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Water, Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Emotions in Drinking Recycled Water
Water 2016, 8(11), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110548
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2213 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As global freshwater supplies shrink, recycled drinking water (RDW) has become an increasingly important source of water supply. However, RDW remains an underinvested resource despite being a safe and reliable source of water. The dominant hypothesis is that RDW has been rejected on [...] Read more.
As global freshwater supplies shrink, recycled drinking water (RDW) has become an increasingly important source of water supply. However, RDW remains an underinvested resource despite being a safe and reliable source of water. The dominant hypothesis is that RDW has been rejected on emotional grounds of disgust, a visceral psychological reaction known as the “yuck” factor. This paper investigates the role of emotions in technical decision-making and applies it to RDW implementation. It tests two specific hypotheses. First, that negative emotions affect the policy process through a negative “goal definition” of the problem, making it unattractive to stakeholders. Second, the emotional quality of policies can be manipulated by policy entrepreneurs. These hypotheses are tested on two cases of RDW—one failed and the other successful. It finds that narratives in the former are relatively low in emotional intensity, with themes such as sustainability and governance, whereas the second case displays narratives charged with anger, social injustice, and disgust. This emphasizes the role of narratives, especially when visceral reactions such as disgust and anger interact with larger social and political discourses. Finally, we offer policy implications on how understanding the role of emotions can help in the implementation of RDW. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Willingness to Pay for a Highland Agricultural Restriction Policy to Improve Water Quality in South Korea: Correcting Anomalous Preference in Contingent Valuation Method
Water 2016, 8(11), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110547
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2391 | PDF Full-text (1216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the willingness to pay (WTP) for the highland agriculture restriction policy which aims to stabilize the water quality in the Han River basin, South Korea. To estimate the WTP, we use a double-bounded contingent valuation method and a random-effects interval-data [...] Read more.
This study examines the willingness to pay (WTP) for the highland agriculture restriction policy which aims to stabilize the water quality in the Han River basin, South Korea. To estimate the WTP, we use a double-bounded contingent valuation method and a random-effects interval-data regression. We extend contingent valuation studies by dealing with the potential preference anomalies (shift, anchoring, and inconsistent response effects). The result indicates that after the preference anomalies are corrected, the statistical precision of parameter estimates is improved. After correcting the potential preference anomalies, estimated welfare gains are on average South Korean currency (KRW) 2,861 per month per household. Based on the WTP estimate, the total benefits from the land use restriction policy are around KRW 297.73 billion and the total costs are around KRW 129.44 billion. The net benefit is, thus, around KRW 168.29 billion. This study suggests several practical solutions that would be useful for the water management. First, a priority should be given to the valid compensation for the highland farmers’ expected income loss. Second, it is necessary to increase in the unit cost of the highland purchase. Third, wasted or inefficiently used costs (e.g., overinvestment in waste treatment facilities, and temporary upstream community support) should be transferred to the program associated with high mountainous agriculture field purchase. Results of our analysis support South Korean legislators and land use policy makers with useful information for the approval and operationalization of the policy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Variability Characteristics of Regional Drought during 1964–2013 in Horqin Sandy Land, China
Water 2016, 8(11), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110543
Received: 21 August 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1920 | PDF Full-text (11574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drought has an important influence on the hydrological cycle, ecological system, industrial and agricultural production, and social life. Based on the different time scales of characteristics of drought variability, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), a multi-timescale index with consideration of evaporation, was [...] Read more.
Drought has an important influence on the hydrological cycle, ecological system, industrial and agricultural production, and social life. Based on the different time scales of characteristics of drought variability, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), a multi-timescale index with consideration of evaporation, was used in this study to estimate the spatial and temporal variability characteristics of drought. Climatic data from 15 meteorological stations across Horqin Sandy Land during 1964–2013 were used to calculate the SPEI of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. In order to examine the relationship between droughts and other variables, 10 extreme climate indices were calculated based on the daily precipitation and maximum/mean/minimum temperature data of 15 meteorological stations, and linkages between SPEI-12 and atmosphere indices were established using by the cross wavelet transform method. The results indicated that the climate of Horqin Sandy Land had a tendency towards drought conditions, which is particularly apparent from the year 2000 onwards. During the study period, drought events were frequent in the region. Mild drought occurred in a quarter of the month, with that of moderate, severe, and extreme drought accounting for 0.11, 0.05, and 0.02 of the total months. The spatial trend of multi-timescale drought revealed that there was an increase in the severity of drought throughout Horqin Sandy Land, among which the magnitude in southern parts was larger than that of northern parts. The results also showed that the short time scale drought negatively correlated with precipitation extremes and positively correlated with temperature extremes. Furthermore, the long time scale drought (SPEI-12) was associated with atmosphere indices. Significant resonance periods were found between El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO), the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI), and SPEI-12. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Greywater Reuse System Design and Economic Analysis for Residential Buildings in Taiwan
Water 2016, 8(11), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110546
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3236 | PDF Full-text (2413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concept of greywater recycling and reuse has gradually become one of the most important strategies in water stressed countries. Due to a high population density and uneven rainfall distribution, the annual average rainfall distribution per capita in Taiwan is one fifth of [...] Read more.
The concept of greywater recycling and reuse has gradually become one of the most important strategies in water stressed countries. Due to a high population density and uneven rainfall distribution, the annual average rainfall distribution per capita in Taiwan is one fifth of the global average, which makes Taiwan a seriously water-stressed country. This study used the unit of a family of four as the target and reexamined the zoning concepts of water usage areas, followed by integrating pipeline configuration, water storage design and a filtering system to propose an Interior Customized Greywater System (ICGS) which is based on the application for the family unit. This system can be customized and flexibly adjusted according to household space. In order to verify the feasibility and viability of system, this study performed system configuration and design based on real cases and proposed three scenarios to simulate a 20 year life cycle for cost economic analysis. The result reveals that this system has a minimum payback period of 4 years and provides investment incentives. For regions or countries which have higher water cost or are more water stressed, ICGS can significantly improve the processing and utilization of water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Simulation of Floods in a Narrow Bending Valley: The Malpasset Dam Break Case Study
Water 2016, 8(11), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110545
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 12 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2361 | PDF Full-text (8429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the performance of three-dimensional (3D) hydraulic modeling when dealing with river sinuosity and meander bends. In river bends, the flow is dominated by a secondary current, which has a key role on the flow redistribution. The secondary flow [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the performance of three-dimensional (3D) hydraulic modeling when dealing with river sinuosity and meander bends. In river bends, the flow is dominated by a secondary current, which has a key role on the flow redistribution. The secondary flow induces transverse components of the bed shear stress and increases the velocity in outward direction, thus generating local erosion and riverbed modifications. When in river bends, the 3D processes prevail, and a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is required to correctly predict the flow structure. An accurate description of the different hydrodynamic processes in mildly and sharply curved bends find a relevant application in meanders migration modeling. The mechanisms that drive the velocity redistribution in meandering channels depend on the river’s roughness, the flow depth (H), the radius curvature (R), the width (B) and the bathymetric variations. Here, the hydro-geomorphic characterization of sharp and mild meanders is performed by means of the ratios R/B, B/H, and R/H, and of the sinuosity index. As a case study, we selected the Malpasset dam break on the Reyran River Valley (FR), as it is perfectly suited for investigating performances and issues of a 3D model in simulating the inundation dynamics in a river channel with a varying curvature radius. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
National Large-Scale Wetland Creation in Agricultural Areas—Potential versus Realized Effects on Nutrient Transports
Water 2016, 8(11), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110544
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Viewed by 1708 | PDF Full-text (1024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During 2007–2013, the Swedish Board of Agriculture granted support within a national program to about 1000 wetlands, corresponding to a 5300-hectare wetland area, with the dual goal to remove nutrients from water and to improve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. The aim of the [...] Read more.
During 2007–2013, the Swedish Board of Agriculture granted support within a national program to about 1000 wetlands, corresponding to a 5300-hectare wetland area, with the dual goal to remove nutrients from water and to improve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on nutrient transports that are realized within the national program to what could be obtained with the same area of wetlands if location and design of wetlands were optimized. In single, highly nutrient-loaded wetlands, a removal of around 1000 kg nitrogen and 100 kg phosphorus per hectare wetland area and year was estimated from monitoring data. Statistical models were developed to estimate the overall nutrient removal effects of wetlands created within the national program. Depending on model, the effect of the national program as a whole was estimated to between 27 and 38 kg nitrogen and between 2.7 and 4.5 kg phosphorus per hectare created wetland area and year. Comparison of what is achieved in individual wetlands to what was achieved in the national program indicates that nutrient removal effects could be increased substantially in future wetland programs by emphasising location and design of wetlands. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantifying the UK Online Interest in Substances of the EU Watchlist for Water Monitoring: Diclofenac, Estradiol, and the Macrolide Antibiotics
Water 2016, 8(11), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110542
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2093 | PDF Full-text (6768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the increased interest in micropollutants, this paper aims at quantifying and analyzing the UK online interest in Diclofenac, Estradiol, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, and Erythromycin, substances included in the EU watchlist for monitoring, in order to examine if the public’s online behavior and [...] Read more.
Due to the increased interest in micropollutants, this paper aims at quantifying and analyzing the UK online interest in Diclofenac, Estradiol, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, and Erythromycin, substances included in the EU watchlist for monitoring, in order to examine if the public’s online behavior and the use of these substances, in terms of issued prescriptions, are correlated. Using time series data from Google Trends from January 2004 to December 2014, an analysis of these substances in the UK, and in each UK region, i.e., England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, is at first performed, followed by an analysis of interest by substance. The results show high interest in Diclofenac with a slight decline, while the Macrolides are significantly less popular though increasing. For Estradiol, the interest is low and declining throughout the examined period, in contrast to the scientific community, where Estradiol is the most studied substance. Prescription items and Google hits are highly correlated in the UK for Diclofenac, Azithromycin, and Clarithromycin, while no correlation is observed for Estradiol. Results from this study indicated that online search traffic data can be valuable in examining the public’s online behavior towards the monitored micropollutants, and could assist with the evaluation and forecasting of their concentrations in the waste, surface, and ground water in the UK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Exceedance Probability to Determine Total Maximum Daily Loads for Reservoir Water Quality Management
Water 2016, 8(11), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110541
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1898 | PDF Full-text (6095 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) are used to protect water bodies based on their assimilative ability and are transferred as a maximum allowable load, which is the sum of all pollution emissions in a watershed that cannot be exceeded. This allowable load is [...] Read more.
Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) are used to protect water bodies based on their assimilative ability and are transferred as a maximum allowable load, which is the sum of all pollution emissions in a watershed that cannot be exceeded. This allowable load is calculated from a target water quality concentration and a flow state. The target water quality concentration is typically consistent with water quality standards; however, it is difficult to determine which flow state to use, especially for lakes and reservoirs. In this study, an exceedance probability method is established for determining the TMDL for reservoirs. The SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) was used to understand the pollution loads from the watershed, and the Vollenweider model was used to simulate the total phosphorous (TP) concentrations in the reservoir. Using the validated Vollenweider model, the relationship between pollution loads and the target TP concentration is illustrated. This relationship is associated with real changes in the reservoir water volume and is presented as the exceedance probability. In the study area (i.e., the Shiman Reservoir in Taiwan), an exceedance probability of 50% is suggested, and the allowable TP load is 22,209 kg/year when considering a target TP concentration of 20 μg/L. When considering effective management, the pollution sources in three hot spots are priorities, and controlling their point and nonpoint pollution sources can decrease TP from 25 to 22 μg/L. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Governance in England: Improving Understandings and Practices through Systemic Co-Inquiry
Water 2016, 8(11), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110540
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2258 | PDF Full-text (1150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In 2015, water governance in England finds itself part way through perhaps the most significant changes since the privatisation of the water industry in 1989. Each of the changes is a response to the specific challenges that fall within the realm of improving [...] Read more.
In 2015, water governance in England finds itself part way through perhaps the most significant changes since the privatisation of the water industry in 1989. Each of the changes is a response to the specific challenges that fall within the realm of improving water governance. However, they also raise many questions: How will the changes play out in practice? Will they work together to form a coherent ’whole’? Can collaborative and competitive approaches really co-exist? This research aims to engage researchers, policy-makers and practitioners in a systemic co-inquiry in order to improve understandings and practices in relation to water governance in England. The two workshops undertaken as part of the research focused on the current and future water governance situation in England, respectively. The findings from the workshops demonstrate that the systemic co-inquiry process generally proved very successful and useful for this group of stakeholders. The workshops provided the opportunity for participants to share, explore and challenge their ideas, knowledge and experiences in water governance; and in doing so, they brought about shared understandings, revealed new insights and identified concerted actions to improve (transform) water governance. However, it is recognised that whilst significant progress has been made towards improving understanding and practices in relation to water governance in England, there is still further work required in order to implement these improvements on a local, national or global scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Approach for Site Selection of Snow Measurement Stations
Water 2016, 8(11), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110539
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 29 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
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Abstract
Snowmelt provides a reliable water resource for meeting domestic, agricultural, industrial and hydropower demands. Consequently, estimating the available snow water equivalent is essential for water resource management of snowy regions. Due to the spatiotemporal variability of the snowfall pattern in mountainous areas and [...] Read more.
Snowmelt provides a reliable water resource for meeting domestic, agricultural, industrial and hydropower demands. Consequently, estimating the available snow water equivalent is essential for water resource management of snowy regions. Due to the spatiotemporal variability of the snowfall pattern in mountainous areas and difficult access to high altitudes areas, snow measurement is one of the most challenging hydro-meteorological data collection efforts. Development of an optimum snow measurement network is a complex task that requires integration of meteorological, hydrological, physiographical and economic studies. In this study, site selection of snow measurement stations is carried out through an integrated process using observed snow course data and analysis of historical snow cover images from National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) at both regional and local scales. Several important meteorological and hydrological factors, such as monthly and annual rainfall distribution, spatial distribution of average frequency of snow observation (FSO) for two periods of snow falling and melting season, as well as priority contribution of sub-basins to annual snowmelt runoff are considered for selecting optimum station network. The FSO maps representing accumulation of snowfall during falling months and snowpack persistence during melting months are prepared in the GIS based on NOAA-AVHRR historical snow cover images. Basins are partitioned into 250 m elevation intervals such that within each interval, establishment of new stations or relocation/removing of the existing stations were proposed. The decision is made on the basis of the combination of meteorological, hydrological and satellite information. Economic aspects and road access constraints are also considered in determining the station type. Eventually, for the study area encompassing a number of large basins in southwest of Iran, several new stations and relocation of some existing stations are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydro-Meteorological Monitoring) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area
Water 2016, 8(11), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110538
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2176 | PDF Full-text (5502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and [...] Read more.
Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA) for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA), with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources)
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Open AccessCommunication
Acid Water Neutralization Using Microbial Fuel Cells: An Alternative for Acid Mine Drainage Treatment
Water 2016, 8(11), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110536
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 29 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2807 | PDF Full-text (5487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a complex environmental problem, which has adverse effects on surface and ground waters due to low pH, high toxic metals, and dissolved salts. New bioremediation approach based on microbial fuel cells (MFC) can be a novel and sustainable [...] Read more.
Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a complex environmental problem, which has adverse effects on surface and ground waters due to low pH, high toxic metals, and dissolved salts. New bioremediation approach based on microbial fuel cells (MFC) can be a novel and sustainable alternative for AMD treatment. We studied the potential of MFC for acidic synthetic water treatment through pH neutralization in batch-mode and continuous-flow operation. We observed a marked pH increase, from ~3.7 to ~7.9 under batch conditions and to ~5.8 under continuous-flow operation. Likewise, batch reactors (non-MFC) inoculated with different MFC-enriched biofilms showed a very similar pH increase, suggesting that the neutralization observed for batch operation was due to a synergistic influence of these communities. These preliminary results support the idea of using MFC technologies for AMD remediation, which could help to reduce costs associated with conventional technologies. Advances in this configuration could even be extrapolated to the recovery of heavy metals by precipitation or adsorption processes due to the acid neutralization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Unified Analysis of Multi-Chamber Contact Tanks and Mixing Efficiency Evaluation Based on Vorticity Field. Part II: Transport Analysis
Water 2016, 8(11), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110537
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1783 | PDF Full-text (4733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mixing characteristics of multi-chambered contact tank are analyzed employing the validated three-dimensional numerical model developed in the companion paper. Based on the flow characterization, novel volumetric mixing efficiency definitions are proposed for the assessment of the hydrodynamic and chemical transport properties of the [...] Read more.
Mixing characteristics of multi-chambered contact tank are analyzed employing the validated three-dimensional numerical model developed in the companion paper. Based on the flow characterization, novel volumetric mixing efficiency definitions are proposed for the assessment of the hydrodynamic and chemical transport properties of the contact tank and its chambers. Residence time distribution functions are analyzed not only at the outlet of each chamber but also inside the chambers using the efficiency definitions for both Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES) results. A novel tracer mixing index is defined to characterize short circuiting and mixing effects of the contact system. Comparisons of the results of these indexes for RANS and LES solutions indicate that mixing characteristics are stronger in LES due to the unsteady turbulent eddy mixing even though short circuiting effects are also more prominent in LES results. This result indicates that the mixing analysis based on the LES results simulates the mixing characteristics instantaneously, which is more realistic than that in RANS. Since LES analysis can capture turbulent eddy mixing better than RANS analysis, the interaction of recirculation and jet zones are captured more effectively in LES, which tends to predict higher turbulent mixing in the contact system. The analysis also shows that the mixing efficiency of each chamber of the contact tank is different, thus it is necessary to consider distinct chemical release and volumetric designs for each chamber in order to maximize the mixing efficiency of the overall process in a contact tank system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Two Urbanized Estuaries: Environmental Change, Legal Framework, and Implications for Sea-Level Rise Vulnerability
Water 2016, 8(11), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110535
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 30 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2023 | PDF Full-text (2854 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The San Francisco Bay (CA, USA) and the Tagus Estuary (Lisbon, Portugal) share striking similarities in terms of morphology and urban development. A finer analysis of development patterns reveals crucial differences in the extent of shoreline alteration and types of land use that [...] Read more.
The San Francisco Bay (CA, USA) and the Tagus Estuary (Lisbon, Portugal) share striking similarities in terms of morphology and urban development. A finer analysis of development patterns reveals crucial differences in the extent of shoreline alteration and types of land use that now encroach upon natural estuarine habitat. Through historical map analysis and prior stratigraphic and historical research, we reconstruct in GIS environment the evolution of both estuaries over the last millennia and the relative distribution of different classes of land cover. We also discuss the legal frameworks that accompanied this evolution, and how they have influenced the process of wetland reclamation and landfilling. We compared the legal history and synchronous patterns of development by compiling historical mapping information and resorting to GIS analysis to explore spatial patterns over time. This method was useful in isolating events and decisions that were unique to each of the case studies. The Tagus Estuary has experienced disruption of natural environments for over two millennia. Yet, the State has been able to keep estuarine lowlands under public control, even if vast areas have been transformed into farmland. Public control could allow wetland migration with rising seas and restoration efforts. The San Francisco Bay was affected by several decades of elevated sediment loads in the 19th century, which induced rapid wetland expansion, but virtual cutoff of sediment supply by dams in the 20th century now impairs their ability to accrete. Meanwhile, tidal wetlands were subject to extremely fast and poorly regulated development. Artificially filled and/or drained wetlands were transferred to local governments and private landowners, in violation of the Public Trust Doctrine. The transformation of wetlands into salt ponds, industrial zones and even residential neighborhoods created extensive developed areas at or below sea level, which are vulnerable to even modest rises in sea level. Remaining wetlands are now heavily encroached on their landward side by urban development, which prevents their landward migration. Different legal interpretations of comparable definitions of public trusts and jurisdictions over shorelines may have significant implications for the ability to adapt to sea-level rise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Resolution of Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauge and Calculation Method on Rainfall Intensities in an Andean Mountain Gradient
Water 2016, 8(11), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110534
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2472 | PDF Full-text (1366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A laser-optical disdrometer served as reference to assess the absolute percent bias of calculated rainfall intensity using the data of different-resolution tipping-bucket rain gauges classically applied by climatologists and hydrologists in the Andean region. Additionally, the impact of the calculation method (tip counting [...] Read more.
A laser-optical disdrometer served as reference to assess the absolute percent bias of calculated rainfall intensity using the data of different-resolution tipping-bucket rain gauges classically applied by climatologists and hydrologists in the Andean region. Additionally, the impact of the calculation method (tip counting versus cubic spline interpolation) was examined. The combined effect was assessed for different rainfall intensity classes (0–0.99, 1–1.99, 2–4.99, and 5–10 mm·h−1) and timescales (5, 10, 30, and 60 min). Additionally, the variation in percent absolute bias of the Davis rain gauge, the collector most widely used in the study region, was defined with respect to the Texas rain gauge along an elevation gradient between 3300 and 4000 m a.s.l. Results reveal that the value of the percent absolute bias is largest for small rainfall intensities (≤2 mm·h−1) and short timescales (≤10 min), and decreases when the cubic spline interpolation is used. No relation was found between the error, the elevation, and rainfall depth along the gradient. Based on the research findings, it is recommended to measure precipitation in the high Andean mountain region with a high-resolution sensor and to consider cubic spline for the computation of intensities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tomato Productivity and Quality in Aquaponics: Comparison of Three Hydroponic Methods
Water 2016, 8(11), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110533
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 5 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4081 | PDF Full-text (10567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aquaponics (AP) is a food production system that combines hydroponic (HP) crop production with recirculating aquaculture. Different types of hydroponic systems have been used for growing crops in aquaponics. However, very few studies have compared their suitability and efficiency in an aquaponic context. [...] Read more.
Aquaponics (AP) is a food production system that combines hydroponic (HP) crop production with recirculating aquaculture. Different types of hydroponic systems have been used for growing crops in aquaponics. However, very few studies have compared their suitability and efficiency in an aquaponic context. The study presented here compares tomato yield, morphological (external) and biochemical (internal) fruit quality, and overall tomato plant vitality from three different HP systems (nutrient film technique, drip irrigation system, and floating raft culture) and examines the distribution of nutrients in different parts of the tomato plant. Three replicate AP systems were set up, each incorporating the three different HP systems coupled with a separate recirculating aquaculture unit growing Nile tilapia. The results showed that the choice of the cultivation system had little influence on most of the above-mentioned properties. Tomato fruit mineral content was found to be in similar range for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn as reported in the literature. Yield and fruit quality were similar in all three systems. However, the drip irrigation system did perform slightly better. The slightly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the fruits grown in AP in comparison to commercially produced and supermarket derived tomatoes might indicate a potential for producing fruits with higher health value for humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Inorganic Ions and Organic Substances on the Degradation of Pharmaceutical Compound in Water Matrix
Water 2016, 8(11), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110532
Received: 18 September 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2206 | PDF Full-text (3420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper determined the influence of inorganic substances and high-molecular organic compounds on the decomposition of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine in the process of photocatalysis conducted with the presence of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). It was determined that the presence of such [...] Read more.
The paper determined the influence of inorganic substances and high-molecular organic compounds on the decomposition of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine in the process of photocatalysis conducted with the presence of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). It was determined that the presence of such ions as CO 3 2 , HCO 3 , HPO 4 2 as well as SO 4 2 inhibited the decomposition of carbamazepine, whereas the efficiency of diclofenac degradation was decreased only by the presence of CO 3 2 and HCO 3 anions. In case of ibuprofen sodium salt (IBU), all investigated anions influenced the increase in its decomposition rate. The process of pharmaceutical photooxidation conducted in suspensions with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations was characterized by a significantly decreased efficiency when compared to the solution deprived of inorganic compounds. The addition of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ affected the increase of reaction rate constant value of diclofenac and ibuprofen decomposition. On the other hand, high molecular organic compounds present in the model effluent additionally catalysed the degradation process of pharmaceutical compounds and constituted an additional sorbent that enabled to decrease their concentration. Toxicological analysis conducted in deionized water with pharmaceutical compounds’ patterns proved the production of by-products from oxidation and/or reduction of micropollutants, which was not observed for model effluent irradiation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Activated Sludge Dewaterability by Using Filamentous Fungi as Bioadditives
Water 2016, 8(11), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110531
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
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Abstract
In this study, the dewaterability of activated sludge inoculated with spores of two filamentous fungi (Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae) was evaluated. The reduction of capillary suction time (CST) and the increase of sludge solids content were used as parameters to [...] Read more.
In this study, the dewaterability of activated sludge inoculated with spores of two filamentous fungi (Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae) was evaluated. The reduction of capillary suction time (CST) and the increase of sludge solids content were used as parameters to assess the dewaterability of the sludge. Furthermore, the transformation of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the sludge during the fungal conditioning and the interaction of microbial and fungal populations were addressed. Fungal conditioning reduced the CST by 25% and increased the sludge solids content by 16%, denoting the enhancement of the sludge dewaterability. The optimum fungal conditioning time was three to four days. Fungi hydrolyzed the sludge EPS, allowing the release of water from the flocs matrix. Fungal conditioning increased the fungal and microbial communities. Furthermore, the increase of the fungal population augmented the hydrolytic activity of enzymes over the sludge EPS, enhancing the water release and consequently the dewaterability of the activated sludge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Water Quality on the Use of Solar Water Heaters in Remote Islands of Taiwan
Water 2016, 8(11), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110530
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1850 | PDF Full-text (914 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan’s remote islands has been subjected to scaling and, in particular, corrosion problems due to sources of water. In this study, four different water quality indices including the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), the Ryznar Stability [...] Read more.
The use of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan’s remote islands has been subjected to scaling and, in particular, corrosion problems due to sources of water. In this study, four different water quality indices including the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), the Ryznar Stability Index (RSI), the Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI), and the Larson-Skold Corrosive Index (LSCI) were employed to assess the scaling and corrosion tendencies in SWHs caused by tap water and ground water in the Penghu, Kinmen, and Lienchiang counties, each of which is constituted of several remote islands. In general, the LSI, the RSI, and the PSI results show a slight scaling tendency in Penghu, but a corrosion tendency in Kinmen and Lienchiang. Nevertheless, all LSCI results show a serious steel corrosion tendency in these three counties. In addition, the chloride ion (Cl) concentrations are higher than 45 mg/L in either tap water (except for the Lieyu township in Kinmen) or ground water. This fact resulted in serious corrosion problems, as found in the currently installed SWHs, which were mainly made from 304 stainless steel. The metals with higher corrosion resistance to chloride ions are required in the manufacture of SWHs to be installed on these three remote-island counties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Slope, Rainfall Intensity and Mulch on Erosion and Infiltration under Simulated Rain on Purple Soil of South-Western Sichuan Province, China
Water 2016, 8(11), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110528
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
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Abstract
Purple soil is widely distributed in the hilly areas of the Sichuan basin, southwest China, and is highly susceptible to water erosion. The triggering of this process is related to slope, rainfall intensity and surface cover. Therefore, this study assesses the effects of [...] Read more.
Purple soil is widely distributed in the hilly areas of the Sichuan basin, southwest China, and is highly susceptible to water erosion. The triggering of this process is related to slope, rainfall intensity and surface cover. Therefore, this study assesses the effects of different simulated rainfall intensities with different slopes on hydrological and erosional processes in un-mulched and mulched purple soils. Results show that the sediment and water losses increased with an increase of rainfall intensity and slope steepness. Generally, the slope contribution (Sc) on water and sediment losses decreased with increasing rainfall intensity and slope steepness under both un-mulched and mulched soil. In un-mulched conditions, water losses were independent of slope steepness (Sc < 50%) during the highest rainfall intensity. However, in mulched soil, the higher contributions of slope (Sc) and rainfall (Rc) were found for water and sediment losses, respectively, i.e., >50%, except during the increase in slope steepness from 15° to 25° under the highest rainfall intensity (120 mm·h−1). The effectiveness of mulch was more pronounced in reducing sediment losses (81%–100%) compared with water losses (14%–100%). The conservation effectiveness of mulch both decreased and increased with slope steepness for water and sediment losses, respectively, under higher rainfall intensities. Water infiltration and recharge coefficient (RC) decreased with an increase of slope steepness, while with an increase in rainfall intensity, the water infiltration and RC were increased and decreased, respectively, in both un-mulched and mulched soil. On the other hand, mulched soil maintained a significantly (α = 0.05) higher infiltration capacity and RC compared to that of the un-mulched soil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lake Evaporation in a Hyper-Arid Environment, Northwest of China—Measurement and Estimation
Water 2016, 8(11), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110527
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
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Abstract
Lake evaporation is a critical component of the hydrological cycle. Quantifying lake evaporation in hyper-arid regions by measurement and estimation can both provide reliable potential evaporation (ET0) reference and promote a deeper understanding of the regional hydrological process and its response [...] Read more.
Lake evaporation is a critical component of the hydrological cycle. Quantifying lake evaporation in hyper-arid regions by measurement and estimation can both provide reliable potential evaporation (ET0) reference and promote a deeper understanding of the regional hydrological process and its response towards changing climate. We placed a floating E601 evaporation pan on East Juyan Lake, which is representative of arid regions’ terminal lakes, to measure daily evaporation and conducted simultaneous bankside synoptic observation during the growing season of 2013–2015. A semi-empirical evaporation model derived from Dalton model was parameterized and validated with measured data. The model was then used to estimate lake evaporation during 2002–2015. According to in situ measurements, maximum, minimum and mean lake evaporation were 8.1, 3.7 and 6.5 mm/day, and growing season evaporation was 1183.3 mm (~80% of the annual amount). Adding up non-growing season evaporation that we converted from φ20 pan evaporation at Ejina weather station, the annual mean lake evaporation, 1471.3 mm, was representative of lower Heihe River’s ET0. Model inter-comparison implied our model performed well both in simplicity and accuracy and has potential utilization in a data-sparse area. In 2002–2015, estimated mean daily evaporation was 6.5 mm/day and growing season evaporation was 1233.7 mm. Trend analysis of estimated evaporation proved the evaporation paradox’s existence in this hyper-arid region and validated complementary relationship theory’s adaptability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rainwater Harvesting and Social Networks: Visualising Interactions for Niche Governance, Resilience and Sustainability
Water 2016, 8(11), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110526
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
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Abstract
Visualising interactions across urban water systems to explore transition and change processes requires the development of methods and models at different scales. This paper contributes a model representing the network interactions of rainwater harvesting (RWH) infrastructure innovators and other organisations in the UK [...] Read more.
Visualising interactions across urban water systems to explore transition and change processes requires the development of methods and models at different scales. This paper contributes a model representing the network interactions of rainwater harvesting (RWH) infrastructure innovators and other organisations in the UK RWH niche to identify how resilience and sustainability feature within niche governance in practice. The RWH network interaction model was constructed using a modified participatory social network analysis (SNA). The SNA was further analysed through the application of a two-part analytical framework based on niche management and the safe, resilient and sustainable (‘Safe and SuRe’) framework. Weak interactions between some RWH infrastructure innovators and other organisations highlighted reliance on a limited number of persuaders to influence the regime and landscape, which were underrepresented. Features from niche creation and management were exhibited by the RWH network interaction model, though some observed characteristics were not represented. Additional Safe and SuRe features were identified covering diverse innovation, responsivity, no protection, unconverged expectations, primary influencers, polycentric or adaptive governance and multiple learning-types. These features enable RWH infrastructure innovators and other organisations to reflect on improving resilience and sustainability, though further research in other sectors would be useful to verify and validate observation of the seven features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synergies in Urban Water Infrastructure Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
A Provincial Initial Water Rights Incentive Allocation Model with Total Pollutant Discharge Control
Water 2016, 8(11), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110525
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
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Abstract
According to the newly introduced water resources management in China, which is the most stringent thus far, pollution limits of water functional zones should be enhanced. In response to this recent change, we propose a provincial initial water rights incentive allocation model with [...] Read more.
According to the newly introduced water resources management in China, which is the most stringent thus far, pollution limits of water functional zones should be enhanced. In response to this recent change, we propose a provincial initial water rights incentive allocation model with total pollutant discharge constraint. Firstly, three objective functions are set up, namely the maximum comprehensive economic benefits of basin, the optimal fairness and coordination of the provincial pollutant discharge rights, and the minimum losses of basin ecological environment. Based on the objective functions and constraint of total pollutant discharge, we put forward a multiple-objective provincial initial pollutant discharge rights allocation model with a self-adaptive chaotic optimization algorithm. Secondly, according to the incentive mechanism of rewarding excellence and punishing inferiority, we establish a provincial initial water rights allocation model with an incentive function which includes the amount of provincial initial pollutant discharge. Finally, we select the Taihu Basin as a case study to describe the methodology. Under water frequencies of 50%, 75%, and 90%, the empirical results of provincial initial water rights allocation of the Taihu Basin in 2030 show that Jiangsu Province will obtain the most initial water rights, followed by Zhejiang Province and Shanghai city. The incentive allocation model of the provincial initial water rights is effective and the algorithm is feasible. The model may help to assure the most stringent water resources management strategies that are effectively carried out in the Taihu Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Uncertainty Analysis in Data-Scarce Urban Catchments
Water 2016, 8(11), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110524
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2072 | PDF Full-text (6215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The evaluation of the uncertainties in model predictions is key for advancing urban drainage modelling practice. This paper investigates, for the first time in Mexico, the effect of parameter sensitivity and predictive uncertainty in an application of a well-known urban stormwater model. Two [...] Read more.
The evaluation of the uncertainties in model predictions is key for advancing urban drainage modelling practice. This paper investigates, for the first time in Mexico, the effect of parameter sensitivity and predictive uncertainty in an application of a well-known urban stormwater model. Two of the most common methods used for assessing hydrological model parameter uncertainties are used: the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) and a multialgorithm, genetically adaptive multi-objective method (AMALGAM). The uncertainty is estimated from eight selected hydrologic parameters used in the setup of the rainfall-runoff model. To ensure the reliability of the model, four rainfall events varying from 20 mm to 120 mm from minor to major count classes were selected. The results show that, for the selected storms, both techniques generate results with similar effectiveness, as measured using well-known error metrics; GLUE was found to have a slightly better performance compared to AMALGAM. In particular, it was demonstrated that it is possible to obtain reliable models with an index of agreement (IAd) greater than 60 and average Absolute Percentage Error (EAP) less than 30 percent derived from the uncertainty analysis. Thus, the quantification of uncertainty enables the generation of more reliable flow predictions. Moreover, these methods show the impact of aggregation of errors arising from different sources, minimising the amount of subjectivity associated with the model’s predictions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perceptions of Present and Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability for Agricultural Systems in the Western Mediterranean Region
Water 2016, 8(11), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110523
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
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Abstract
Many Mediterranean countries have experienced water shortages during the last 20 years and future climate change projections foresee further pressure on water resources. This will have significant implications for irrigation water management in agricultural systems in the future. Through qualitative and quantitative empirical [...] Read more.
Many Mediterranean countries have experienced water shortages during the last 20 years and future climate change projections foresee further pressure on water resources. This will have significant implications for irrigation water management in agricultural systems in the future. Through qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods carried out on a case study on four Mediterranean farming systems located in Oristano, Italy, we sought to understand the relationship between farmers’ perceptions of climate change (i.e., increased temperature and decreased precipitation) and of present and future water availability for agriculture as forecasted by climatic and crop models. We also explored asymmetries between farmers’ perceptions and present and future climate change and water scenarios as well as factors influencing perceptions. Our hypotheses were that farmers’ perceptions are the main drivers of actual water management practices and that sustainable practices can emerge from learning spaces designed from the understanding of the gaps between perceptions and scientific evidences. Results showed that most farmers perceived that climate change is occurring or will occur in their area. They also perceived that there has been an increased temperature trend, but also increased precipitation. Therefore, they are convinced that they have and will have enough irrigation water for agriculture in the near future, while climate change projections foresee an increasing pressure on water resources in the Mediterranean region. Such results suggest the need for (i) irrigation management policies that take into account farmers’ perceptions in order to promote virtuous behaviors and improve irrigation water use efficiency; (ii) new, well-designed learning spaces to improve the understanding on climate change expectations in the near future in order to support effective adaptive responses at the farm and catchment scales. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil
Water 2016, 8(11), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110517
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
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Abstract
Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade [...] Read more.
Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well as water scarcity, water self-sufficiency and water dependency per Brazilian region. While previous country studies on water footprints and virtual water trade focused on virtual water importers or water-scarce countries, this is the first study to concentrate on a water-abundant virtual water-exporting country. Besides, it is the first study establishing international virtual water trade balances per state, which is relevant given the fact that water scarcity varies across states within the country, so the origin of virtual water exports matters. The results show that the average water footprint of Brazilian food consumption is 1619 m3/person/year. Beef contributes most (21%) to this total. We find a net virtual water export of 54.8 billion m3/year, mainly to Europe, which imports 41% of the gross amount of the virtual water exported from Brazil. The northeast, the region with the highest water scarcity, has a net import of virtual water. The southeast, next in terms of water scarcity, shows large virtual water exports, mainly related to the export of sugar. The north, which has the most water, does not show a high virtual water export rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Will Dam Removal Increase Nitrogen Flux to Estuaries?
Water 2016, 8(11), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110522
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
To advance the science of dam removal, analyses of functions and benefits need to be linked to individual dam attributes and effects on downstream receiving waters. We examined 7550 dams in the New England (USA) region for possible tradeoffs associated with dam removal. [...] Read more.
To advance the science of dam removal, analyses of functions and benefits need to be linked to individual dam attributes and effects on downstream receiving waters. We examined 7550 dams in the New England (USA) region for possible tradeoffs associated with dam removal. Dam removal often generates improvements for safety or migratory fish passage but might increase nitrogen (N) flux and eutrophication in coastal watersheds. We estimated N loading and removal with algorithms using geospatial data on land use, stream flow and hydrography. We focused on dams with reservoirs that increase retention time at specific points of river reaches, creating localized hotspots of elevated N removal. Approximately 2200 dams with reservoirs had potential benefits for N removal based on N loading, retention time and depth. Across stream orders, safety concerns on these N removal dams ranged between 28% and 44%. First order streams constituted the majority of N removal dams (70%), but only 3% of those were classified as high value for fish passage. In cases where dam removal might eliminate N removal function from a particular reservoir, site-specific analyses are warranted to improve N delivery estimates and examine alternatives that retain the reservoir while enhancing fish passage and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a New Generation of Flood Inundation Maps—A Case Study of the Coastal City of Tainan, Taiwan
Water 2016, 8(11), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110521
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
Flood risk management has become a growing priority for city managers and disaster risk prevention agencies worldwide. Correspondingly, large investments are made towards data collection, archiving and analysis and technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing play important role in [...] Read more.
Flood risk management has become a growing priority for city managers and disaster risk prevention agencies worldwide. Correspondingly, large investments are made towards data collection, archiving and analysis and technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing play important role in this regard. GIS technologies offer valuable means for delineation of flood plains, zoning of areas that need protection from floods and identification of plans for development and scoping of various kinds of flood protection measures. Flood inundation maps (FIMs) are particularly useful in planning flood disaster risk responses. The purpose of the present paper is to describe efforts in developing new generation of FIMs at the city scale and to demonstrate effectiveness of such maps in the case of the coastal city of Tainan, Taiwan. In the present work, besides pluvial floods, the storm surge influence is also considered. The 1D/2D coupled model SOBEK was used for flood simulations. Different indicators such as Probability of Detection (POD) and Scale of Accuracy (SA) were applied in the calibration and validation stages of the work and their corresponding values were found to be up to 88.1% and 68.0%, respectively. From the overall analysis, it came up that land elevation, tidal phase, and storm surge are the three dominant factors that influence flooding in Tainan. A large number of model simulations were carried out in order to produce FIMs which were then effectively applied in the stakeholder engagement process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Ecohydraulic-Based Mesohabitat Classification and Fish Species Traits for Stream Restoration Design
Water 2016, 8(11), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110520
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
Stream restoration practice typically relies on a geomorphological design approach in which the integration of ecological criteria is limited and generally qualitative, although the most commonly stated project objective is to restore biological integrity by enhancing habitat and water quality. Restoration has achieved [...] Read more.
Stream restoration practice typically relies on a geomorphological design approach in which the integration of ecological criteria is limited and generally qualitative, although the most commonly stated project objective is to restore biological integrity by enhancing habitat and water quality. Restoration has achieved mixed results in terms of ecological successes and it is evident that improved methodologies for assessment and design are needed. A design approach is suggested for mesohabitat restoration based on a review and integration of fundamental processes associated with: (1) lotic ecological concepts; (2) applied geomorphic processes for mesohabitat self-maintenance; (3) multidimensional hydraulics and habitat suitability modeling; (4) species functional traits correlated with fish mesohabitat use; and (5) multi-stage ecohydraulics-based mesohabitat classification. Classification of mesohabitat units demonstrated in this article were based on fish preferences specifically linked to functional trait strategies (i.e., feeding resting, evasion, spawning, and flow refugia), recognizing that habitat preferences shift by season and flow stage. A multi-stage classification scheme developed under this premise provides the basic “building blocks” for ecological design criteria for stream restoration. The scheme was developed for Midwest US prairie streams, but the conceptual framework for mesohabitat classification and functional traits analysis can be applied to other ecoregions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Global Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Level Rise Estimation with Optimal Historical Time Lag Data
Water 2016, 8(11), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110519
Received: 28 August 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2448 | PDF Full-text (1305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prediction of global temperatures and sea level rise (SLR) is important for sustainable development planning of coastal regions of the world and the health and safety of communities living in these regions. In this study, climate change effects on sea level rise is [...] Read more.
Prediction of global temperatures and sea level rise (SLR) is important for sustainable development planning of coastal regions of the world and the health and safety of communities living in these regions. In this study, climate change effects on sea level rise is investigated using a dynamic system model (DSM) with time lag on historical input data. A time-invariant (TI-DSM) and time-variant dynamic system model (TV-DSM) with time lag is developed to predict global temperatures and SLR in the 21st century. The proposed model is an extension of the DSM developed by the authors. The proposed model includes the effect of temperature and sea level states of several previous years on the current temperature and sea level over stationary and also moving scale time periods. The optimal time lag period used in the model is determined by minimizing a synthetic performance index comprised of the root mean square error and coefficient of determination which is a measure for the reliability of the predictions. Historical records of global temperature and sea level from 1880 to 2001 are used to calibrate the model. The optimal time lag is determined to be eight years, based on the performance measures. The calibrated model was then used to predict the global temperature and sea levels in the 21st century using a fixed time lag period and moving scale time lag periods. To evaluate the adverse effect of greenhouse gas emissions on SLR, the proposed model was also uncoupled to project the SLR based on global temperatures that are obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios. The projected SLR estimates for the 21st century are presented comparatively with the predictions made in previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Level Changes)
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