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Galaxies, Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 55 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Dynamically disturbed clusters have been found to host diffuse radio emission in the form of radio halos and radio relics. In-depth studies of such merging clusters are needed to understand the composition and underlying physics of the ICM in extremely turbulent environments. These environments can be well studied through multi-wavelength observations that have revealed substructures and features in dynamically disturbed clusters. This study aims to perform a multiwavelength follow-up of ACT-CL J0019.6+0336 in which a radio halo exists, to further understand the cluster dynamics, morphology, and ICM. XMM-Netwon, Dark Energy Survey optical data, and previously published MeerKAT radio data are used in combination to calculate various morphology parameters to investigate the level of disturbance.View this paper
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33 pages, 1307 KiB  
Article
Review of Solutions to the Cusp-Core Problem of the ΛCDM Model
by Antonino Del Popolo and Morgan Le Delliou
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040123 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4861
Abstract
This review aims at proposing to the field an overview of the Cusp-core problem, including a discussion of its advocated solutions, assessing how each can satisfactorily provide a description of central densities. Whether the Cusp-core problem reflects our insufficient grasp on the nature [...] Read more.
This review aims at proposing to the field an overview of the Cusp-core problem, including a discussion of its advocated solutions, assessing how each can satisfactorily provide a description of central densities. Whether the Cusp-core problem reflects our insufficient grasp on the nature of dark matter, of gravity, on the impact of baryonic interactions with dark matter at those scales, as included in semi-analytical models or fully numerical codes, the solutions to it can point either to the need for a paradigm change in cosmology, or to to our lack of success in ironing out the finer details of the ΛCDM paradigm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Our Understanding of Dwarf Galaxies)
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20 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
The Photometric and Spectroscopic Properties of Remnant and Restarted Radio Galaxies in the Lockman Hole Field
by Nika Jurlin, Raffaella Morganti, Natasha Maddox and Marisa Brienza
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040122 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2561
Abstract
Radio galaxies are known to undergo phases of activity, where the stage after the jets have switched off is referred to as the remnant phase. This state can be followed by a restarted phase when the activity reignites. Remnant and restarted radio sources [...] Read more.
Radio galaxies are known to undergo phases of activity, where the stage after the jets have switched off is referred to as the remnant phase. This state can be followed by a restarted phase when the activity reignites. Remnant and restarted radio sources are important for testing models of the evolution of radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) and for understanding the impact the recurrent jet activity has on their host galaxies. Although we now have statistical samples of radio sources in various stages of their life cycle, how this intermittent radio activity is reflected in the optical properties in this sample has not yet been addressed, and is overall a much less studied aspect in the literature. In this work, we use the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry, and SDSS spectra to study these properties in a sample of the remnant, candidate restarted, and active radio galaxies selected using the LOw Frequency ARray at 150 MHz in the Lockman Hole extragalactic field. Within the range of radio luminosities and stellar masses studied in this work, we find no difference between the properties of the host galaxy and of the optical emission lines for objects in different phases of their radio life cycle. The vast majority of our radio sources (either remnant, candidate restarted, or comparison sample) are associated with radiatively inefficient optical AGN and red galaxies dominated by old stellar populations. Thus, the radio and emission-line AGN activity appears to be independent and regulated by different mechanisms. This suggests that, at least for the radio luminosities of our sample, the life cycle of the radio may depend on intrinsic reasons, such as the stability of the accretion disc, more than variation in the accretion rate and fuelling of the central black hole. Full article
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21 pages, 3759 KiB  
Article
Remnant Radio Galaxy Candidates of Small Angular Sizes
by Veeresh Singh, Sushant Dutta, Yogesh Wadadekar and C. H. Ishwara-Chandra
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040121 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
Remnant radio galaxies (RRGs), characterized by the cessation of AGN activity, represent a short-lived last phase of radio galaxy’s life-cycle. Hitherto, searches for RRGs, mainly based on the morphological criteria, have identified large angular size sources resulting into a bias towards the remnants [...] Read more.
Remnant radio galaxies (RRGs), characterized by the cessation of AGN activity, represent a short-lived last phase of radio galaxy’s life-cycle. Hitherto, searches for RRGs, mainly based on the morphological criteria, have identified large angular size sources resulting into a bias towards the remnants of powerful FR-II radio galaxies. In this study we make the first attempt to perform a systematic search for RRGs of small angular sizes (<30) in the XMM–LSS field. By using spectral curvature criterion we discover 48 remnant candidates exhibiting strong spectral curvature i.e., α150MHz325MHzα325MHz1.4GHz ≥ 0.5. Spectral characteristics at higher frequency regime (>1.4 GHz) indicate that some of our remnant candidates can depict recurrent AGN activity with an active core. We place an upper limit on the remnant fraction (frem) to be 3.9%, which increases to 5.4% if flux cutoff limit of S150MHz ≥ 10 mJy is considered. Our study unveils, hitherto unexplored, a new population of small-size (<200 kpc) remnant candidates that are often found to reside in less dense environments and at higher redshifts (z) > 1.0. We speculate that a relatively shorter active phase and/or low jet power can be plausible reasons for the small size of remnant candidates. Full article
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12 pages, 1931 KiB  
Article
Distributed Architectures and Constellations for γ-ray Burst Science
by Fabrizio Fiore, Norbert Werner and Ehud Behar
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040120 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
The gravitational wave/γ-ray burst GW/GRB170817 event marked the beginning of the era of multi-messenger astrophysics, in which new observations of Gravitational Waves (GW) are combined with traditional electromagnetic observations from the very same astrophysical source. In the next few years, Advanced LIGO/VIRGO and [...] Read more.
The gravitational wave/γ-ray burst GW/GRB170817 event marked the beginning of the era of multi-messenger astrophysics, in which new observations of Gravitational Waves (GW) are combined with traditional electromagnetic observations from the very same astrophysical source. In the next few years, Advanced LIGO/VIRGO and KAGRA in Japan and LIGO-India will reach their nominal/ultimate sensitivity. In the electromagnetic domain, the Vera C. Rubin Observatory and the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will come online in the next few years, and they will revolutionize the investigation of transient and variable cosmic sources in the optical and TeV bands. The operation of an efficient X-ray/γ-ray all-sky monitor with good localisation capabilities will play a pivotal role in providing the high-energy counterparts of the GW interferometers and Rubin Observatory, bringing multi-messenger astrophysics to maturity. To reach the required precision in localisation and timeliness for an unpredictable physical event in time and space requires a sensor distribution covering the whole sky. We discuss the potential of large-scale, small-platform-distributed architectures and constellations to build a sensitive X-ray/γ-ray all-sky monitor and the programmatic implications of this, including the set-up of an efficient assembly line for both hardware development and data analysis. We also discuss the potential of a constellation of small platforms operating at other wavelengths (UV/IR) that are capable of repointing quickly to follow-up high-energy transients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gamma-Ray Burst Science in 2030)
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26 pages, 409 KiB  
Article
Lorentz Violation by the Preferred Frame Effects and Cosmic and Gamma Ray Propagation
by Georgy I. Burde
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040119 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
The ‘relativity with a preferred frame’, designed to reconcile the relativity principle with the existence of the cosmological preferred frame, incorporates the preferred frame at the level of special relativity (SR) while retaining the fundamental spacetime symmetry, which, in the standard SR, manifests [...] Read more.
The ‘relativity with a preferred frame’, designed to reconcile the relativity principle with the existence of the cosmological preferred frame, incorporates the preferred frame at the level of special relativity (SR) while retaining the fundamental spacetime symmetry, which, in the standard SR, manifests itself as Lorentz invariance. In this paper, the processes, accompanying the propagation of cosmic rays and gamma rays through the background radiation from distant sources to Earth, are considered on the basis of particle dynamics and electromagnetic field dynamics developed within the framework of the ‘relativity with a preferred frame’. Applying the theory to the photopion-production and pair-production processes shows that the modified particle dynamics and electrodynamics lead to measurable signatures in the observed cosmic and gamma-ray spectra which can provide an interpretation of some puzzling features found in the observational data. Other processes responsible for gamma-ray attenuation are considered. It is found, in particular, that electromagnetic cascades, developing on cosmic microwave background and extragalactic background light, may be reduced or suppressed due to the preferred frame effects which should influence the shape of the very high-energy gamma-ray spectra. Other possible observational consequences of the theory, such as the birefringence of light propagating in vacuo and dispersion, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lorentz Violation in Astroparticles and Gravitational Waves)
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10 pages, 408 KiB  
Article
γ-ray Flux and Spectral Variability of Blazar Ton 599 during Its 2021 Flare
by Bhoomika Rajput and Ashwani Pandey
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040118 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
Blazars are known to emit exceptionally variable non-thermal emission over the wide range (from radio to γ-rays) of electromagnetic spectrum. We present here the results of our γ-ray flux and spectral variability study of the blazar Ton 599, which has been [...] Read more.
Blazars are known to emit exceptionally variable non-thermal emission over the wide range (from radio to γ-rays) of electromagnetic spectrum. We present here the results of our γ-ray flux and spectral variability study of the blazar Ton 599, which has been recently observed in the γ-ray flaring state. Using 0.1–300 GeV γ-ray data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (hereinafter Fermi), we generated one-day binned light curve of Ton 599 for a period of about one-year from MJD 59,093 to MJD 59,457. During this one year period, the maximum γ-ray flux detected was 2.24 ± 0.25 × 106 ph cm2 s1 at MJD 59,399.50. We identified three different flux states, namely, epoch A (quiescent), epoch B (pre-flare) and epoch C (main-flare). For each epoch, we calculated the γ-ray flux variability amplitude (Fvar) and found that the source showed largest flux variations in epoch C with Fvar 35%. We modelled the γ-ray spectra for each epoch and found that the Log-parabola model adequately describes the γ-ray spectra for all the three epochs. We estimated the size of the γ-ray emitting region as 1.03 × 1016 cm and determined that the origin of γ-ray radiation, during the main-flare, could be outside of the broad line region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Understanding of Accretion and Ejection around Black Holes)
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16 pages, 6991 KiB  
Article
A GMRT Narrowband vs. Wideband Analysis of the ACT−CL J0034.4+0225 Field Selected from the ACTPol Cluster Sample
by Sinenhlanhla P. Sikhosana, Kenda Knowles, C. H. Ishwara-Chandra, Matt Hilton, Kavilan Moodley and Neeraj Gupta
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040117 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2168
Abstract
Low frequency radio observations of galaxy clusters are a useful probe of the non-thermal intracluster medium (ICM), through observations of diffuse radio emission such as radio halos and relics. Current formation theories cannot fully account for some of the observed properties of this [...] Read more.
Low frequency radio observations of galaxy clusters are a useful probe of the non-thermal intracluster medium (ICM), through observations of diffuse radio emission such as radio halos and relics. Current formation theories cannot fully account for some of the observed properties of this emission. In this study, we focus on the development of interferometric techniques for extracting extended, faint diffuse emissions in the presence of bright, compact sources in wide-field and broadband continuum imaging data. We aim to apply these techniques to the study of radio halos, relics and radio mini-halos using a uniformly selected and complete sample of galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) project, and its polarimetric extension (ACTPol). We use the upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (uGMRT) for targeted radio observations of a sample of 40 clusters. We present an overview of our sample, confirm the detection of a radio halo in ACT−CL J0034.4+0225, and compare the narrowband and wideband analysis results for this cluster. Due to the complexity of the ACT−CL J0034.4+0225 field, we use three pipelines to process the wideband data. We conclude that the experimental spam wideband pipeline produces the best results for this particular field. However, due to the severe artefacts in the field, further analysis is required to improve the image quality. Full article
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13 pages, 6495 KiB  
Review
Role of Magnetic Fields in Ram Pressure Stripped Galaxies
by Ancla Müller, Alessandro Ignesti, Bianca Poggianti, Alessia Moretti, Mpati Ramatsoku and Ralf-Jürgen Dettmar
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040116 - 11 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2386
Abstract
Ram-pressure stripping is a crucial evolutionary driver for cluster galaxies and jellyfish galaxies characterized by very extended tails of stripped gas, and they are the most striking examples of it in action. Recently, those extended tails are found to show ongoing star formation, [...] Read more.
Ram-pressure stripping is a crucial evolutionary driver for cluster galaxies and jellyfish galaxies characterized by very extended tails of stripped gas, and they are the most striking examples of it in action. Recently, those extended tails are found to show ongoing star formation, raising the question of how the stripped, cold gas can survive long enough to form new stars outside the stellar disk. In this study, we summarize the most recent results achieved within the GASP collaboration to provide a holistic explanation for this phenomenon. We focus on two textbook examples of jellyfish galaxies, JO206 and JW100, for which, via multi-wavelength observations from radio to X-ray and numerical simulations, we have explored the different gas phases (neutral, molecular, diffuse-ionized, and hot). Based on additional multi-phase gas studies, we now propose a scenario of stripped tail evolution including all phases that are driven by a magnetic draping sheath, where the intracluster turbulent magnetized plasma condenses onto the galaxy disk and tail and produces a magnetized interface that protects the stripped galaxy tail gas from evaporation. In such a scenario, the accreted environmental plasma can cool down and eventually join the tail gas, hence providing additional gas to form stars. The implications of our findings can shed light on the more general scenario of draping, condensation, and cooling of hot gas surrounding cold clouds that is fundamental in many astrophysical phenomena. Full article
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13 pages, 650 KiB  
Article
Multi-Wavelength Study of a Proto-BCG at z = 1.7
by Quirino D’Amato, Isabella Prandoni, Marisa Brienza, Roberto Gilli, Cristian Vignali, Rosita Paladino, Francesca Loi, Marcella Massardi, Marco Mignoli, Stefano Marchesi, Alessandro Peca and Preshanth Jagannathan
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040115 - 7 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
In this work we performed a spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis in the optical/infrared band of the host galaxy of a proto-brightest bluster galaxy (BCG, NVSS J103023 + 052426) in a proto-cluster at z = 1.7. We found that it features a vigorous [...] Read more.
In this work we performed a spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis in the optical/infrared band of the host galaxy of a proto-brightest bluster galaxy (BCG, NVSS J103023 + 052426) in a proto-cluster at z = 1.7. We found that it features a vigorous star formation rate (SFR) of ∼570 M/yr and a stellar mass of M*3.7×1011M; the high corresponding specific SFR = 1.5±0.5Gyr1 classifies this object as a starburst galaxy that will deplete its molecular gas reservoir in ∼3.5×108 yr. Thus, this system represents a rare example of a proto-BCG caught during the short phase of its major stellar mass assembly. Moreover, we investigated the nature of the host galaxy emission at 3.3 mm. We found that it originates from the cold dust in the interstellar medium, even though a minor non-thermal AGN contribution cannot be completely ruled out. Finally, we studied the polarized emission of the lobes at 1.4 GHz. We unveiled a patchy structure where the polarization fraction increases in the regions in which the total intensity shows a bending morphology; in addition, the magnetic field orientation follows the direction of the bendings. We interpret these features as possible indications of an interaction with the intracluster medium. This strengthens the hypothesis of positive AGN feedback, as inferred in previous studies of this object on the basis of X-ray/mm/radio analysis. In this scenario, the proto-BCG heats the surrounding medium and possibly enhances the SFR in nearby galaxies. Full article
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27 pages, 9202 KiB  
Article
The Nature of Micro-Variability in Blazars
by James R. Webb, Viviana Arroyave, Douglas Laurence, Stephen Revesz, Gopal Bhatta, Hal Hollingsworth, Sarah Dhalla, Emily Howard and Michael Cioffi
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040114 - 4 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3250
Abstract
We present the results of a long-term study designed to investigate the nature of micro-variability in blazars carried out primarily at the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA) observatories. We analyzed micro-variability data of fifteen OVV quasars and BL Lac sources collected [...] Read more.
We present the results of a long-term study designed to investigate the nature of micro-variability in blazars carried out primarily at the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA) observatories. We analyzed micro-variability data of fifteen OVV quasars and BL Lac sources collected from 1995 to 2021. The data set consists of single-band light curves interspersed with multi-color and micro-variability observations. This paper reports over 900 nights of CCD observations. We also incorporated observations from other observers as well as observations gleaned from the literature into our analysis. We employed differential photometry to measure magnitudes and then construct the long-term and micro-variability light curves. Our results indicate that there is no correlation between the presence of micro-variations and the brightness of the source. We present a viable theory to explain the intermittent micro-variability as pulses of radiation emitted by individual turbulent cells in the relativistic jet, which are stimulated by a passing shock wave. We present model fits and test results for various data sets, including WEBT light curves, Kepler light curves and a TESS light curve. Although the consensus in the community is that blazar jets must be turbulent, the identification of micro-variations as manifestations of actual turbulent cells is important for modeling these turbulent jets. We can obtain estimates of cell sizes (assuming a shock speed), and the distribution of cell sizes derived from observations is consistent with numerical simulation predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Messenger and Multi-Timescale Variability in Blazars)
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5 pages, 1138 KiB  
Review
The SVOM Mission
by Maria Grazia Bernardini, Bertrand Cordier and Jianyan Wei
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040113 - 4 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
SVOM (Space-based multiband astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is a sino-french mission that is dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) science, expected to be launched in mid 2023. The mission includes four space-based and three ground-based instruments that, working together, will discover GRBs and provide [...] Read more.
SVOM (Space-based multiband astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is a sino-french mission that is dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) science, expected to be launched in mid 2023. The mission includes four space-based and three ground-based instruments that, working together, will discover GRBs and provide rapid multi-wavelength follow-up in order to obtain a complete coverage of the GRB emission over seven decades in energy, from the trigger up to the very late phases of the afterglow. Thanks to its characteristics, SVOM will play a crucial role in time-domain and multi-messenger astronomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gamma-Ray Burst Science in 2030)
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6 pages, 2275 KiB  
Article
Spectral Index of the Filaments in the Abell 523 Radio Halo
by Valentina Vacca, Federica Govoni, Richard A. Perley, Matteo Murgia, Ettore Carretti, Francesca Loi, Luigina Feretti and Gabriele Giovannini
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040112 - 4 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
The galaxy cluster Abell 523 hosts a radio halo characterized by the presence of two filaments transversely located with respect to the cluster merger axis. In this paper, we present a spectral index image of these filaments between 1.410 and 1.782 GHz obtained [...] Read more.
The galaxy cluster Abell 523 hosts a radio halo characterized by the presence of two filaments transversely located with respect to the cluster merger axis. In this paper, we present a spectral index image of these filaments between 1.410 and 1.782 GHz obtained with Jansky Very Large Array observations. We find a steepening of the spectral index of the filaments at frequencies ≳1.4 GHz and an indication that bright patches are characterized by flat spectral indices. Our results are consistent with a scenario of highly-efficient turbulence induced by merger phenomena. Full article
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11 pages, 1039 KiB  
Article
Modelling the Energy Spectra of Radio Relics
by Denis Wittor, Matthias Hoeft and Marcus Brüggen
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040111 - 1 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2260
Abstract
Radio relics are diffuse synchrotron sources that illuminate shock waves in the intracluster medium. In recent years, radio telescopes have provided detailed observations about relics. Consequently, cosmological simulations of radio relics need to provide a similar amount of detail. In this methodological work, [...] Read more.
Radio relics are diffuse synchrotron sources that illuminate shock waves in the intracluster medium. In recent years, radio telescopes have provided detailed observations about relics. Consequently, cosmological simulations of radio relics need to provide a similar amount of detail. In this methodological work, we include information on adiabatic compression and expansion, which have been neglected in the past in the modelling of relics. In a cosmological simulation of a merging galaxy cluster, we follow the energy spectra of shock accelerated cosmic-ray electrons using Lagrangian tracer particles. On board of each tracer particle, we compute the temporal evolution of the energy spectrum under the influence of synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering, and adiabatic compression and expansion. Exploratory tests show that the total radio power and, hence, the integrated radio spectrum are not sensitive to the adiabatic processes. This is attributed to small changes in the compression ratio over time. Full article
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34 pages, 10950 KiB  
Article
Hot Spots Drift in Synchronous and Asynchronous Polars: Results of Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation
by Dmitry Bisikalo, Andrey Sobolev and Andrey Zhilkin
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040110 - 28 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
In this paper, the characteristics of hot spots on an accretor surface are investigated for two types of polars: the eclipsing synchronous polar V808 Aur and the non-eclipsing asynchronous polar CD Ind in configuration of an offset and non-offset magnetic dipole. The drift [...] Read more.
In this paper, the characteristics of hot spots on an accretor surface are investigated for two types of polars: the eclipsing synchronous polar V808 Aur and the non-eclipsing asynchronous polar CD Ind in configuration of an offset and non-offset magnetic dipole. The drift of hot spots is analyzed based on the results of numerical calculations and maps of the temperature distribution over the accretor surface. It is shown that a noticeable displacement of the spots is determined by the ratio of ballistic and magnetic parts of the jet trajectory. In the synchronous polar, the dominant influence on the drift of hot spots is exerted by variations in the mass transfer rate, which entail a change in the ballistic part of the trajectory. It was found that when the mass transfer rate changes within the range of 1010M/year to 107M/year, the displacement of the hot spot in latitude and longitude can reach 30. In the asynchronous polar, a change in the position of hot spots is mainly defined by the properties of the white dwarf magnetosphere, and the displacement of hot spots in latitude and longitude can reach 20. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What’s New under the Binary Suns)
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24 pages, 12253 KiB  
Article
Magnetogenesis and the Cosmic Web: A Joint Challenge for Radio Observations and Numerical Simulations
by Franco Vazza, Nicola Locatelli, Kamlesh Rajpurohit, Serena Banfi, Paola Domínguez-Fernández, Denis Wittor, Matteo Angelinelli, Giannandrea Inchingolo, Marisa Brienza, Stefan Hackstein, Daniele Dallacasa, Claudio Gheller, Marcus Brüggen, Gianfranco Brunetti, Annalisa Bonafede, Stefano Ettori, Chiara Stuardi, Daniela Paoletti and Fabio Finelli
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040109 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3490
Abstract
The detection of the radio signal from filaments in the cosmic web is crucial to distinguish possible magnetogenesis scenarios. We review the status of the different attempts to detect the cosmic web at radio wavelengths. This is put into the context of the [...] Read more.
The detection of the radio signal from filaments in the cosmic web is crucial to distinguish possible magnetogenesis scenarios. We review the status of the different attempts to detect the cosmic web at radio wavelengths. This is put into the context of the advanced simulations of cosmic magnetism carried out in the last few years by our MAGCOW project. While first attempts of imaging the cosmic web with the MWA and LOFAR have been encouraging and could discard some magnetogenesis models, the complexity behind such observations makes a definitive answer still uncertain. A combination of total intensity and polarimetric data at low radio frequencies that the SKA and LOFAR2.0 will achieve is key to removing the existing uncertainties related to the contribution of many possible sources of signal along deep lines of sight. This will make it possible to isolate the contribution from filaments, and expose its deep physical connection with the origin of extragalactic magnetism. Full article
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19 pages, 1120 KiB  
Article
Radio and X-ray Observations of the Restarted Radio Galaxy in the Galaxy Cluster CL 0838+1948
by Simona Giacintucci, Tracy Clarke, Namir E. Kassim, Wendy Peters and Emil Polisensky
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040108 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2749
Abstract
We present VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE) 338 MHz observations of the galaxy cluster CL 0838+1948. We combine the VLITE data with Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 610 MHz observations and survey data. The central galaxy hosts a 250 kpc source whose [...] Read more.
We present VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE) 338 MHz observations of the galaxy cluster CL 0838+1948. We combine the VLITE data with Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 610 MHz observations and survey data. The central galaxy hosts a 250 kpc source whose emission is dominated by two large lobes at low frequencies. At higher frequencies, a pair of smaller lobes (∼30 kpc) is detected within the galaxy optical envelope. The observed morphology is consistent with a restarted radio galaxy. The outer lobes have a spectral index αout=1.6, indicating that they are old, whereas the inner lobes have αinn=0.6, typical for an active source. Spectral modeling confirms that the outer emission is a dying source whose nuclear activity switched off not more than 110 Myr ago. Using archival Chandra X-ray data, we compare the radio and hot gas emission. We find that the active radio source is contained within the innermost and X-ray brightest region, possibly a galactic corona. Alternatively, it could be the remnant of a larger cool core whose outer layers have been heated by the former epoch of activity that has generated the outer lobes. Full article
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15 pages, 1417 KiB  
Article
How Are Red and Blue Quasars Different? The Radio Properties
by Victoria A. Fawcett, David M. Alexander, David J. Rosario and Lizelke Klindt
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040107 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2700
Abstract
A non-negligible fraction of quasars are red at optical wavelengths, indicating (in the majority of cases) that the accretion disc is obscured by a column of dust which extinguishes the shorter-wavelength blue emission. In this paper, we summarize recent work by our group, [...] Read more.
A non-negligible fraction of quasars are red at optical wavelengths, indicating (in the majority of cases) that the accretion disc is obscured by a column of dust which extinguishes the shorter-wavelength blue emission. In this paper, we summarize recent work by our group, where we find fundamental differences in the radio properties of SDSS optically-selected red quasars. We also present new analyses, using a consistent color-selected quasar parent sample matched to four radio surveys (FIRST, VLA Stripe 82, VLA COSMOS 3 GHz, and LoTSS DR1) across a frequency range 144 MHz–3 GHz and four orders of magnitude in radio flux. We show that red quasars have enhanced small-scale radio emission (∼kpc) that peaks around the radio-quiet threshold (defined as the ratio of 1.4 GHz luminosity to 6 μm luminosity) across the four radio samples. Exploring the potential mechanisms behind this enhancement, we rule out star-formation and propose either small-scale synchrotron jets, frustrated jets, or dusty winds interacting with the interstellar medium; the latter two scenarios would provide a more direct connection between opacity (dust; gas) and the production of the radio emission. In our future study, using new multi-band uGMRT data, we aim to robustly distinguish between these scenarios. Full article
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22 pages, 1626 KiB  
Article
The eMERLIN and EVN View of FR 0 Radio Galaxies
by Ranieri D. Baldi, Gabriele Giovannini and Alessandro Capetti
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040106 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3303
Abstract
We present the results from high-resolution observations carried out with the eMERLIN UK-array and the European VLBI network (EVN) for a sample of 15 FR 0s, i.e., compact core-dominated radio sources associated with nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), which represent the bulk of [...] Read more.
We present the results from high-resolution observations carried out with the eMERLIN UK-array and the European VLBI network (EVN) for a sample of 15 FR 0s, i.e., compact core-dominated radio sources associated with nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), which represent the bulk of the local radio galaxy population. The 5 GHz eMERLIN observations available for five objects exhibit sub-mJy core components and reveal pc-scale twin jets for four out of five FR 0s once the eMERLIN and JVLA archival visibilities data are combined. The 1.66 GHz EVN observations available for 10 FR 0s display one- and two-sided jetted morphologies and compact cores. The pc-scale core emission contributes, on average, to about one tenth of the total extended radio emission, although we noted an increasing core contribution for flat-/inverted-spectrum sources. We found an unprecedented linear correlation between the pc-scale core luminosity (∼1021.3–1023.6 W Hz1) and [O III] line luminosity, generally considered as proxy of the accretion power, for a large sample of LINER-type radio-loud low-luminosity active nuclei, all hosted in massive ETGs, which include FR 0s and FR Is. This result represents further evidence of a common jet–disc coupling in FR 0s and FR Is, despite then differing in kpc-scale radio structure. For our objects and for other FR 0 samples reported in the literature, we estimated the jet brightness sidedness ratios, which typically range between one and three. This parameter roughly gauges the jet bulk Lorentz factor Γ, which turns out to range from 1 to 2.5 for most of the sample. This corroborates the scenario that FR 0s are characterized by mildly relativistic jets, possibly as a result of lower-spinning black holes (BHs) than the highly spinning BHs of relativistic-jetted radio galaxies, FR Is. Full article
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9 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
Pilot Study and Early Results of the Cosmic Filaments and Magnetism Survey with Nenufar: The Coma Cluster Field
by Etienne Bonnassieux, Evangelia Tremou, Julien N. Girard, Alan Loh, Valentina Vacca, Stéphane Corbel, Baptiste Cecconi, Jean-Mathias Grießmeier, Léon V. E. Koopmans, Michel Tagger, Gilles Theureau and Philippe Zarka
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040105 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2331
Abstract
NenuFAR, the New Extension in Nancay Upgrading LOFAR, is currently in its early science phase. It is in this context that the Cosmic Filaments and Magnetism Pilot Survey is observing sources with the array as it is still under construction—with 57 (56 core, [...] Read more.
NenuFAR, the New Extension in Nancay Upgrading LOFAR, is currently in its early science phase. It is in this context that the Cosmic Filaments and Magnetism Pilot Survey is observing sources with the array as it is still under construction—with 57 (56 core, 1 distant) out of a total planned 102 (96 core, 6 distant) mini-arrays online at the time of observation—to get a first look at the low-frequency sky with NenuFAR. One of its targets is the Coma galaxy cluster: a well-known object, host of the prototype radio halo. It also hosts other features of scientific import, including a radio relic, along with a bridge of emission connecting it with the halo. It is thus a well-studied object.In this paper, we show the first confirmed NenuFAR detection of the radio halo and radio relic of the Coma cluster at 34.4 MHz, with associated intrinsic flux density estimates: we find an integrated flux value of 106.3 ± 3.5 Jy for the radio halo, and 102.0 ± 7.4 Jy for the radio relic. These are upper bound values, as they do not include point-source subtraction. We also give an explanation of the technical difficulties encountered in reducing the data, along with steps taken to resolve them. This will be helpful for other scientific projects which will aim to make use of standalone NenuFAR imaging observations in the future. Full article
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13 pages, 999 KiB  
Review
Electromagnetic Precursors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts as Counterparts of Gravitational Waves
by Jieshuang Wang and Liangduan Liu
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040104 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
Precursor emissions are found in some short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). In this paper, we review the theories and observations of the SGRB precursor and discuss its prospect as an electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational wave event produced by neutron star (NS) mergers. The [...] Read more.
Precursor emissions are found in some short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). In this paper, we review the theories and observations of the SGRB precursor and discuss its prospect as an electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational wave event produced by neutron star (NS) mergers. The observed luminosity, spectrum, and duration of precursors are explained by the magnetospheric interaction model during the inspiral or the cocoon/jet shock breakout model during the jet propagation. In general, these two models predict that the precursor will be weaker than the main GRB, but will be of a larger opening angle, which makes it an advantageous gamma-ray counterpart for NS mergers in the local Universe, especially for NS - black hole mergers with very low mass ratios, in which the main GRBs are not expected. The joint observation of the precursor, SGRB, and gravitational wave will help to reveal the jet launch mechanism and post-merger remnant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gamma-Ray Burst Science in 2030)
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25 pages, 1183 KiB  
Article
Quantum Gravity Phenomenology Induced in the Propagation of UHECR, a Kinematical Solution in Finsler and Generalized Finsler Spacetime
by Marco Danilo Claudio Torri
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040103 - 14 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
It is well-known that the universe is opaque to the propagation of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) since these particles dissipate energy during their propagation interacting with the background fields present in the universe, mainly with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the so-called [...] Read more.
It is well-known that the universe is opaque to the propagation of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) since these particles dissipate energy during their propagation interacting with the background fields present in the universe, mainly with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the so-called GZK cut-off phenomenon. Some experimental evidence seems to hint at the possibility of a dilation of the GZK predicted opacity sphere. It is well-known that kinematical perturbations caused by supposed quantum gravity (QG) effects can modify the foreseen GZK opacity horizon. The introduction of Lorentz Invariance Violation can indeed reduce, and in some cases making negligible, the CMB-UHECRs interaction probability. In this work, we explore the effects induced by modified kinematics in the UHECR lightest component phenomenology from the QG perspective. We explore the possibility of a geometrical description of the massive fermions interaction with the supposed quantum structure of spacetime in order to introduce a Lorentz covariance modification. The kinematics are amended, modifying the dispersion relations of free particles in the context of a covariance-preserving framework. This spacetime description requires a more general geometry than the usual Riemannian one, indicating, for instance, the Finsler construction and the related generalized Finsler spacetime as ideal candidates. Finally we investigate the correlation between the magnitude of Lorentz covariance modification and the attenuation length of the photopion production process related to the GZK cut-off, demonstrating that the predicted opacity horizon can be dilated even in the context of a theory that does not require any privileged reference frame. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lorentz Violation in Astroparticles and Gravitational Waves)
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16 pages, 1897 KiB  
Article
Discovery of Rare Dying Radio Galaxies Using MeerKAT
by Nadeem Oozeer, Lawrence Rudnick, Michael F. Bietenholz, Tiziana Venturi, Kenda Knowles, Konstantinos Kolokythas and Nceba Mhlahlo
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040102 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2637
Abstract
Dying radio galaxies represent a stage of the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGN), during which the accreting central black hole has switched off and/or falls to such a low level that the plasma outflow can no longer be sustained. When this happens, [...] Read more.
Dying radio galaxies represent a stage of the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGN), during which the accreting central black hole has switched off and/or falls to such a low level that the plasma outflow can no longer be sustained. When this happens, the radio source undergoes a period of fading, the dying phase, before it disappears completely. We present the study of three potential dying radio sources using the MeerKAT radio telescope: MKT J072851.2-752743, MKT J001940.4-654722, and ACO 548B. The identification as dying radio sources came from the MeerKAT Galaxy Cluster Legacy Survey (MGCLS). We carry out a multi-wavelength analysis of the sources and derive their energetics. The ages of the sources are ∼30–70 Myr, they have magnetic fields of the order of a few μG, and they have relatively low radio power. Their potential optical counterparts are associated with massive galaxies. We show that ACO 548B, previously classified as two peripheral relic radio sources, is a dying radio galaxy. With its good sensitivity and resolution, MeerKAT is an ideal instrument to detect potential dying radio sources, and contribute to the understanding of the evolution of AGN population. Full article
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16 pages, 6506 KiB  
Article
Detectability of Continuous Gravitational Waves from Magnetically Deformed Neutron Stars
by Jacopo Soldateschi and Niccolò Bucciantini
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040101 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2304
Abstract
Neutron stars are known to contain extremely powerful magnetic fields. Their effect is to deform the shape of the star, leading to the potential emission of continuous gravitational waves. The magnetic deformation of neutron stars, however, depends on the geometry and strength of [...] Read more.
Neutron stars are known to contain extremely powerful magnetic fields. Their effect is to deform the shape of the star, leading to the potential emission of continuous gravitational waves. The magnetic deformation of neutron stars, however, depends on the geometry and strength of their internal magnetic field as well as on their composition, described by the equation of state. Unfortunately, both the configuration of the magnetic field and the equation of state of neutron stars are unknown, and assessing the detectability of continuous gravitational waves from neutron stars suffers from these uncertainties. Using our recent results relating the magnetic deformation of a neutron star to its mass and radius—based on models with realistic equations of state currently allowed by observational and nuclear physics constraints—and considering the Galactic pulsar population, we assess the detectability of continuous gravitational waves from pulsars in the galaxy by current and future gravitational waves detectors. Full article
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15 pages, 565 KiB  
Article
Are Disks of Satellites Comprised of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies?
by Michal Bílek, Ingo Thies, Pavel Kroupa and Benoit Famaey
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040100 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
It was found that satellites of nearby galaxies can form flattened co-rotating structures called disks of satellites or planes of satellites. Their existence is not expected by the current galaxy formation simulations in the standard dark matter-based cosmology. On the contrary, modified gravity [...] Read more.
It was found that satellites of nearby galaxies can form flattened co-rotating structures called disks of satellites or planes of satellites. Their existence is not expected by the current galaxy formation simulations in the standard dark matter-based cosmology. On the contrary, modified gravity offers a promising alternative: the objects in the disks of satellites are tidal dwarf galaxies, that is, small galaxies that form from tidal tails of interacting galaxies. After introducing the topic, we review here our work on simulating the formation of the disks of satellites of the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. The initial conditions of the simulation were tuned to reproduce the observed positions, velocities and disk orientations of the galaxies. The simulation showed that the galaxies had a close flyby 6.8 Gyr ago. One of the tidal tails produced by the Milky Way was captured by Andromeda. It formed a cloud of particles resembling the disk of satellites at Andromeda by its size, orientation, rotation and mass. A hint of a disk of satellites was formed at the Milky Way too. In addition, the encounter induced a warp in the disk of the simulated Milky Way that resembles the real warp by its magnitude and orientation. We present here, for the first time, the proper motions of the members of the disk of satellites of Andromeda predicted by our simulation. Finally, we point out some of the remaining open questions which this hypothesis, for the formation of disks of satellites, brings up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Our Understanding of Dwarf Galaxies)
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27 pages, 16172 KiB  
Article
Discovery of 178 Giant Radio Galaxies in 1059 deg2 of the Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey at 888 MHz
by Heinz Andernach, Eric F. Jiménez-Andrade and Anthony G. Willis
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040099 - 9 Nov 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3495
Abstract
We report the results of a visual inspection of images of the Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) in search of extended radio galaxies (ERG) that reach or exceed linear sizes on the order of one Megaparsec. We searched a contiguous area of 1059 [...] Read more.
We report the results of a visual inspection of images of the Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) in search of extended radio galaxies (ERG) that reach or exceed linear sizes on the order of one Megaparsec. We searched a contiguous area of 1059 deg2 from RAJ = 20h20m to 06h20m, and 50<DecJ<40, which is covered by deep multi-band optical images of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and in which previously only three ERGs larger than 1 Mpc had been reported. For over 1800 radio galaxy candidates inspected, our search in optical and infrared images resulted in hosts for 1440 ERG, for which spectroscopic and photometric redshifts from various references were used to convert their largest angular size (LAS) to projected linear size (LLS). This resulted in 178 newly discovered giant radio sources (GRS) with LLS >1 Mpc, of which 18 exceed 2 Mpc and the largest one is 3.4 Mpc. Their redshifts range from 0.02 to ∼2.0, but only 10 of the 178 new GRS have spectroscopic redshifts. For the 146 host galaxies, the median r-band magnitude and redshift are 20.9 and 0.64, while for the 32 quasars or candidates these are 19.7 and 0.75. Merging the six most recent large compilations of GRS results in 458 GRS larger than 1 Mpc, so we were able to increase this number by ∼39% to 636. Full article
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13 pages, 594 KiB  
Review
Probing Gamma-Ray Burst VHE Emission with the Southern Wide-Field-of-View Gamma-Ray Observatory
by Giovanni La Mura, Ulisses Barres de Almeida, Ruben Conceição, Alessandro De Angelis, Francesco Longo, Mário Pimenta, Bernardo Tomé and Davide Miceli
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040098 - 8 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
Recent observations have confirmed that Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows produce Very High-Energy radiation (VHE, E>100GeV). This highly anticipated discovery opens new scenarios in the interpretation of GRBs and in their role as probes of Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) and Lorentz [...] Read more.
Recent observations have confirmed that Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows produce Very High-Energy radiation (VHE, E>100GeV). This highly anticipated discovery opens new scenarios in the interpretation of GRBs and in their role as probes of Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) and Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV). However, some fundamental questions about the actual nature of VHE emission in GRBs and its evolution during the burst are still unsolved. These questions will be difficult to address, even with future imaging Cherenkov telescopes, such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Here we investigate the prospects of gamma-ray sky monitoring with Extensive Air Showers arrays (EAS) to address these problems. We discuss the theoretical aspects connected with VHE radiation emission and the implications that its temporal evolution properties have on the interpretation of GRBs. By revisiting the high-energy properties of some Fermi-LAT detected GRBs, we estimate the typical fluxes expected in the VHE band and compare them with a range of foreseeable instrument performances, based on the Southern Wide Field-of-view Gamma-ray Observatory concept (SWGO). We focus our analysis on how different instrument capabilities affect the chances to explore the burst onset and early evolution in VHE, providing invaluable complementary information with respect to Cherenkov telescope observations. We show that under the assumption of conditions already observed in historical events, the next-generation ground monitoring detectors can actually contribute to answer several key questions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gamma-Ray Burst Science in 2030)
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15 pages, 2554 KiB  
Article
A Multiwavelength Dynamical State Analysis of ACT-CL J0019.6+0336
by Denisha S. Pillay, David J. Turner, Matt Hilton, Kenda Knowles, Kabelo C. Kesebonye, Kavilan Moodley, Tony Mroczkowski, Nadeem Oozeer, Christoph Pfrommer, Sinenhlanhla P. Sikhosana and Edward J. Wollack
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040097 - 8 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
In our study, we show a multiwavelength view of ACT-CL J0019.6+0336 (which hosts a radio halo), to investigate the cluster dynamics, morphology, and ICM. We use a combination of XMM-Newton images, Dark Energy Survey (DES) imaging and photometry, SDSS spectroscopic information, and 1.16 [...] Read more.
In our study, we show a multiwavelength view of ACT-CL J0019.6+0336 (which hosts a radio halo), to investigate the cluster dynamics, morphology, and ICM. We use a combination of XMM-Newton images, Dark Energy Survey (DES) imaging and photometry, SDSS spectroscopic information, and 1.16 GHz MeerKAT data to study the cluster properties. Various X-ray and optical morphology parameters are calculated to investigate the level of disturbance. We find disturbances in two X-ray parameters and the optical density map shows elongated and axisymmetric structures with the main cluster component southeast of the cluster centre and another component northwest of the cluster centre. We also find a BCG offset of ∼950 km/s from the mean velocity of the cluster, and a discrepancy between the SZ mass, X-ray mass, and dynamical mass (MX,500 and MSZ,500 lies >3σ away from Mdyn,500), showing that J0019 is a merging cluster and probably in a post-merging phase. Full article
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21 pages, 365 KiB  
Article
Bound on Photon Circular Orbits in General Relativity and Beyond
by Sumanta Chakraborty
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040096 - 7 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
The existence of a photon circular orbit can tell us a lot about the nature of the underlying spacetime, since it plays a pivotal role in the understanding of the characteristic signatures of compact objects, namely the quasi-normal modes and shadow radius. For [...] Read more.
The existence of a photon circular orbit can tell us a lot about the nature of the underlying spacetime, since it plays a pivotal role in the understanding of the characteristic signatures of compact objects, namely the quasi-normal modes and shadow radius. For this purpose, determination of the location of the photon circular orbit is of utmost importance. In this work, we derive bounds on the location of the photon circular orbit around compact objects within the purview of general relativity and beyond. As we have explicitly demonstrated, contrary to the earlier results in the context of general relativity, the bound on the location of the photon circular orbit is not necessarily an upper bound. Depending on the matter content, it is possible to arrive at a lower bound as well. This has interesting implications for the quasi-normal modes and shadow radius, the two key observables related to the strong field tests of gravity. Besides discussing the bound for higher dimensional general relativity, we have also considered how the bound on the photon circular orbits gets modified in the braneworld scenario, for pure Lovelock and general Lovelock theories of gravity. Implications of these results for compact objects were also discussed. Full article
13 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
Accounting for Selection Bias and Redshift Evolution in GRB Radio Afterglow Data
by Maria Dainotti, Delina Levine, Nissim Fraija and Poonam Chandra
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040095 - 7 Nov 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2679
Abstract
Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic events that can be observed at extremely high redshift. However, inherent bias in GRB data due to selection effects and redshift evolution can significantly skew any subsequent analysis. We correct for important variables related to the GRB [...] Read more.
Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic events that can be observed at extremely high redshift. However, inherent bias in GRB data due to selection effects and redshift evolution can significantly skew any subsequent analysis. We correct for important variables related to the GRB emission, such as the burst duration, T90*, the prompt isotropic energy, Eiso, the rest-frame end time of the plateau emission, Ta,radio*, and its correspondent luminosity La,radio, for radio afterglow. In particular, we use the Efron–Petrosian method presented in 1992 for the correction of our variables of interest. Specifically, we correct Eiso and T90* for 80 GRBs, and La,radio and Ta,radio* for a subsample of 18 GRBs that present a plateau-like flattening in their light curve. Upon application of this method, we find strong evolution with redshift in most variables, particularly in La,radio, with values similar to those found in past and current literature in radio, X-ray and optical wavelengths, indicating that these variables are susceptible to observational bias. This analysis emphasizes the necessity of correcting observational data for evolutionary effects to obtain the intrinsic behavior of correlations to use them as discriminators among the most plausible theoretical models and as reliable cosmological tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gamma-Ray Burst Science in 2030)
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18 pages, 870 KiB  
Article
A Brown Dwarf Companion to the Nova-like Variable RW Tri
by Zhibin Dai, Shengbang Qian and Indika Medagangoda
Galaxies 2021, 9(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies9040094 - 5 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1606
Abstract
The orbital period of Nova-like variable RW Tri is expected to experience a long-term evolution due to a stable mass transfer from the red dwarf to the white dwarf. By adding 297 new eclipse timings obtained from our own observations and a cross-identification [...] Read more.
The orbital period of Nova-like variable RW Tri is expected to experience a long-term evolution due to a stable mass transfer from the red dwarf to the white dwarf. By adding 297 new eclipse timings obtained from our own observations and a cross-identification of many databases, we fully reinvestigated the variations in orbital period of RW Tri, based on a total of 658 data points spanning over 80 years. The new O-C diagram demonstrates a more complicate pattern than a pure sinusoidal modulation shown in the previous O-C analyses. The best fit of the O-C variations is a quadratic-plus-sinusoidal curve with a period of 22.66 (2) years and a typical decrease rate of P˙ = 2d.32(4) × 109 yr1. To explain secular orbital period decrease, the magnetic braking effect is required to cause the orbital angular moment loss in RW Tri with a mass ratio less than unity, while a conserved mass transfer is also enough for RW Tri with a mass ratio larger than unity. No matter what the mass ratio is, a slightly enhanced mass transfer rate, 2.4–5.3 × 109 M yr1, derived from our O-C diagram, providing an evidence supporting the disk instability model and the standard/revised models of cataclysmic variable evolution, is almost the same as that obtained from the light-curve modeling. This further confirms our observed orbital period decrease and the controversial system parameter, mass transfer rate. Our updated O-C analysis further verifies the claimed cyclical changes of orbital period with a period range of 21–24 years, which is approximately one half of the results in the literature. In accordance with the light-travel time effect, this periodical variation shown in our new O-C diagram indicates a brown dwarf hidden in RW Tri at a coplanar orbit. Note that the large scatter in the data range of 0–3 × 104 cycles requires the high-precision photometry in the longer base line in the future. Full article
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