to the well-known inefficiencies and unproductivity of the construction sector. The adoption of Building Digital Twins (BDT) in the construction site is a promising solution to this issue, by automating data acquisition and knowledge extraction processes and providing what-if scenario simulation capabilities. Furthermore, the current research sets the principles to define, replicate, and scale-up the architecture of a Building Digital Twin Platform (BDTP), conceived as a scalar ecosystem, which allows to seamlessly manage on-site construction processes, integrating cross-cutting domains for the construction site optimization (Progress monitoring, Quality control, Operational Health and Safety, Equipment control, and Production planning). The starting point of the research is a comprehensive diagnosis of on-site process inefficiencies and the barriers to its digitalization leading to the user requirements, which have been underpinned by questionnaires and interviews addressed within an open innovation user-centered approach around Living Labs. The research has been conceived following the Design Science Research (DSR) methodology and based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) analysis for the continuous improvement of the construction process. By means of the adoption of the standard Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), based on the BDTP architecture, the research has resulted in BPMN workflows stemmed from the Digital Twin (DT) where the DT itself is an actor in a service-oriented data-exchange workflow. Moreover, the use of a BDTP can pave the way for the transition from user-driven construction management to hybrid management, coexisting with both human and digital actors and merging expert knowledge with artificial intelligence techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Digital Construction Management)
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21 pages, 589 KiB  
Article
Green Skepticism? How Do Chinese College Students Feel about Green Retrofitting of College Sports Stadiums?
by Yuyang Hou, Sen Chen, Yujie Zhang, Zhening Yao and Qian Huang
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072237 - 20 Jul 2024
Viewed by 280
Abstract
This paper examined the factors influencing Chinese college students’ psychological perceptions of green retrofitting of college sports stadiums. It focused on the roles of green skepticism, future rational cognition, and future perceptual cognition. A total of 551 college students from five universities in [...] Read more.
This paper examined the factors influencing Chinese college students’ psychological perceptions of green retrofitting of college sports stadiums. It focused on the roles of green skepticism, future rational cognition, and future perceptual cognition. A total of 551 college students from five universities in Xi’an were tested. The results indicated that college students’ green skepticism, future rational cognition, future perceptual cognition, and psychological perceptions of green retrofitting of college sports stadiums were at a moderate level and that green skepticism had a significant and negative influence on college students’ psychological perceptions of green retrofitting of college sports stadiums. Green skepticism was a significant negative predictor of environmental values (β = −0.183, p < 0.001), natural empathy (β = −0.164, p < 0.001), and moral elevation (β = −0.187, p < 0.001). In addition, future rational cognition and future perceptual cognition served as parallel mediators in the college students’ psychological perceptions of green retrofitting of stadiums. It is notable that the mediating effect of future rational cognition was greater than that of future perceptual cognition. The findings indicate that resolving green skepticism and enhancing transparency and trust are crucial for enhancing college students’ psychological perceptions and the behavioral benefits of green retrofitting of college sports stadiums. Furthermore, the facilitating effect of future rational cognition and future perceptual cognition assists college students in making more rational and ethical decisions and in garnering broad support for environmental actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Building Design and Construction for a Sustainable Future)
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18 pages, 8845 KiB  
Article
Study on the Mechanical Performance, Durability, and Microscopic Mechanism of Cement Mortar Modified by a Composite of Graphene Oxide and Nano-Calcium Carbonate
by Weicheng Su, Changjiang Liu, Wei Bao, Zhoulian Zheng, Guangyi Ma, Yaojun Deng and Weihua Ye
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072236 - 20 Jul 2024
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Nano-calcium carbonate (NC) is a novel ultrafine solid powder material that possesses quantum size effects, small size effects, surface effects, and macroscopic quantum effects that ordinary calcium carbonate lacks. As a nanomaterial with superior properties, graphene oxide (GO) has been studied extensively in [...] Read more.
Nano-calcium carbonate (NC) is a novel ultrafine solid powder material that possesses quantum size effects, small size effects, surface effects, and macroscopic quantum effects that ordinary calcium carbonate lacks. As a nanomaterial with superior properties, graphene oxide (GO) has been studied extensively in the field of construction. In microscopic characterization, the reaction between NC and tricalcium aluminate (C3A) formed a new hydration product, hydrated calcium aluminum carbonate (C3A·CaCO3·11H2O), which enhanced the arrangement of hydration products and optimized the distribution of pore size in the mortar. Regarding the mechanical properties, the addition of GO and NC significantly enhanced the early-age mechanical performance of the mortar. In terms of durability, the incorporation of GO and NC significantly improved the water permeability, chloride ion permeability, and resistance to sulfate attack of the cement mortar. In this study, it was found that adding 1 wt% NC and 0.02 wt% GO not only improves the mechanical and durability properties but also promotes the hydration reaction according to the microstructure analysis. With the help of NC, compared with other studies, the amount of GO is reduced, while the cost is reduced, and the application of GO in the field of cement-based materials is promoted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Studies in Concrete Materials)
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20 pages, 5247 KiB  
Article
Design With, Not For, Local Community: Utilizing e-Participation Tools in the Design of Socially Sustainable Vertical Emirati Public Housing
by Omar Sherzad M. Shareef and Khaled Galal Ahmed
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072235 - 20 Jul 2024
Viewed by 312
Abstract
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is slowly transitioning from traditional single-family public housing to a ‘vertical’ typology to meet the increasing demand on public housing, solve the problem of the scarcity of land in urban areas, and contribute to achieving its local agenda [...] Read more.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is slowly transitioning from traditional single-family public housing to a ‘vertical’ typology to meet the increasing demand on public housing, solve the problem of the scarcity of land in urban areas, and contribute to achieving its local agenda for sustainable development goals. However, the direct involvement of Emirati residents in the design process of the recently developed limited number of vertical public housing projects has been missing. This research aims to involve a sample of Emirati residents, representing the targeted category for vertical public housing, in the pre-occupancy evaluation of the design of Al Ghurfa, the very recently developed vertical public housing project, focusing mainly on assessing the attainment of social sustainability in this design. The research method included four phases, including initiating a conceptual framework from relevant literature reviews, digitalizing the case study design, developing the conventional and e-Participation interview scenarios and scripts, and selecting a sample of Emirati young citizens who participated in the study. The results of the study successfully highlighted the participating residents’ preferences and concerns regarding the design of the investigated pioneering vertical public housing project. The findings revealed the interviewed citizens’ perceptions of the investigated social sustainability principles in the vertical housing design pertaining to mixed-use development within and outside the vertical residential building, social integration among neighbors of the building, vertical and horizontal accessibility inside and outside the building, security measures for the residents of the buildings and their privacy, design measures of the high-quality living environments, the user-responsive design of the housing units, and the importance of their involvement in the design. This helped propose a set of recommended design actions for attaining social sustainability in vertical housing design tailored to the specific needs of Emirati residents. The research has also revealed the successful merger between the conventional and advanced e-Participation tools in involving the residents in assessing the professional design of vertical public housing as a new emerging typology that is expected to prevail in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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21 pages, 6146 KiB  
Article
Controlling Seepage Flow Beneath Hydraulic Structures: Effects of Floor Openings and Sheet Pile Wall Cracks
by Mohamed Farouk
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072234 - 20 Jul 2024
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Using one opening (filter) within the floors of hydraulic structures is a known technique to relieve the seepage effects on their floors. In this study, a new method to control seepage flow by using two identical filters instead of one was tackled numerically. [...] Read more.
Using one opening (filter) within the floors of hydraulic structures is a known technique to relieve the seepage effects on their floors. In this study, a new method to control seepage flow by using two identical filters instead of one was tackled numerically. A comparative analysis of using one versus two filters was conducted for different thicknesses of the permeable stratum, apron size (b), filter length, and sheet pile wall depths. Results indicate that two filters are considerably more effective than using one where the overall uplift force, the maximum potential head, and the hydraulic exit gradient downstream of the floor are reduced to 42–56%, 42–51%, and 66–76%, respectively, compared to one filter, while slightly increasing seepage flow by 1–7%. Many reasons can lead to horizontal openings (cracks) appearing along the sheet pile walls beneath hydraulic structures. The current study tackled their effects on seepage flow for the first time and examined their impact on the floor. A crack in the upstream sheet pile wall can increase total uplift forces by up to 40%, while a crack in the downstream sheet pile wall can increase the hydraulic exit gradient by up to 230% Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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17 pages, 10412 KiB  
Article
Bond Behavior and Failure Mechanisms of the Interface between Engineered Cementitious Composites and Shaped Steel
by Jiaojiao Pan, Zhenbin Huang, Tingting Lu and Mingke Deng
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072233 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Due to their excellent ductility and crack-control ability, engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) combined with shaped steel can produce steel-reinforced engineering cementitious composite (SRECC) structures which exhibit significant advantages in prefabricated buildings. The interface bond behavior is the base for the cooperative working performance [...] Read more.
Due to their excellent ductility and crack-control ability, engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) combined with shaped steel can produce steel-reinforced engineering cementitious composite (SRECC) structures which exhibit significant advantages in prefabricated buildings. The interface bond behavior is the base for the cooperative working performance of the shaped steel and ECC. This study included push-out tests of one ordinary concrete control specimen and ten ECC specimens. The various parameters were the ECC compressive strength, fiber volume content, cover thickness, and the embedded length of shaped steel. The bond stress–slip curves at the loading and free end were obtained, and the effects of various parameters on the characteristic points of curves were analyzed. The results indicated that the ordinary concrete specimen failed in brittle splitting, with the cracks completely penetrating the surface of the specimen. Due to the fiber-bridging effect in ECCs effectively preventing the development and extension of cracks, the shaped steel at the free end was obviously pushed out, and the surrounding matrix maintained good integrity after testing finished. For ECC specimens, bond or splitting-bond failure occurred, exhibiting outstanding ductility. Compared with the ordinary concrete specimen, the standard ultimate and residual bond strength of ECC specimens improved by 37.9% and 27.4%, respectively. Besides the increase in ECC compressive strength, the fiber volume content and cover thickness had a significant positive influence on the ultimate and residual bond strength, whereas the effect of the embedded length was the opposite. Finally, the calculation equations of characteristic bond strength were proposed, and the calculated values matched well with the experimental values. Full article
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18 pages, 11890 KiB  
Article
Geographic Information System-Based Approach and Analysis of Housing Mismatches in Searches during Housing Selection
by To Quyen Le and Le-Vinh-Lam Doan
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072232 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 287
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the spatial interaction between search flow and house price levels. It utilized migration flow data from 2011 and house price data from the same year in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. The methodology included Chi-square tests and a series [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the spatial interaction between search flow and house price levels. It utilized migration flow data from 2011 and house price data from the same year in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. The methodology included Chi-square tests and a series of visual maps to explore and visualize the relationship between current areas and search areas. The study examined five house price ranges with matches and mismatches between search patterns and current patterns and tried to illuminate the underlying causes. The research results could prove beneficial for policymakers and planners in discerning distinct migratory patterns and geographical regions, thereby facilitating the formulation of well-informed decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real Estate, Housing and Urban Governance)
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25 pages, 9922 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Use of Hydraulic Modified Sulfur Powder in Concrete Pavements: Laboratory Testing and Field Application
by Sangwoo Oh and Seongcheol Choi
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072231 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 264
Abstract
This study comprehensively evaluates the field applicability of hydraulic modified sulfur (HMS) as a concrete additive. We assessed the microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties, and durability performance of HMS at various replacement ratios in a laboratory setting. In addition, a field study was conducted [...] Read more.
This study comprehensively evaluates the field applicability of hydraulic modified sulfur (HMS) as a concrete additive. We assessed the microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties, and durability performance of HMS at various replacement ratios in a laboratory setting. In addition, a field study was conducted by removing an existing conventional concrete pavement measuring (6000 × 12,000 × 70 mm, W × L × T) and overlaying it with HMS concrete. The experimental results revealed that HMS enhanced the mechanical and durability performance when used as a cement replacement at rates below 9%. These results satisfied the quality control standards and performance criteria specified in the Korean standard specification for cement-concrete pavements. The comparative analysis revealed that HMS concrete outperformed conventional concrete mixtures by 62.6% in sulfuric acid penetration depth, 14.8% in compressive strength retention after sulfuric acid immersion, and 53.1% in chloride-ion penetration resistance. Furthermore, no anomalies were detected during the 3-month follow-up period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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21 pages, 5700 KiB  
Article
Research on Design Methods for Interactive Spaces in Schools for Children with Intellectual Disabilities Considering User Needs
by Hui Liu, Jinhui Zhu, Peng Ni, Yujia Li and Shiyuan Li
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072230 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 335
Abstract
To scientifically enhance user perception in decision-making for designing interactive spaces in schools for children with intellectual disabilities, we propose an innovative design model that integrates the Kano model, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and Axiomatic Design (AD) theories based on user needs. Initially, [...] Read more.
To scientifically enhance user perception in decision-making for designing interactive spaces in schools for children with intellectual disabilities, we propose an innovative design model that integrates the Kano model, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and Axiomatic Design (AD) theories based on user needs. Initially, multi-method research was used to gather the original user requirements which were then refined through data cleaning to establish the initial user needs. The Kano model was then employed to categorize these initial user needs. AHP was then used to construct a hierarchical analysis model for the interactive spaces in schools for children with intellectual disabilities, creating a judgment matrix to accurately calculate demand weight values at each level. Subsequently, AHP was used to select the most important demand items. The independence axiom of AD theory was used to achieve a “Z”-shaped mapping between the functional requirements (FRs) and design parameters (DPs) for the interactive spaces in schools for children with intellectual disabilities. This mapping was analyzed using a matrix approach to assess the design rationality and optimize solutions, thereby transforming user needs into design parameters. Finally, the design parameters were used to create interactive spaces through computer-aided design, and the resulting design plans were evaluated. Experimental results indicate that this design scheme effectively translates subjective concepts into specific design parameters through a qualitative and quantitative approach. This significantly enhances the user needs of interactive spaces in schools for children with intellectual disabilities and provides a scientific basis for the architectural design of these schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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9 pages, 1807 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Spatial Distribution of the Sedimentation Rate of Chloride Ions on a Tropical Island
by Jiezhen Hu, Wenjie Lan, Wenjuan Liu, Jingquan Wu, Peichang Deng and Dahai Liu
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072229 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Chlorine ions in the air are a key factor in the corrosion of offshore buildings. Mastering the distribution law of the chloride ion settlement rate (RCl) in three-dimensional (3D) spatiality is helpful in protecting offshore buildings. The self-designed [...] Read more.
Chlorine ions in the air are a key factor in the corrosion of offshore buildings. Mastering the distribution law of the chloride ion settlement rate (RCl) in three-dimensional (3D) spatiality is helpful in protecting offshore buildings. The self-designed “kite-hanging wet candle method” was used to collect chloride ions in the air, using ion chromatography to analyze the chloride ion concentration of the sample solution, and obtained the annual RCl in the offshore atmosphere at different vertical heights, using the Pearson correlation coefficient method to analyze the influence of environmental factors on the RCl. The results show that the RCl has a significant linear relationship with temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. Among them, the RCl is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with wind speed and relative humidity. In the vertical height range of 10–100 m, the RCl presents a “”-shaped distribution. In the range of 10–30 m, the RCl is mainly controlled by the impact of ocean spray; in the range of 30–80 m, the RCl is mainly controlled by marine aerosols; and in the range of 80 m–100 m, the RCl is mainly controlled by marine aerosols and wind speed. Under the influence of wind direction and wind speed, the RCl of the windward side is higher than that of the leeward side at different monitoring points, which are close to the coastline and at a low vertical height. Studying the distribution of the RCl in 3D spatiality can effectively prevent and reduce its impact on offshore buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate)
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21 pages, 7018 KiB  
Article
Digital Horizons in Construction: A Comprehensive System for Excellence in Project Management
by Salazar Santos Fonseca, Patricia Aguilera Benito and Carolina Piña Ramírez
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072228 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 445
Abstract
In today’s competitive construction industry, companies are under increasing pressure to enhance efficiency and productivity. This research examines how digitalization can address issues such as market instability, low productivity, lack of investment in innovation, workforce issues, and management deficiencies. It explores the potential [...] Read more.
In today’s competitive construction industry, companies are under increasing pressure to enhance efficiency and productivity. This research examines how digitalization can address issues such as market instability, low productivity, lack of investment in innovation, workforce issues, and management deficiencies. It explores the potential of technologies like Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Lean Construction (LC) to improve project management. The “House of COANFI” framework, integrating Lean principles with strategy, process, projects, and people, is proposed as a solution for enhancing project management, promoting organizational coherence, continuous improvement, and technological adoption. The methodology includes a literature survey, stakeholder workshops, developing an information system, and validation through case studies. Key findings highlight the benefits of COANFI implementation, including better data management, improved productivity, collaborative integration, and organizational learning. However, challenges such as resistance to change, data quality issues, and integration complexity must be addressed. The study concludes that digitalization, supported by frameworks like COANFI, can significantly enhance efficiency and competitiveness. Future research should validate these methodologies in real-world applications, explore strategies for managing organizational change, and investigate the impact of digital technologies on sustainability, helping the construction sector achieve long-term growth and sustainability. Full article
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17 pages, 5249 KiB  
Article
Study on Stability and Deformation Characteristics of Ultra-Deep Diaphragm Wall during Trench Excavation
by Jianhua Ma, Gang Hu, Rui Rui, Ruiheng Ding and Tianjian Sun
Buildings 2024, 14(7), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14072227 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 242
Abstract
The stability and deformation during trenching of ultra-deep diaphragm walls have a greater impact on the construction of diaphragm walls. The conventional limit equilibrium method, known as the vertical slices method, assumes homogeneity within the rock and soil mass, making it challenging to [...] Read more.
The stability and deformation during trenching of ultra-deep diaphragm walls have a greater impact on the construction of diaphragm walls. The conventional limit equilibrium method, known as the vertical slices method, assumes homogeneity within the rock and soil mass, making it challenging to account for their stratification. Based on the limit equilibrium method, the horizontal strip method takes into account the stratification of the foundation soil. Based on the actual project, considering the different mud unit weights and heights, the horizontal strip method was used to analyze the stability of the groove trench and analyze the deformation law of the groove trench by the finite element method. The results indicate the following: The horizontal strip method can effectively assess the influence law of mud weight and height on the safety coefficient of groove trench stabilization. The higher the unit weight and level of slurry, the greater the wall safety coefficient. Moreover, the mud unit weight obtained by the horizontal strip method is about 12.70~12.64 kN/m3, which is close to the actual maximum mud weight of 12.5 kN/m3. The estimated mud unit weight aligns more closely with actual conditions. Additionally, through finite element analysis, the deformation law of the groove trench of ultra-deep diaphragm walls has been analyzed and summarized. The soil around the groove trench does not move inward, which shows three different deformation modes with different depths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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