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Antibodies, Volume 11, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 16 articles

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Article
Epitope Mapping of Anti-Mouse CCR3 Monoclonal Antibodies Using Flow Cytometry
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040075 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 251
Abstract
The CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is a receptor for CC chemokines, including CCL5/RANTES, CCL7/MCP-3, and CCL11/eotaxin. CCR3 is expressed on the surface of eosinophils, basophils, a subset of Th2 lymphocytes, mast cells, and airway epithelial cells. CCR3 and its ligands are involved [...] Read more.
The CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is a receptor for CC chemokines, including CCL5/RANTES, CCL7/MCP-3, and CCL11/eotaxin. CCR3 is expressed on the surface of eosinophils, basophils, a subset of Th2 lymphocytes, mast cells, and airway epithelial cells. CCR3 and its ligands are involved in airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthma, ocular allergies, and cancers. Therefore, CCR3 is an attractive target for those therapies. Previously, anti-mouse CCR3 (mCCR3) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), C3Mab-3 (rat IgG2a, kappa), and C3Mab-4 (rat IgG2a, kappa) were developed using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. In this study, the binding epitope of these mAbs was investigated using flow cytometry. A CCR3 extracellular domain-substituted mutant analysis showed that C3Mab-3, C3Mab-4, and a commercially available mAb (J073E5) recognized the N-terminal region (amino acids 1–38) of mCCR3. Next, alanine scanning was conducted in the N-terminal region. The results revealed that the Ala2, Phe3, Asn4, and Thr5 of mCCR3 are involved in C3Mab-3 binding, whereas Ala2, Phe3, and Thr5 are essential to C3Mab-4 binding, and Ala2 and Phe3 are crucial to J073E5 binding. These results reveal the involvement of the N-terminus of mCCR3 in the recognition of C3Mab-3, C3Mab-4, and J073E5. Full article
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Article
A Defucosylated Anti-EpCAM Monoclonal Antibody (EpMab-37-mG2a-f) Exerts Antitumor Activity in Xenograft Model
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040074 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 348
Abstract
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a stem cell and carcinoma antigen, which mediates cellular adhesion and proliferative signaling by the proteolytic cleavage. In contrast to low expression in normal epithelium, EpCAM is frequently overexpressed in various carcinomas, which correlates with poor [...] Read more.
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a stem cell and carcinoma antigen, which mediates cellular adhesion and proliferative signaling by the proteolytic cleavage. In contrast to low expression in normal epithelium, EpCAM is frequently overexpressed in various carcinomas, which correlates with poor prognosis. Therefore, EpCAM has been considered as a promising target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method, we previously established an anti-EpCAM monoclonal antibody (EpMab-37; mouse IgG1, kappa). In this study, we investigated the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and an antitumor activity by a defucosylated mouse IgG2a-type of EpMab-37 (EpMab-37-mG2a-f) against a breast cancer cell line (BT-474) and a pancreatic cancer cell line (Capan-2), both of which express EpCAM. EpMab-37-mG2a-f recognized BT-474 and Capan-2 cells with a moderate binding-affinity [apparent dissociation constant (KD): 2.9 × 10−8 M and 1.8 × 10−8 M, respectively] by flow cytometry. EpMab-37-mG2a-f exhibited ADCC and CDC for both cells by murine splenocytes and complements, respectively. Furthermore, administration of EpMab-37-mG2a-f significantly suppressed the xenograft tumor development compared with the control mouse IgG. These results indicated that EpMab-37-mG2a-f exerts antitumor activities and could provide valuable therapeutic regimen for breast and pancreatic cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy Series II)
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Review
Risk-Based Control Strategies of Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody Charge Variants
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040073 - 20 Nov 2022
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Since the first approval of the anti-CD3 recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb), muromonab-CD3, a mouse antibody for the prevention of transplant rejection, by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1986, mAb therapeutics have become increasingly important to medical care. A wealth of [...] Read more.
Since the first approval of the anti-CD3 recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb), muromonab-CD3, a mouse antibody for the prevention of transplant rejection, by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1986, mAb therapeutics have become increasingly important to medical care. A wealth of information about mAbs regarding their structure, stability, post-translation modifications, and the relationship between modification and function has been reported. Yet, substantial resources are still required throughout development and commercialization to have appropriate control strategies to maintain consistent product quality, safety, and efficacy. A typical feature of mAbs is charge heterogeneity, which stems from a variety of modifications, including modifications that are common to many mAbs or unique to a specific molecule or process. Charge heterogeneity is highly sensitive to process changes and thus a good indicator of a robust process. It is a high-risk quality attribute that could potentially fail the specification and comparability required for batch disposition. Failure to meet product specifications or comparability can substantially affect clinical development timelines. To mitigate these risks, the general rule is to maintain a comparable charge profile when process changes are inevitably introduced during development and even after commercialization. Otherwise, new peaks or varied levels of acidic and basic species must be justified based on scientific knowledge and clinical experience for a specific molecule. Here, we summarize the current understanding of mAb charge variants and outline risk-based control strategies to support process development and ultimately commercialization. Full article
Case Report
Cross-Reactive Antibodies in Tick-Borne Encephalitis: Case Report and Literature Review
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040072 - 20 Nov 2022
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Flaviviruses are a heterogeneous group of viruses that may induce broad antigenic cross-reactivity. We present a patient who was admitted to the infectious disease department with symptoms suggestive of aseptic meningitis. During the clinical workup, the patient reported a tick bite two weeks [...] Read more.
Flaviviruses are a heterogeneous group of viruses that may induce broad antigenic cross-reactivity. We present a patient who was admitted to the infectious disease department with symptoms suggestive of aseptic meningitis. During the clinical workup, the patient reported a tick bite two weeks before the disease onset. High titers of IgM and IgG antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) were found in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, indicating acute TBEV infection. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) IgM and/or IgG antibodies were also detected, and a virus neutralization test (VNT) was performed. A high titer of TBEV neutralizing (NT) antibodies (640) was detected, which confirmed acute TBE. However, NT antibodies to WNV and USUV were also detected (titer 80 for both viruses). After TBEV and WNV IgG avidity evaluation, previous flavivirus infection was highly suspected (avidity index 82% and 89%, respectively). Blood, CSF, and urine samples were negative for respective viruses’ RNA. The presented case highlights the challenges in flavivirus serodiagnosis. In the published literature, different degrees of cross-reactivity or cross-neutralization between TBEV and dengue, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Langat, and Powassan virus were also observed. Therefore, the serology results should be interpreted with caution, including the possibility of cross-reactivity. In areas where several flaviviruses co-circulate VNT is recommended for disease confirmation. Full article
Review
Structural Investigation of Therapeutic Antibodies Using Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting Methods
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040071 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Commercial monoclonal antibodies are growing and important components of modern therapies against a multitude of human diseases. Well-known high-resolution structural methods such as protein crystallography are often used to characterize antibody structures and to determine paratope and/or epitope binding regions in order to [...] Read more.
Commercial monoclonal antibodies are growing and important components of modern therapies against a multitude of human diseases. Well-known high-resolution structural methods such as protein crystallography are often used to characterize antibody structures and to determine paratope and/or epitope binding regions in order to refine antibody design. However, many standard structural techniques require specialized sample preparation that may perturb antibody structure or require high concentrations or other conditions that are far from the conditions conducive to the accurate determination of antigen binding or kinetics. We describe here in this minireview the relatively new method of hydroxyl radical protein footprinting, a solution-state method that can provide structural and kinetic information on antibodies or antibody–antigen interactions useful for therapeutic antibody design. We provide a brief history of hydroxyl radical footprinting, examples of current implementations, and recent advances in throughput and accessibility. Full article
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Article
Neutralizing and Total/IgG Spike Antibody Responses Following Homologous CoronaVac vs. BNT162b2 Vaccination Up to 90 Days Post-Booster
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040070 - 08 Nov 2022
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Introduction: We documented the total spike antibody (S-Ab), IgG S-Ab and neutralizing antibody (N-Ab) responses of BNT162b2/CoronaVac vaccinees up to 90 days post-booster dose. Methods: We included 32 homologous regimen CoronaVac vaccinees and 136 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccinees. We tested their total S-Ab (Roche), [...] Read more.
Introduction: We documented the total spike antibody (S-Ab), IgG S-Ab and neutralizing antibody (N-Ab) responses of BNT162b2/CoronaVac vaccinees up to 90 days post-booster dose. Methods: We included 32 homologous regimen CoronaVac vaccinees and 136 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccinees. We tested their total S-Ab (Roche), IgG (Abbott) and N-Ab (Snibe) levels at set time points from January 2021 to April 2022. All subjects were deemed to be COVID-19-naïve either via clinical history (CoronaVac vaccinees) or nucleocapsid antibody testing (BNT162b2 vaccinees). Results: All antibodies peaked 20–30 days post-inoculation. In BNT162b2 vaccinees, all post-booster antibodies were significantly higher than second-dose peaks. In CoronaVac vaccinees, IgG showed no significant differences between peak third-/second-dose titers (difference of 56.0 BAU/mL, 95% CI of −17.1 to 129, p = 0.0894). The post-vaccination titers of all antibodies in BNT162b2 vaccinees were significantly higher than those in CoronaVac vaccinees at all time points. Post-booster, all antibodies declined in 90 days; the final total/IgG/N-Ab titers were 7536 BAU/mL, 1276 BAU/mL and 12.5 μg/mL in BNT162b2 vaccinees and 646 BAU/mL, 62.4 BAU/mL and 0.44 μg/mL in CoronaVac vaccinees. Conclusion: The mRNA vaccine generated more robust total S-Ab, IgG and N-Ab responses after the second and third vaccinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 Infection)
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Article
Seroprevalence of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Chattogram Metropolitan Area, Bangladesh
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040069 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Seroprevalence studies of COVID-19 are used to assess the degree of undetected transmission in the community and different groups such as health care workers (HCWs) are deemed vulnerable due to their workplace hazards. The present study estimated the seroprevalence and quantified the titer [...] Read more.
Seroprevalence studies of COVID-19 are used to assess the degree of undetected transmission in the community and different groups such as health care workers (HCWs) are deemed vulnerable due to their workplace hazards. The present study estimated the seroprevalence and quantified the titer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG) and its association with different factors. This cross-sectional study observed HCWs, in indoor and outdoor patients (non-COVID-19) and garment workers in the Chattogram metropolitan area (CMA, N = 748) from six hospitals and two garment factories. Qualitative and quantitative ELISA were used to identify and quantify antibodies (IgG) in the serum samples. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable statistical analysis were performed. Overall seroprevalence and among HCWs, in indoor and outdoor patients, and garment workers were 66.99% (95% CI: 63.40–70.40%), 68.99% (95% CI: 63.8–73.7%), 81.37% (95% CI: 74.7–86.7%), and 50.56% (95% CI: 43.5–57.5%), respectively. Seroprevalence and mean titer was 44.47% (95% CI: 38.6–50.4%) and 53.71 DU/mL in the non-vaccinated population, respectively, while it was higher in the population who received a first dose (61.66%, 95% CI: 54.8–68.0%, 159.08 DU/mL) and both doses (100%, 95% CI: 98.4–100%, 255.46 DU/mL). This study emphasizes the role of vaccine in antibody production; the second dose of vaccine significantly increased the seroprevalence and titer and both were low in natural infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coronavirus-Targeting Antibodies)
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Article
Shared 6mer Peptides of Human and Omicron (21K and 21L) at SARS-CoV-2 Mutation Sites
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040068 - 25 Oct 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
We investigated the short sequences involving Omicron 21K and Omicron 21L variants to reveal any possible molecular mimicry-associated autoimmunity risks and changes in those. We first identified common 6mers of the viral and human protein sequences present for both the mutant (Omicron) and [...] Read more.
We investigated the short sequences involving Omicron 21K and Omicron 21L variants to reveal any possible molecular mimicry-associated autoimmunity risks and changes in those. We first identified common 6mers of the viral and human protein sequences present for both the mutant (Omicron) and nonmutant (SARS-CoV-2) versions of the same viral sequence and then predicted the binding affinities of those sequences to the HLA supertype representatives. We evaluated change in the potential autoimmunity risk, through comparative assessment of the nonmutant and mutant viral sequences and their similar human peptides with common 6mers and affinities to the same HLA allele. This change is the lost and the new, or de novo, autoimmunity risk, associated with the mutations in the Omicron 21K and Omicron 21L variants. Accordingly, e.g., the affinity of virus-similar sequences of the Ig heavy chain junction regions shifted from the HLA-B*15:01 to the HLA-A*01:01 allele at the mutant sequences. Additionally, peptides of different human proteins sharing 6mers with SARS-CoV-2 proteins at the mutation sites of interest and with affinities to the HLA-B*07:02 allele, such as the respective SARS-CoV-2 sequences, were lost. Among all, any possible molecular mimicry-associated novel risk appeared to be prominent in HLA-A*24:02 and HLA-B*27:05 serotypes upon infection with Omicron 21L. Associated disease, pathway, and tissue expression data supported possible new risks for the HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-A*01:01 serotypes, while the risks for the HLA-B*07:02 serotypes could have been lost or diminished, and those for the HLA-A*03:01 serotypes could have been retained, for the individuals infected with Omicron variants under study. These are likely to affect the complications related to cross-reactions influencing the relevant HLA serotypes upon infection with Omicron 21K and Omicron 21L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 Infection)
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Article
Rational Design and In Vivo Characterization of mRNA-Encoded Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Combinations against HIV-1
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040067 - 24 Oct 2022
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Monoclonal antibodies have been used successfully as recombinant protein therapy; however, for HIV, multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies may be necessary. We used the mRNA-LNP platform for in vivo co-expression of 3 broadly neutralizing antibodies, PGDM1400, PGT121, and N6, directed against the HIV-1 envelope [...] Read more.
Monoclonal antibodies have been used successfully as recombinant protein therapy; however, for HIV, multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies may be necessary. We used the mRNA-LNP platform for in vivo co-expression of 3 broadly neutralizing antibodies, PGDM1400, PGT121, and N6, directed against the HIV-1 envelope protein. mRNA-encoded HIV-1 antibodies were engineered as single-chain Fc (scFv-Fc) to overcome heavy- and light-chain mismatch. In vitro neutralization breadth and potency of the constructs were compared to their parental IgG form. We assessed the ability of these scFv-Fcs to be expressed individually and in combination in vivo, and neutralization and pharmacokinetics were compared to the corresponding full-length IgGs. Single-chain PGDM1400 and PGT121 exhibited neutralization potency comparable to parental IgG, achieving peak systemic concentrations ≥ 30.81 μg/mL in mice; full-length N6 IgG achieved a peak concentration of 974 μg/mL, but did not tolerate single-chain conversion. The mRNA combination encoding full-length N6 IgG and single-chain PGDM1400 and PGT121 was efficiently expressed in mice, achieving high systemic concentration and desired neutralization potency. Analysis of mice sera demonstrated each antibody contributed towards neutralization of multiple HIV-1 pseudoviruses. Together, these data show that the mRNA-LNP platform provides a promising approach for antibody-based HIV treatment and is well-suited for development of combination therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibody-Based Therapeutics)
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Article
A Simple Method for the Prediction of Therapeutic Proteins (Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies and Non-Antibody Proteins) for First-in-Pediatric Dose Selection: Application of Salisbury Rule
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040066 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
In order to conduct a pediatric clinical trial, it is important to optimize pediatric dose as accurately as possible. In this study, a simple weight-based method known as ‘Salisbury Rule’ was used to predict pediatric dose for therapeutic proteins and was then compared [...] Read more.
In order to conduct a pediatric clinical trial, it is important to optimize pediatric dose as accurately as possible. In this study, a simple weight-based method known as ‘Salisbury Rule’ was used to predict pediatric dose for therapeutic proteins and was then compared with the observed pediatric dose. The observed dose was obtained mainly from the FDA package insert and if dosing information was not available from the FDA package insert then the observed dose was based on the dose given to an age group in a particular study. It was noted that the recommended doses of most of the therapeutic proteins were extrapolated to pediatrics from adult dose based on per kilogram (kg) body weight basis. Since it is widely believed that pediatric dose should be selected based on the pediatric clearance (CL), a CL based pediatric dose was projected from the following equation: Dose in children = Adult dose × (Observed CL in children/Observed adult CL). In this study, this dose was also considered observed pediatric dose for comparison. A ±30% prediction error (predicted vs. observed) was considered acceptable. There were 21 monoclonal antibodies, 5 polyclonal antibodies in children ≥ 2 years of age, 4 polyclonal antibodies in preterm and term neonates, and 11 therapeutic proteins (non-antibodies) in the study. In children < 30 kg body weight, the predicted doses were within 0.5–1.5-fold prediction error for 87% (monoclonal antibody), 100% (polyclonal antibody), and 92% (non-antibodies) observations. In children > 30 kg body weight, the predicted doses were within 0.5–1.5-fold prediction error for 96% (monoclonal antibody), 100% (polyclonal antibody), and 100% (non-antibodies) observations. The Salisbury Rule mimics more to CL-based dose rather than per kg body weight-based extrapolated dose from adults. The Salisbury Rule for the pediatric dose prediction can be used to select first-in-children dose in pediatric clinical trials and may be in clinical settings. Full article
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Article
IMGT® Nomenclature of Engineered IGHG Variants Involved in Antibody Effector Properties and Formats
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040065 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 791
Abstract
The constant region of the immunoglobulin (IG) or antibody heavy gamma chain is frequently engineered to modify the effector properties of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. These variants are classified in regards to their effects on effector functions, antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent phagocytosis (ADCP), [...] Read more.
The constant region of the immunoglobulin (IG) or antibody heavy gamma chain is frequently engineered to modify the effector properties of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. These variants are classified in regards to their effects on effector functions, antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent phagocytosis (ADCP), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) enhancement or reduction, B cell inhibition by the coengagement of antigen and FcγR on the same cell, on half-life increase, and/or on structure such as prevention of IgG4 half-IG exchange, hexamerisation, knobs-into-holes and the heteropairing H-H of bispecific antibodies, absence of disulfide bridge inter H-L, absence of glycosylation site, and site-specific drug attachment engineered cysteine. The IMGT engineered variant identifier is comprised of the species and gene name (and eventually allele), the letter ‘v’ followed by a number (assigned chronologically), and for each concerned domain (e.g, CH1, h, CH2 and CH3), the novel AA (single letter abbreviation) and IMGT position according to the IMGT unique numbering for the C-domain and between parentheses, the Eu numbering. IMGT engineered variants are described with detailed amino acid changes, visualized in motifs based on the IMGT numbering bridging genes, sequences, and structures for higher order description. Full article
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Article
Integrating Single Domain Antibodies into Field-Deployable Rapid Assays
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040064 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are the recombinant variable heavy domains derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies. While they have binding affinities equivalent to conventional antibodies, sdAb are only one-tenth the size and possess numerous advantages such as excellent thermal stability with the ability to [...] Read more.
Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are the recombinant variable heavy domains derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies. While they have binding affinities equivalent to conventional antibodies, sdAb are only one-tenth the size and possess numerous advantages such as excellent thermal stability with the ability to refold following denaturation, and inexpensive production in Escherichia coli or yeast. However, their small size does have drawbacks, one being that they can lose activity upon attachment or adsorption to surfaces, or may fail to adsorb efficiently, as they are highly soluble. This can make the transition from using conventional antibodies to sdAb nontrivial for assay development. Specifically, it is often necessary to re-optimize the protocols and tailor the recombinant sdAb through protein engineering to function efficiently in handheld assays, which currently are utilized for point of care testing and field applications. This work focuses on optimizing the integration of sdAb into rapid vertical flow assays. To achieve this goal, we engineered sdAb-based constructs and developed general protocols for the attachment of the sdAb to both gold nanoparticles and a support membrane. We achieved a limit of detection of 0.11 µg/mL for toxins staphylococcal enterotoxin B and ricin, both potential biothreat agents. Additionally, we demonstrated the ability to detect the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, a common target of antigen tests for COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibodies: 10th Anniversary)
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Case Report
Alloimmune Neutropenia in a Neonate: Case Report and Review of Literature
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040063 - 03 Oct 2022
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Neonatal alloimmune neutropenia, variably referred to in the literature as NAIN, FNAIN or NIN, is a disorder of neutrophil destruction in newborns similar to better-known conditions such as hemolytic disease of the newborn and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). Infants affected by this self-limiting [...] Read more.
Neonatal alloimmune neutropenia, variably referred to in the literature as NAIN, FNAIN or NIN, is a disorder of neutrophil destruction in newborns similar to better-known conditions such as hemolytic disease of the newborn and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). Infants affected by this self-limiting condition can present asymptomatically or have a wide range of symptoms, from skin manifestations and mucositis to severe infections such as sepsis and pneumonia. In our case, we report an otherwise asymptomatic term infant born with severe neutropenia to a mother affected by COVID-19 in the 3rd trimester. However, it is unclear if COVID-19 contributed to our patients’ neutropenia. Diagnostic testing eventually revealed the presence of anti-neutrophil antibodies, confirming the diagnosis of alloimmune neutropenia. The infant was conservatively managed with early discharge prior to resolution of neutropenia and close post-discharge follow up. Full article
Review
IgY Antibodies as Biotherapeutics in Biomedicine
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040062 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 855
Abstract
Since the discovery of antibodies by Emil Von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato during the 19th century, their potential for use as biotechnological reagents has been exploited in different fields, such as basic and applied research, diagnosis, and the treatment of multiple diseases. Antibodies [...] Read more.
Since the discovery of antibodies by Emil Von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato during the 19th century, their potential for use as biotechnological reagents has been exploited in different fields, such as basic and applied research, diagnosis, and the treatment of multiple diseases. Antibodies are relatively easy to obtain from any species with an adaptive immune system, but birds are animals characterized by relatively easy care and maintenance. In addition, the antibodies they produce can be purified from the egg yolk, allowing a system for obtaining them without performing invasive practices, which favors the three “rs” of animal care in experimentation, i.e., replacing, reducing, and refining. In this work, we carry out a brief descriptive review of the most outstanding characteristics of so-called “IgY technology” and the use of IgY antibodies from birds for basic experimentation, diagnosis, and treatment of human beings and animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibody-Based Therapeutics)
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Article
Yeast Surface Display Platform for Rapid Selection of an Antibody Library via Sequential Counter Antigen Flow Cytometry
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040061 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Yeast surface display techniques have been increasingly employed as a tool for both the discovery and affinity maturation of antibodies. In this study, we describe the use of yeast surface display for the selection and affinity maturation of antibodies targeted to small molecules [...] Read more.
Yeast surface display techniques have been increasingly employed as a tool for both the discovery and affinity maturation of antibodies. In this study, we describe the use of yeast surface display for the selection and affinity maturation of antibodies targeted to small molecules (haptens). In this approach, we coupled 4 to 15 sequential cycles of error-prone PCR to introduce heterogeneity into the sequence of an 12F6 scFv antibody that binds to chelated uranium; the resulting full-length constructs were combined to create a yeast-displayed scFv-library with high diversity. We also developed a stringent selection technique utilizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting; this was based on sequentially dropping the target antigen concentration, while concomitantly increasing the concentration of potential cross-reactive haptens in subsequent selection cycles. As a proof of the efficacy this approach, we confirmed that the antibodies identified via this approach retained binding to the target antigen (UO22+ complexed to a chelator), while binding with lesser affinity than the parental scFv to a structurally related haptens (the same chelator complexed to other metal ions). As will be described in this report, these scFv variants perform more efficiently in sensor-based assay than the parental 12F6 antibody. Combining the generation of scFv libraries via error-prone PCR with selection of yeast-displayed antibodies by fluorescence activated cell sorting will provide an efficient new method for the isolation of scFvs and other binding proteins with high affinity and specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibody Discovery and Engineering)
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Article
High-Resolution Epitope Mapping and Affinity Binding Analysis Comparing a New Anti-Human LAG3 Rabbit Antibody Clone to the Commonly Used Mouse 17B4 Clone
Antibodies 2022, 11(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11040060 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3) is a T cell inhibitory receptor that promotes tumor cell immune escape and is a potential target for cancer diagnostic and immunotherapeutic applications. We used automated capillary electrophoresis (ACE), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to compare [...] Read more.
Lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3) is a T cell inhibitory receptor that promotes tumor cell immune escape and is a potential target for cancer diagnostic and immunotherapeutic applications. We used automated capillary electrophoresis (ACE), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to compare the binding characteristics of a new anti-LAG3 rabbit antibody clone, SP464, with the thirty-year old and extensively used anti-LAG3 mouse 17B4 clone. The rabbit SP464 clone exhibited between 20× to 30× greater binding to LAG3 than did the mouse 17B4 clone. Using these tools, we precisely mapped the relative locations of the epitopes of these two antibodies. The SP464 and 17B4 minimal epitopes were localized to separate, but overlapping, sub-fragments within the amino-terminal fifteen acids of the original thirty-mer peptide immunogen used to generate both antibodies. Application of this approach for quantifying the effects of alanine substitutions along the minimal SP464 epitope identified two amino acids essential for binding and four amino acids that likely contribute towards binding. Together, ACE, SPR, and IHC constitute a powerful orthologous approach for comparing antibody-binding characteristics and for fine mapping of linear epitopes within short immunogens. Our results indicate that the rabbit clone SP464 may be useful for assessing LAG3 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy Series II)
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