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Machines, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessEditorial
Advances of Italian Machine Design
Machines 2019, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030061 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 210
Abstract
This Special Issue is aimed to promote and circulate recent developments and achievements in the field of Mechanism and Machine Science coming from the Italian community with international collaborations and ranging from theoretical contributions to experimental and practical applications [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Italian Machine Design)
Open AccessArticle
System of Energy-Saving Optimal Control of Metal Heating Process in Heat Treatment Furnaces of Rolling Mills
Machines 2019, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030060 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Heat-treatment furnaces for workpiece pre-rolling heating are heating plants of the transition type where sheet slabs with various characteristics are simultaneously heated. The heat treatment furnace performance is directly connected with the efficient operation of the rolling mill process plants. The irregular operation [...] Read more.
Heat-treatment furnaces for workpiece pre-rolling heating are heating plants of the transition type where sheet slabs with various characteristics are simultaneously heated. The heat treatment furnace performance is directly connected with the efficient operation of the rolling mill process plants. The irregular operation pace of the rolling mill complicates the implementation of energy-saving workpiece pre-rolling heating modes and increases the risk of delivering an insufficiently heated workpiece. This paper proposes the system of controlling the heat mode of the heat-treatment furnace by the criterion of fuel consumption rate minimization and controlling over a real heated state of a sheet slab located at the workpiece pushing from the heat-treatment furnace to the rolling mill. The author uses a simplified mathematical model of workpiece heating intended for defining the energy-saving heating path accounting for the impact of technological and structural constraints in the workpiece heating process. The calculation is conducted in real time and allows obtaining an optimal heating path of each workpiece at the moment of its loading into the heat-treatment furnace. The paper considers the necessity of interaction and the interaction itself of the subsystems performing the key function in the energy-saving operation mode of the heat-treatment furnace at workpiece heating. The author studied the subsystems of forecasting the workpiece heating time on the state of the rolling mill equipment and the geometrical dimensions of the rolled band, control over gaseous fuel burning in the heat-treatment furnace operation space, system of control over the workpiece heating state before pushing from the heat-treatment furnace and forecasting the roll temperature after the treatment of the rolling mill roughing train. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the ICIEAM 2019 Conference)
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Open AccessArticle
Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Linear Shaft Motor Drive System Design in Terms of the Trapezoidal Velocity Profile Consideration
Machines 2019, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030059 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 195
Abstract
Owing to the benefits of programmable and parallel processing of the field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), they have been widely used to the realization of digital controllers and motor drive systems. In this study, we adopt the FPGA chip to realize the Linear [...] Read more.
Owing to the benefits of programmable and parallel processing of the field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), they have been widely used to the realization of digital controllers and motor drive systems. In this study, we adopt the FPGA chip to realize the Linear Shaft Motor (LSM) drive system which includes the position, speed and current vector controls. Linear shaft motor is a special motor which has the magnet as the shaft and stator coils are on the forcer. Thus, it reveals a small mechanical time constant. In addition, the electrical side can be looked as a general three-phase Alternating Current (AC) system which can be powered by inverter and vector control technique can be applied to the system. The designed system needs high performance calculation ability about position/speed control and vector current control loops. The mathematical model of linear shaft motor drive system is first built and simulated by MATLAB/Simulink and the accuracy about the effect from the speed estimation method is proposed. The resulting digital model of the drive system is stored into Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog HDL) codes and realized by FPGA. At last, the hardware circuits as well as the power module are used to test the performance of the developed hardware system in terms of the trapezoidal velocity profile. The experimental results show that the designed system realized by FPGA has attained the desired performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electrical Machines and Drives)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Oscillating Motion of a Solid Body on Vibrating Bearers
Machines 2019, 7(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030058 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 214
Abstract
This article considers the oscillation of a solid body on kinematic foundations, the main elements of which are rolling bearers bounded by high-order surfaces of rotation at horizontal displacement of the foundation. Equations of motion of the vibro-protected body have been obtained. It [...] Read more.
This article considers the oscillation of a solid body on kinematic foundations, the main elements of which are rolling bearers bounded by high-order surfaces of rotation at horizontal displacement of the foundation. Equations of motion of the vibro-protected body have been obtained. It is ascertained that the obtained equations of motion are highly nonlinear differential equations. Stationary and transitional modes of the oscillatory process of the system have been investigated. It is determined that several stationary regimes of the oscillatory process exist. Equations of motion have been investigated also by quantitative methods. In this paper the cumulative curves in the phase plane are plotted, a qualitative analysis for singular points and a study of them for stability are performed. In the Hayashi plane a cumulative curve of a body protected against vibration forms a closed path which does not tend to the stability of a singular point. This means that the vibration amplitude of a body protected against vibration does not remain constant in a steady state, but changes periodically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Italian Machine Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Strength Increasing Additive Manufacturing Fused Filament Fabrication Technology, Based on Spiral Toolpath Material Deposition
Machines 2019, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030057 - 05 Sep 2019
Viewed by 230
Abstract
The paper provides an overview of ways to increase the strength of polymer products obtained by fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. An algorithm for calculating the spiral toolpaths for the material deposition using multi-axis printing is proposed. The design of the five-axis device [...] Read more.
The paper provides an overview of ways to increase the strength of polymer products obtained by fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. An algorithm for calculating the spiral toolpaths for the material deposition using multi-axis printing is proposed. The design of the five-axis device for spiral-shaped deposition of the material is shown. The description of the proposed printing method is given. The results of comparative three-point bend and compression tests are presented. The standard samples obtained in the usual way by FFF technology, as well as samples with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 reinforcing layers obtained by spiral deposition of the material were investigated. The description of the tests is given, the dependences of the strength of the products on the number of reinforcing layers are obtained. Conclusions about the influence of the layer deposition method on the strength of the products are formulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the ICIEAM 2019 Conference)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Importance of Sleeve Flexibility in Passive Control of Critical Speeds of a Rotating Shaft Using Eccentric Sleeves
Machines 2019, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030056 - 05 Sep 2019
Viewed by 187
Abstract
In this paper, the critical speeds of a rotating shaft fitted with eccentric balance sleeves are identified from a scaled, high speed experimental test facility. The results are compared with the results of dynamic finite element simulations. It is shown that the stiffness [...] Read more.
In this paper, the critical speeds of a rotating shaft fitted with eccentric balance sleeves are identified from a scaled, high speed experimental test facility. The results are compared with the results of dynamic finite element simulations. It is shown that the stiffness of the sleeves must be accommodated when considering passive control characteristics critical speeds of a rotating shaft using eccentric sleeves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Construction of a Moving Cassette Electronic Gear-Shift for Human Powered Vehicles
Machines 2019, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030055 - 01 Sep 2019
Viewed by 256
Abstract
In this article, the design and implementation of an electronic bicycle gear-shift with moving cassette is presented. The niche context where the needs developed is explained and the project evolution over two versions is described. Technical aspects considered in the design phase are [...] Read more.
In this article, the design and implementation of an electronic bicycle gear-shift with moving cassette is presented. The niche context where the needs developed is explained and the project evolution over two versions is described. Technical aspects considered in the design phase are discussed and detailed explanations of hardware layout and control software logic are given. Performance of the two implemented versions are compared through data recorded during the target competition (pedaling cadence and torque), highlighting the higher reliability of the second design thanks to mechanical simplification and a more stable position feedback. An additional comparison with cadence data from other competitors in a speed-challenge competition is then presented to highlights the main benefit obtained: a reduced variance in cadence that enables the rider to pedal at his optimal rate since the early stage and through the whole run-up. Finally, the current development of the project under a Proof of Concept grant is presented by discussing its potential application on the standard bicycle market, the need for an assessment of its value proposition and the main obstacles to overcome for complying (or not) with the current market standards. The article offers an overview of practical aspects to be considered when designing high-speed human powered vehicle transmissions, including technical details of an innovative solution and critical considerations about the possibility of such a specific design to develop within the standard bicycle market. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Rectangular Dynamic Range of the Drive System: A New Approach for the Choice of Motor and Transmission
Machines 2019, 7(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030054 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 232
Abstract
This paper deals with the choice of the motor-transmission couple to drive a joint in the frequent case in which the limit curve of the dynamic operating range of the drive system depends on the motor speed. The paper considers a given drive [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the choice of the motor-transmission couple to drive a joint in the frequent case in which the limit curve of the dynamic operating range of the drive system depends on the motor speed. The paper considers a given drive system and proposes a method that resorts to a succession of instant analyses during the reference task: for a transmission with no energy dissipation the result, if it exists, is a range of transmission ratios that can be coupled with the given motor in order to perform the reference task. The extension of the method to a real transmission is a diagram that correlates the transmission ratio and the direct and inverse efficiency of the reducer and that offers the designer an overview of the transmissions that can be coupled with the given motor to perform the reference task. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Celebrations for the 50-Year Anniversary of IFToMM
Machines 2019, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030053 - 22 Aug 2019
Viewed by 289
Abstract
In this paper celebrations of the fifty-years anniversary of IFToMM, the International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science, is reported with main aspects of the event that has been organized on 30 June 2019 during a special session at the [...] Read more.
In this paper celebrations of the fifty-years anniversary of IFToMM, the International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science, is reported with main aspects of the event that has been organized on 30 June 2019 during a special session at the IFToMM World Congress in Krakow, Poland. Memories of the celebration are illustrated with photos and historical data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Applied to a New Eco-Motorbike
Machines 2019, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030052 - 12 Jul 2019
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The primary purpose of this work is to organize, in the best possible way, the design of an ecological transport vehicle, using an advanced design methodology, namely design for six sigma (DFSS). The DFSS is indeed a design approach, able to implement, in [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of this work is to organize, in the best possible way, the design of an ecological transport vehicle, using an advanced design methodology, namely design for six sigma (DFSS). The DFSS is indeed a design approach, able to implement, in a logical and integrated way, other advanced methodologies of systematic design, such as quality function deployment (QFD), TRIZ (in Russian, Teorija Rešenija Izobretatel’skich Zadač), benchmarking, top-flop analysis and others, in order to propose design solutions oriented both to quality and innovation, for satisfying customers. The above described has been demonstrated through the application of DFSS to a case study in which the set up phase of an industrial project was completed, without having overlooked any aspect useful for obtaining a new attractive product. The case study concerns the application of DFSS to a new low-polluting motorcycle. At the end of the work, the designer obtained the achievement of the conceptual project. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Development of a New Press for Grape Marc
Machines 2019, 7(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030051 - 09 Jul 2019
Viewed by 454
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal geometry of a variable pitch conical helicoid to be used in a pressing machine for grape pomace, also known as grape marc. This study attempted to understand if the optimized geometry of the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal geometry of a variable pitch conical helicoid to be used in a pressing machine for grape pomace, also known as grape marc. This study attempted to understand if the optimized geometry of the considered helicoid after every pitch resulted in volume decrease DVc, equal to that obtained during the pressing phase of grape pomace DVp, using an optimized membrane press. The conical helicoid with variable pitch was replaced in a machine that offered continuous pressing of grape pomace using a cylindrical helicoid with constant pitch (constant pressure distribution, not optimized, along the cochlea axis). As this was a machine already available in the market, the overall dimensions were already established—5.95 m in length and 1.5 m in width. The pressure distribution p1 and volume change DVp, obtained during the grape pomace pressing phase in the optimized membrane press (producing high-quality wine) was taken into consideration in this research. Furthermore, the optimized pressure distribution p1 was applied in seven phases during the pressing process, and a consequent volume change value DVp was obtained for each phase. Therefore, this study determined the geometry of the variable pitch conical helicoid, which, after every pitch, resulted in volume changing DVc that was similar to the volume changing DVp obtained by the optimized membrane press. For this scope, calculations were realized using the Mathematica 10 program code, which, on being assigned the overall dimensions, slope angle of the helicoid, and volume for the first pitch value, determined the radius and pitch values of the helicoid, total volume, and volume change DVc. It was also noted that by appropriately varying the geometric parameters (taper and pitch of the helicoid), different options of pressure distribution on grape pomace can be obtained, thus enabling improvement and optimization of product quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fluid–Structure Interaction Modeling Applied to Peristaltic Pump Flow Simulations
Machines 2019, 7(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030050 - 09 Jul 2019
Viewed by 487
Abstract
In this study, fluid–structure interaction (FSI) modeling was applied for predicting the fluid flow in a specific peristaltic pump, composed of one metallic roller and a hyperelastic tube pumping a viscous Newtonian fluid. Hyperelastic material dynamics and turbulence flow dynamics were coupled in [...] Read more.
In this study, fluid–structure interaction (FSI) modeling was applied for predicting the fluid flow in a specific peristaltic pump, composed of one metallic roller and a hyperelastic tube pumping a viscous Newtonian fluid. Hyperelastic material dynamics and turbulence flow dynamics were coupled in order to describe all the physics of the pump. The commercial finite element software ABAQUS 6.14 was used to investigate the performance of the pump with a 3D transient model. By using this model, it was possible to predict the von Mises stresses in the tube and flow fluctuations. The peristaltic pump generated high pressure and flow pulses due to the interaction between the roller and the tube. The squeezing and relaxing of the tube during the operative phase allowed the liquid to have a pulsatile behavior. Numerical simulation data results were compared with one cycle pressure measurement obtained from pump test loop data, and the maximum difference between real and simulated data was less than 5%. The applicability of FSI modeling for geometric optimization of pump housing was also discussed in order to prevent roller and hose parts pressure peaks. The model allowed to investigate the effect of pump design variations such as tube occlusion, tube diameter, and roller speed on the flow rate, flow fluctuations, and stress state in the tube. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Testing of a Low-Cost Wireless Monitoring System for an Intelligent Tire
Machines 2019, 7(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030049 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
Intelligent tire concept constitutes one of the approaches to increase the accuracy of active safety systems in vehicle technology. The possibility of detecting tire–road interactions instantaneously has made these systems one of the most important research areas in automotive engineering. This study introduces [...] Read more.
Intelligent tire concept constitutes one of the approaches to increase the accuracy of active safety systems in vehicle technology. The possibility of detecting tire–road interactions instantaneously has made these systems one of the most important research areas in automotive engineering. This study introduces the use of cost-effective flex and polyvinylidene fluoride strain sensors to estimate some dynamic tire features in free-rolling and real working conditions. The proposed solution combines a microcontroller-based readout circuit for the two sensors with a wireless data transmission system. A suitable prototype was realized and first experimental tests were conducted, in the laboratory as well as on the road. The energy consumption of the wireless monitoring system was optimized. Simulated and experimental results validate the proposed solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Italian Machine Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Order Controller Design for Symmetric, Non-Symmetric and Unstable Systems Using Extended Cross-Gramian
Machines 2019, 7(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines7030048 - 29 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 501
Abstract
In model order reduction and system theory, the cross-gramian is widely applicable. The cross-gramian based model order reduction techniques have the advantage over conventional balanced truncation that it is computationally less complex, while providing a unique relationship with the Hankel singular values of [...] Read more.
In model order reduction and system theory, the cross-gramian is widely applicable. The cross-gramian based model order reduction techniques have the advantage over conventional balanced truncation that it is computationally less complex, while providing a unique relationship with the Hankel singular values of the original system at the same time. This basic property of cross-gramian holds true for all symmetric systems. However, for non-square and non-symmetric dynamical systems, the standard cross-gramian does not satisfy this property. Hence, alternate approaches need to be developed for its evaluation. In this paper, a generalized frequency-weighted cross-gramian-based controller reduction algorithm is presented, which is applicable to both symmetric and non-symmetric systems. The proposed algorithm is also applicable to unstable systems even if they have poles of opposite polarities and equal magnitudes. The proposed technique produces an accurate approximation of the reduced order model in the desired frequency region with a reduced computational effort. A lower order controller can be designed using the proposed technique, which ensures closed-loop stability and performance with the original full order plant. Numerical examples provide evidence of the efficacy of the proposed technique. Full article
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