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Water, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Governance Regime Factors Conducive to Innovation Uptake in Urban Water Management: Experiences from Europe
Water 2016, 8(10), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100477
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1749 | PDF Full-text (667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Innovative ways to manage the urban water cycle are required to deal with an ageing drinking and waste water infrastructure and new societal imperatives. This paper examines the influence of water governance in enabling transformations and technological innovation uptake in urban water management. [...] Read more.
Innovative ways to manage the urban water cycle are required to deal with an ageing drinking and waste water infrastructure and new societal imperatives. This paper examines the influence of water governance in enabling transformations and technological innovation uptake in urban water management. A governance assessment framework is developed and applied in three case-studies, examining different scales and types of innovations used to tackle challenges in European urban water management. The methodology combines documentary analysis and interviews to reconstruct historical storylines of the shift in the water governance of urban water management for each site. The research provides detailed empirical observations on the factors conducive to innovation uptake at the local level. Critical governance factors such as commitment to compromise, the necessity to build political support, and the role of “entrepreneurs” and coalitions are highlighted. The paper also explores the role of discursive strategies and partnership design, as well as that of regulative, economic and communicative instruments, in creating barriers and opportunities to initiate and secure change. A number of recommendations targeted at innovators and water managers are presented in the conclusion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Yunnan’s Fast-Paced Large Hydropower Development: A Powershed-Based Approach to Critically Assessing Generation and Consumption Paradigms
Water 2016, 8(10), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100476
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1732 | PDF Full-text (8436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Southwest China’s Yunnan province is evolving into one of the world’s largest hydro-power-producing regions. It already rivals the world’s largest hydro-producing nations. However, five of Yunnan’s six basins are international and therefore its hydropower development is of great academic and geopolitical interest. While [...] Read more.
Southwest China’s Yunnan province is evolving into one of the world’s largest hydro-power-producing regions. It already rivals the world’s largest hydro-producing nations. However, five of Yunnan’s six basins are international and therefore its hydropower development is of great academic and geopolitical interest. While the implementation of large projects on Yunnan’s three large rivers (Jinsha, Mekong and Nu) is relatively well studied, hydropower development outside these three main streams is hardly known. Here, we identified 128 large hydropower projects (≥50 MW) having a capacity of 16.5 GW, along with another 16.4 GW of other types of power generation, neither of which has been discussed in the academic literature yet. The paper utilizes a powershed approach to study the rapid hydropower development underway in Yunnan, both in its implication and challenges (at basin and administrative level) as well as in its trade-offs within the broader electricity context. Yunnan’s power generation and consumption patterns are characterized by diverging interests of local/provincial usage and export utilization. Within the province, the largest (hydro-) power users are energy/electricity intensive industries, which themselves have strong impacts on land use changes. Yunnan is also evolving as a major power exporter, already in 2013 exporting about one-third of its generated electricity mainly to Guangdong’s Pearl River Delta. We see a need for a critical revision of those existing generation and consumption paradigms, which includes a rethinking of major development modes, both in terms of future hydropower generation and utilization projects as well as export obligations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Soil Water Storage Changes within Deep Profiles under Introduced Shrubs during the Growing Season: Evidence from Semiarid Loess Plateau, China
Water 2016, 8(10), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100475
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1322 | PDF Full-text (4235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water stored deep in the soil profile is the primary bio-available reservoir for regional vegetation in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China. However, the planting of introduced shrubs over many years as part of the “Grain to Green Program (GGP)” has consistently lead [...] Read more.
Water stored deep in the soil profile is the primary bio-available reservoir for regional vegetation in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China. However, the planting of introduced shrubs over many years as part of the “Grain to Green Program (GGP)” has consistently lead to dried soil in areas with severe water scarcity. Knowledge of soil water storage (SWS) changes within deep profiles in water-deficient regions is critical for the sustainable development of vegetation restoration. Caragana korshinskii K. (CK) and Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HR) are widely planted in the Loess Plateau to control soil erosion. We selected these two shrubs for a study on variations in deep soil water (100–500 cm) and identified the main factors affecting deep soil water storage replenishment (SWSR) during their growing seasons. The results indicated that the mean SWS at 100–500 cm depth under HR was significantly higher than that under CK at both the beginning (352.74 mm for CK and 644.79 mm for HR) and end of the growing season (311.95 mm for CK and 529.05 mm for HR) (p < 0.01). In these ecosystems, SWS was only recharged below 340 cm under CK, which was due to vegetation characteristics. Under HR, however, soil water consumption exceeded recharge throughout the whole 100–500 cm profile. The SWSR at the 100–340 cm depth was mainly affected by sand content, which explained 28% of the variability of SWSR. At the 340–500 cm depth, the variability in SWSR was due to vegetation type. Therefore, expansion of the GGP should pay more attention to both soil water conditions and influencing factors, including appropriate vegetation selection and the altering of the microtopography. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating Water Footprints of Vegetable Crops: Influence of Growing Season, Solar Radiation Data and Functional Unit
Water 2016, 8(10), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100473
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1897 | PDF Full-text (4517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water footprint (WF) accounting as proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN) can potentially provide important information for water resource management, especially in water scarce countries relying on irrigation to help meet their food requirements. However, calculating accurate WFs of short-season vegetable crops [...] Read more.
Water footprint (WF) accounting as proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN) can potentially provide important information for water resource management, especially in water scarce countries relying on irrigation to help meet their food requirements. However, calculating accurate WFs of short-season vegetable crops such as carrots, cabbage, beetroot, broccoli and lettuce presented some challenges. Planting dates and inter-annual weather conditions impact WF results. Joining weather datasets of just rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature with ones that include solar radiation and wind-speed affected crop model estimates and WF results. The functional unit selected can also have a major impact on results. For example, WFs according to the WFN approach do not account for crop residues used for other purposes, like composting and animal feed. Using yields in dry matter rather than fresh mass also impacts WF metrics, making comparisons difficult. To overcome this, using the nutritional value of crops as a functional unit can connect water use more directly to potential benefits derived from different crops and allow more straightforward comparisons. Grey WFs based on nitrogen only disregards water pollution caused by phosphates, pesticides and salinization. Poor understanding of the fate of nitrogen complicates estimation of nitrogen loads into the aquifer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Variation in Water Balance Components in Mountainous Inland River Basin Experiencing Climate Change
Water 2016, 8(10), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100472
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2010 | PDF Full-text (12324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantification of the changes of water balance components is significant for water resource assessment and management. This paper employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to estimate the water balance in a mountainous watershed in northwest China at different spatial scales [...] Read more.
Quantification of the changes of water balance components is significant for water resource assessment and management. This paper employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to estimate the water balance in a mountainous watershed in northwest China at different spatial scales over the past half century. The results showed that both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and determination coefficient (R2) were over 0.90 for the calibration and validation periods. The water balance components presented rising trends at the watershed scale, and the total runoff increased by 30.5% during 1964 to 2013 period. Rising surface runoff and rising groundwater flow contributed 42.7% and 57.3% of the total rising runoff, respectively. The runoff coefficient was sensitive to increasing precipitation and was not significant to the increase of temperature. The alpine meadow was the main landscape which occupied 51.1% of the watershed and contributed 55.5% of the total runoff. Grass land, forest land, bare land, and glacier covered 14.2%, 18.8%, 15.4%, and 0.5% of the watershed and contributed 8.5%, 16.9%, 15.9%, and 3.2% of the total runoff, respectively. The elevation zone from 3500 to 4500 m occupied 66.5% of the watershed area, and contributed the majority of the total runoff (70.7%). The runoff coefficients in the elevation zone from 1637 to 2800 m, 2800 to 3500 m, 3500 to 4000 m, 4000 to 4500 m, and 4500 to 5062 m were 0.20, 0.27, 0.32, 0.43, and 0.78, respectively, which tend to be larger along with the elevation increase. The quantities and change trends of the water balance components at the watershed scale were calculated by the results of the sub-watersheds. Furthermore, we characterized the spatial distribution of quantities and changes in trends of water balance components at the sub-watershed scale analysis. This study provides some references for water resource management and planning in inland river basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Flood Reduction in Urban Drainage Systems: Cooperative Operation of Centralized and Decentralized Reservoirs
Water 2016, 8(10), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100469
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2450 | PDF Full-text (5261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Failure of drainage systems leads to urban flooding; therefore, structural measures such as the installation of additional drainage facilities, including pump stations and detention reservoirs, have been adopted in the past to prevent and mitigate urban flooding. These measures, however, are costly and [...] Read more.
Failure of drainage systems leads to urban flooding; therefore, structural measures such as the installation of additional drainage facilities, including pump stations and detention reservoirs, have been adopted in the past to prevent and mitigate urban flooding. These measures, however, are costly and time consuming. To maximize flood mitigation efficiency, it is essential to also implement non-structural measures such as effective operation of drainage facilities. In this study, we propose a new cooperative operation scheme for urban drainage systems that involves linking centralized reservoir (CR) and decentralized reservoir (DR) operations by sharing water level information at monitoring nodes. Additionally, we develop a resilience index to assess the system's ability to mitigate, restore, and recover from inundation (i.e., failure). Most results show that flood reduction and resilience in cooperative operations are better than the current operation. However, the results of CR operation for 2010 are worse than the current operation at high monitoring node levels (1.4 m–1.5 m), and the results of DR operation for 2011 are worse than the current operation at low monitoring node levels (0.8 m–0.9 m). All results related to flood reduction and resilience in cooperative operation are superior to the current operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Case Study: Effect of Climatic Characterization on River Discharge in an Alpine-Prealpine Catchment of the Spanish Pyrenees Using the SWAT Model
Water 2016, 8(10), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100471
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract
The new challenges in assessment of water resources demand new approaches and tools, such as the use of hydrologic models, which could serve to assist managers in the prediction, planning and management of catchment water supplies in view of increased demand of water [...] Read more.
The new challenges in assessment of water resources demand new approaches and tools, such as the use of hydrologic models, which could serve to assist managers in the prediction, planning and management of catchment water supplies in view of increased demand of water for irrigation and climatic change. Good characterization of the spatial patterns of climate variables is of paramount importance in hydrological modelling. This is especially so when modelling mountain environments which are characterized by strong altitudinal climate gradients. However, very often there is a poor distribution of climatic stations in these areas, which in many cases, results in under representation of high altitude areas with respect to climatic data. This results in the poor performance of the models. In the present study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to the Barasona reservoir catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees in order to assess the influence of different climatic characterizations in the monthly river discharges. Four simulations with different input data were assessed, using only the available climate data (A1); the former plus one synthetic dataset at a higher altitude (B1); and both plus the altitudinal climate gradient (A2 and B2). The model’s performance was evaluated against the river discharges for the representative periods of 2003–2005 and 1994–1996 by means of commonly used statistical measures. The best results were obtained using the altitudinal climate gradient alone (scenario A2). This study provided insight into the importance of taking into account the sources and the spatial distribution of weather data in modelling water resources in mountainous catchments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Municipal Solid Waste Łubna Landfill on Environmental Pollution by Heavy Metals
Water 2016, 8(10), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100470
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2779 | PDF Full-text (2880 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Landfills have been identified as potential sources of heavy metal pollution of the environment. The municipal solid waste Łubna landfill is one of the largest landfills in Poland. Its impact on heavy metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr) of groundwater, soil [...] Read more.
Landfills have been identified as potential sources of heavy metal pollution of the environment. The municipal solid waste Łubna landfill is one of the largest landfills in Poland. Its impact on heavy metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr) of groundwater, soil and plants has been thoroughly evaluated. Elevated levels of contamination have not been recorded in the vicinity of the landfill. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil from the vicinity of the landfill were similar to the geochemical background levels for the forest and farming soils of central Poland. The concentrations of heavy metals in European goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea L.) and grasses (Poaceae) did not exceed the baseline concentrations and did not indicate environmental pollution by heavy metals. The levels of the metal concentration in groundwater did not exceed the standards established for water intended for consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conditional Copula-Based Spatial–Temporal Drought Characteristics Analysis—A Case Study over Turkey
Water 2016, 8(10), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100426
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 15 September 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1798 | PDF Full-text (3099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, commonly used copula functions belonging to Archimedean and Elliptical families are fitted to the univariate cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the drought characteristics duration (LD), average severity (S¯), and average areal extent (A¯ [...] Read more.
In this study, commonly used copula functions belonging to Archimedean and Elliptical families are fitted to the univariate cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the drought characteristics duration ( LD ), average severity ( S ¯ ), and average areal extent ( A ¯ ) of droughts obtained using standardized precipitation index (SPI) between 1960 and 2013 over Ankara, Turkey. Probabilistic modeling of drought characteristics with seven different fitted copula functions and their comparisons with independently estimated empirical joint distributions show normal copula links drought characteristics better than other copula functions. On average, droughts occur with an average LD of 6.9 months, S ¯ of 0.94, and A ¯ of 73%, while such a drought event happens on average once in every 6.65 years. Results also show a very strong and statistically significant relation between S ¯ and A ¯ , and drought return periods are more sensitive to the unconditioned drought characteristic, while return periods decrease by adding additional variables to the analysis (i.e., trivariate drought analysis compared to bivariate). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Survey of Aquaponics in Europe
Water 2016, 8(10), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100468
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2973 | PDF Full-text (924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
International aquaponic production has increased over the past decade, but less is known about research activities and production facilities operating in Europe. We conducted an online survey to get a better idea about research and production in Europe, focusing on five areas of [...] Read more.
International aquaponic production has increased over the past decade, but less is known about research activities and production facilities operating in Europe. We conducted an online survey to get a better idea about research and production in Europe, focusing on five areas of aquaponics (i.e., demographics, facilities used, fish and crops produced, funding sources, and personal or company priorities for further development). The 68 respondents were distributed among 21 European countries, 43% were working at a university, and 19% were commercial producers. Only 11.8% of those surveyed had sold fish or plants in the past 12 months. Most respondents were male (66.2%) and had a post-graduate degree (91.7%). Facilities were generally new (74.5% constructed after 2010) and self-designed. Production figures were modest, with less than 10 respondents producing more than 1000 kg of fish or plants per year (mostly tilapia or catfish and herbs or lettuce). Systems were often funded by government grants (35.3%). The great majority of respondents (80.4%) stated that aquaponics was not their main source of income. Most respondents prioritized using aquaponics for educational purposes, while few (25%) used it to produce their own food or improve their health. Questions related to personal knowledge about aquaponics underlined the need for more training about fish diseases and plant pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
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Open AccessArticle
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine) Growth Performance in Complemented Aquaponic Solution Outperforms Hydroponics
Water 2016, 8(10), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100467
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3642 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution complemented with mineral elements to commercial hydroponic [...] Read more.
Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution complemented with mineral elements to commercial hydroponic levels in order to increase yield. For this purpose, lettuce plants were put into AeroFlo installations and exposed to hydroponic (HP), aquaponic (AP), or complemented aquaponic (CAP) solutions. The principal finding of this research was that AP and HP treatments exhibited similar (p > 0.05) plant growth, whereas the shoot weight of the CAP treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05) growth rate increase of 39% on average compared to the HP and AP treatments. Additionally, the root weight was similar (p > 0.05) in AP and CAP treatments, and both were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that observed in the HP treatment. The results highlight the beneficial effect of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) water on plant growth. The findings represent a further step toward developing decoupled aquaponic systems (i.e., two- or multi-loops) that have the potential to establish a more productive alternative to hydroponic systems. Microorganisms and dissolved organic matter are suspected to play an important role in RAS water for promoting plant roots and shoots growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
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Open AccessReview
Water Banks: What Have We Learnt from the International Experience?
Water 2016, 8(10), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100466
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1684 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent decades, the use of economic instruments has been promoted as a way to improve water demand management, required due to the difficulty of further supply increases. Against this backdrop, this paper analyses the potential of water banks as a type of [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the use of economic instruments has been promoted as a way to improve water demand management, required due to the difficulty of further supply increases. Against this backdrop, this paper analyses the potential of water banks as a type of water market that can provide institutional flexibility in the allocation of water resources among different users. Research has involved an extensive review of the literature, which has allowed us to identify different types of water banks that operate around the world, as well as an analysis of the experiences of water banks implemented to date, in order to assess the performance of this economic instrument in improving water management. This has provided evidence that water banks, if properly implemented, can be a useful tool for improving governance of water resources. Finally, the analysis has enabled us to propose a number of guidelines on how to improve the implementation of water banks in different countries around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
Open AccessArticle
Potential of Constructed Wetlands for Removal of Antibiotics from Saline Aquaculture Effluents
Water 2016, 8(10), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100465
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1819 | PDF Full-text (2429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work aimed to evaluate the potential of constructed wetlands (CWs) for removal of antibiotics (enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline) and antibiotic resistant bacteria from saline aquaculture wastewaters. Removal of other contaminants (nutrients, organic matter and metals) and toxicity reduction and the influence of antibiotics [...] Read more.
This work aimed to evaluate the potential of constructed wetlands (CWs) for removal of antibiotics (enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline) and antibiotic resistant bacteria from saline aquaculture wastewaters. Removal of other contaminants (nutrients, organic matter and metals) and toxicity reduction and the influence of antibiotics with these processes were evaluated. Thus, nine CWs microcosms, divided into three treatments, were assembled and used to treat wastewater (doped or not with the selected antibiotics) between October and December of 2015. Each week treated wastewater was removed and new wastewater (doped or not) was introduced in CWs. Results showed >99% of each antibiotic was removed in CWs. After three weeks of adaptation, removal percentages >95% were also obtained for total bacteria and for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Nutrients, organic matter and metal removal percentages in CWs treated wastewater were identical in the absence and in the presence of each antibiotic. Toxicity in treated wastewaters was significantly lower than in initial wastewaters, independently of antibiotics presence. Results showed CWs have a high efficiency for removing enrofloxacin or oxytetracycline as well as antibiotic resistant bacteria from saline aquaculture wastewaters. CWs can also remove other contaminants independently of drug presence, making the aquaculture wastewater possible to be reutilized and/or recirculated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands for Water Treatment: New Developments)
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Open AccessArticle
Near Real-Time Flow Cytometry Monitoring of Bacterial and Viral Removal Efficiencies during Water Reclamation Processes
Water 2016, 8(10), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100464
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2445 | PDF Full-text (1458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wastewater reuse has become an important part of the urban water supply portfolio in water stressed regions. Effective wastewater treatment processes are critical to protect public health during water reuse practices. However, the microbial removal efficiencies in wastewater reclamation plants are not routinely [...] Read more.
Wastewater reuse has become an important part of the urban water supply portfolio in water stressed regions. Effective wastewater treatment processes are critical to protect public health during water reuse practices. However, the microbial removal efficiencies in wastewater reclamation plants are not routinely monitored due to the lack of a simple quantification method. This study applied a near real-time flow cytometry (FCM) technique to quantify the removal of total bacteria and viruses at three wastewater reclamation plants in Southern California. The results showed that the activated sludge process removed 1–2 log10 of bacteria but was not efficient at removing viruses. The membrane bioreactor process was capable of removing both bacteria and viruses with high efficiency. At the plant using chloramines as the main disinfectant, even though culturable total coliform bacteria were effectively reduced to the level meeting the California Title 22 Water Recycling Criteria (7-day median of 2.2 most probable number (MPN)/100 mL, and no more than one sample exceeds 23 MPN/100 mL), the disinfected final effluent still contained greater than 106 bacterial and 108 viral particles per mL in. In contrast, more than 4 log10 removal of both bacteria and viruses were observed at the plant using free chlorine as the main disinfectant. The results indicate that additional microbial indicators are needed and suggest the potential use of FCM as a rapid monitoring tool for evaluation of microbial removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens in Water)
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Open AccessArticle
Case Study: A Real-Time Flood Forecasting System with Predictive Uncertainty Estimation for the Godavari River, India
Water 2016, 8(10), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100463
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2286 | PDF Full-text (4803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents the application of the multi-temporal approach of the Model Conditional Processor (MCP-MT) for predictive uncertainty (PU) estimation in the Godavari River basin, India. MCP-MT is developed for making probabilistic Bayesian decision. It is the most appropriate approach if the uncertainty [...] Read more.
This work presents the application of the multi-temporal approach of the Model Conditional Processor (MCP-MT) for predictive uncertainty (PU) estimation in the Godavari River basin, India. MCP-MT is developed for making probabilistic Bayesian decision. It is the most appropriate approach if the uncertainty of future outcomes is to be considered. It yields the best predictive density of future events and allows determining the probability that a critical warning threshold may be exceeded within a given forecast time. In Bayesian decision-making, the predictive density represents the best available knowledge on a future event to address a rational decision-making process. MCP-MT has already been tested for case studies selected in Italian river basins, showing evidence of improvement of the effectiveness of operative real-time flood forecasting systems. The application of MCP-MT for two river reaches selected in the Godavari River basin, India, is here presented and discussed by considering the stage forecasts provided by a deterministic model, STAFOM-RCM, and hourly dataset based on seven monsoon seasons in the period 2001–2010. The results show that the PU estimate is useful for finding the exceedance probability for a given hydrometric threshold as function of the forecast time up to 24 h, demonstrating the potential usefulness for supporting real-time decision-making. Moreover, the expected value provided by MCP-MT yields better results than the deterministic model predictions, with higher Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients and lower error on stage forecasts, both in term of mean error and standard deviation and root mean square error. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uncertainty Analysis and Modeling in Hydrological Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Delineating Groundwater Vulnerability and Protection Zone Mapping in Fractured Rock Masses: Focus on the DISCO Index
Water 2016, 8(10), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100462
Received: 14 May 2016 / Revised: 24 September 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2114 | PDF Full-text (9538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hard-rock catchments are considered to be source of valuable water resources for water supply to inhabitants and ecosystems. The present work aims to develop a groundwater vulnerability approach in the Caldas da Cavaca hydromineral system (Aguiar da Beira, Central Portugal) in order to [...] Read more.
Hard-rock catchments are considered to be source of valuable water resources for water supply to inhabitants and ecosystems. The present work aims to develop a groundwater vulnerability approach in the Caldas da Cavaca hydromineral system (Aguiar da Beira, Central Portugal) in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual site model. Different types of information were overlaid, generating several thematic maps to achieve an integrated framework of key sectors in the study site. Thus, a multi-technical approach was used, encompassing field and laboratory techniques, whereby different types of data were collected from fields such as geology, hydrogeology, applied geomorphology and geophysics and hydrogeomechanics, with the fundamental aim of applying the so-called DISCO index method. All of these techniques were successfully performed and an intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination assessment, based on the multicriteria methodology of GOD-S, DRASTIC-Fm, SINTACS, SI and DISCO indexes, was delineated. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provided the basis on which to organize and integrate the databases and to produce all the thematic maps. This multi-technical approach highlights the importance of groundwater vulnerability to contamination mapping as a tool to support hydrogeological conceptualization, contributing to improving the decision-making process regarding water resources management and sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Relationship of Near-Bed Velocity and Growth of Riverbed Periphyton
Water 2016, 8(10), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100461
Received: 18 June 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1623 | PDF Full-text (1909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Artificial streams were set up to test the relationship between near-bed water velocity and periphyton growth. Periphyton community samples collected from a Japanese stream were incubated for 44 days under a light intensity of 252 ± 72 μmol·photons/m2·s, a temperature of [...] Read more.
Artificial streams were set up to test the relationship between near-bed water velocity and periphyton growth. Periphyton community samples collected from a Japanese stream were incubated for 44 days under a light intensity of 252 ± 72 μmol·photons/m2·s, a temperature of 20–25 °C, and three near-bed water velocity classes: low (<17.9 cm/s), moderate (17.9–32.8 cm/s), and high (>32.8 cm/s). A logistic model was applied to estimate the maximum net growth rate (μmax) and carrying capacity (Bmax). A response surface method was also applied to estimate chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) with respect to the independent variables (i.e., time and water velocity). We detected both the highest μmax (1.99 d−1) and highest Bmax (7.01 mg/m2) for Chl-a at the moderate water velocity. For AFDM, we observed the highest μmax (0.57 d−1) and Bmax (1.47 g/m2) at the low and moderate velocity classes, respectively. The total algae density in the region of moderate velocity at the end of the experiment was 6.47 × 103 cells/cm2, corresponding to levels 1.7 and 1.3 times higher than those at lower and higher velocities, respectively. Our findings indicated that the moderate near-bed water velocity provided favorable conditions for algal growth and corresponding biomass accumulation. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Drought and Carbon Cycling of Grassland Ecosystems under Global Change: A Review
Water 2016, 8(10), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100460
Received: 1 May 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2217 | PDF Full-text (678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the increased intensity and duration of droughts have dramatically altered the structure and function of grassland ecosystems, which have been forced to adapt to this change in climate. Combinations of global change drivers such as elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, [...] Read more.
In recent years, the increased intensity and duration of droughts have dramatically altered the structure and function of grassland ecosystems, which have been forced to adapt to this change in climate. Combinations of global change drivers such as elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, warming, nitrogen (N) deposition, grazing, and land-use change have influenced the impact that droughts have on grassland C cycling. This influence, to some extent, can modify the relationship between droughts and grassland carbon (C) cycling in the multi-factor world. Unfortunately, prior reviews have been primarily anecdotal from the 1930s to the 2010s. We investigated the current state of the study on the interactive impacts of multiple factors under drought scenarios in grassland C cycling and provided scientific advice for dealing with droughts and managing grassland C cycling in a multi-factor world. Currently, adequate information is not available on the interaction between droughts and global change drivers, which would advance our understanding of grassland C cycling responses. It was determined that future experiments and models should specifically test how droughts regulate grassland C cycling under global changes. Previous multi-factor experiments of current and future global change conditions have studied various drought scenarios poorly, including changes in precipitation frequency and amplitude, timing, and interactions with other global change drivers. Multi-factor experiments have contributed to quantifying these potential changes and have provided important information on how water affects ecosystem processes under global change. There is an urgent need to establish a systematic framework that can assess ecosystem dynamic responses to droughts under current and future global change and human activity, with a focus on the combined effects of droughts, global change drivers, and the corresponding hierarchical responses of an ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Climate Change Will Make Recovery from Eutrophication More Difficult in Shallow Danish Lake Søbygaard
Water 2016, 8(10), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100459
Received: 11 September 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2332 | PDF Full-text (3496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Complex lake ecosystem models can assist lake managers in developing management plans counteracting the eutrophication symptoms that are expected to be a result of climate change. We applied the ecological model PCLake based on 22 years of data from shallow, eutrophic Lake Søbygaard, [...] Read more.
Complex lake ecosystem models can assist lake managers in developing management plans counteracting the eutrophication symptoms that are expected to be a result of climate change. We applied the ecological model PCLake based on 22 years of data from shallow, eutrophic Lake Søbygaard, Denmark and simulated multiple combinations of increasing temperatures (0–6 °C), reduced external nutrient loads (0%–98%) with and without internal phosphorus loading. Simulations suggest nitrogen to be the main limiting nutrient for primary production, reflecting ample phosphorus release from the sediment. The nutrient loading reduction scenarios predicted increased diatom dominance, accompanied by an increase in the zooplankton:phytoplankton biomass ratio. Simulations generally showed phytoplankton to benefit from a warmer climate and the fraction of cyanobacteria to increase. In the 6 °C warming scenario, a nutrient load reduction of as much as 60% would be required to achieve summer chlorophyll-a levels similar to those of the baseline scenario with present-day temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Runoff Due to Anthropogenic Intervention in the Loess Plateau, China
Water 2016, 8(10), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100458
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1865 | PDF Full-text (5841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To maintain the sustainable utilization of water resources and reduce soil erosion in the Loess Plateau, the Chinese government has adopted a number of environmental restoration strategies since 1999, including the Grain for Green Project (GFGP) and the Natural Forest Conservation Program; these [...] Read more.
To maintain the sustainable utilization of water resources and reduce soil erosion in the Loess Plateau, the Chinese government has adopted a number of environmental restoration strategies since 1999, including the Grain for Green Project (GFGP) and the Natural Forest Conservation Program; these large projects greatly alter the regional water cycle. Detecting runoff changes and quantitatively assessing the contribution of anthropogenic activities (including land use/cover change (LUCC) and water diversion) and climate change (including potential evaporation and precipitation) are imperative for implementing sustainable management strategies. Using observed records from 15 hydrological stations and 85 national meteorological stations from 1980 to 2013, the decomposition method, based on the Budyko hypothesis, is used to quantify the impact of climate variation and anthropogenic interference on annual runoff for the 12 catchments in the Loess Plateau. The results show the following: (1) the observed annual runoff exhibited a negative trend in all 12 catchments (significant in eight catchments) with a range of −1.94 to −0.16 mm·year−1 and exhibited a substantial difference before and after 1999; (2) the sensitivity of runoff to vegetation change, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration increased in most catchments after 1999, indicating that great challenges and uncertainties might be introduced to regional water resource availability; and (3) the anthropogenic interference, particularly LUCC caused by forest strategies, has become the main contribution to runoff change. We suggest that more attention should be given to water resource availability and that the hydrologic consequences of revegetation should be taken into account in future management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Bacterial Community Abundance and Structure in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetland Mesocosms Treating Municipal Wastewater
Water 2016, 8(10), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100457
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1612 | PDF Full-text (3708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dynamics of bacterial community abundance and structure of a newly established horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) pilot-scale wetland were studied using high-throughput sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Bacterial community abundance increased rapidly within one month and stabilised thereafter in three replicate [...] Read more.
Dynamics of bacterial community abundance and structure of a newly established horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) pilot-scale wetland were studied using high-throughput sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Bacterial community abundance increased rapidly within one month and stabilised thereafter in three replicate HSSF constructed wetland (CW) mesocosms. The most dominant phylum was Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes in wetland media biofilms and Firmicutes in influent wastewater. CW bacterial community diversity increased over time and was positively related to the wastewater treatment efficiency. Increase in the abundance of total bacteria in the community was accompanied with the abundance of denitrifying bacteria that promoted nitrate and nitrite removal from the wastewater. During the 150-day study period, similar patterns of bacterial community successions were observed in replicate HSSF CW mesocosms. The data indicate that successions in the bacterial community in HSSF CW are shaped by biotic interactions, with a significant contribution made by external abiotic factors such as influent chemical parameters. Network analysis of the bacterial community revealed that organic matter and nitrogen removal in HSSF CW could be, in large part, allocated to a small subset of tightly interconnected bacterial species. The diversity of bacterial community and abundance of denitrifiers were good predictors of the removal efficiency of ammonia, nitrate and total organic C in HSSF CW mesocosms, while the removal of the seven-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7) was best predicted by the abundance of a small set of bacterial phylotypes. The results suggest that nitrogen removal in HSSF CW consist of two main pathways. The first is heterotrophic nitrification, which is coupled with aerobic denitrification and mediated by mixotrophic nitrite-oxidizers. The second pathway is anaerobic denitrification, which leads to gaseous intermediates and loss of nitrogen as N2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands for Water Treatment: New Developments)
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Open AccessArticle
Serious Gaming for Water Systems Planning and Management
Water 2016, 8(10), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100456
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3221 | PDF Full-text (3065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water systems planning and management share the same roots with gaming, as they rely on concepts in systems analysis, operations research and decision sciences. This paper focuses on Serious Games (those used for purposes other than mere entertainment), with applications in the area [...] Read more.
Water systems planning and management share the same roots with gaming, as they rely on concepts in systems analysis, operations research and decision sciences. This paper focuses on Serious Games (those used for purposes other than mere entertainment), with applications in the area of water systems planning and management. A survey of published work on gaming is carried out with particular attention given to applications of Serious Gaming to water systems planning and management. The survey is also used to identify the principal criteria for the classification of Serious Gaming for water related applications, including application areas, goals, number and type of players, user interface, type of simulation model used, realism of the game, performance feedback, progress monitoring and game portability. The review shows that game applications in the water sector can be a valuable tool for making various stakeholders aware of the socio-techno-economic issues related to managing complex water systems. However, the critical review also indicates a gap that exists in the Serious Game application area with the lack of water distribution system games. A conceptually simple, but computationally elaborate new game for water distribution system analysis, design and evaluation (SeGWADE) is presented in this paper. It has a main goal of finding a least-cost design for a well-known benchmark problem, for which the game environment takes the computational and visualisation burden away from the simulation tool and the player. The game has been evaluated in a classroom environment in which a high degree of player engagement with the game was observed, due to its basic game ingredients and activities, i.e., challenge, play and fun. In addition, a clear improvement in learning has been observed in how players attempted to identify solutions that satisfy the pressure criterion with players readily identifying the proximity of the better solutions to the starting, infeasible configuration. Through applications of Serious Gaming such as this, decision makers can learn about the complexity of the water distribution system design problem, experiment safely using a computer model of a real system, understand conflicting objectives (i.e., minimization of cost and satisfaction of minimum pressure) and develop strategies for coping with complexity without being burdened by the limitations of the ICT technology at their disposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Runoff Simulation in the Upper Reaches of Heihe River Basin Based on the RIEMS–SWAT Model
Water 2016, 8(10), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100455
Received: 17 August 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1733 | PDF Full-text (7757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the distributed hydrological simulations for complex mountain areas, large amounts of meteorological input parameters with high spatial and temporal resolutions are necessary. However, the extreme scarcity and uneven distribution of the traditional meteorological observation stations in cold and arid regions of Northwest [...] Read more.
In the distributed hydrological simulations for complex mountain areas, large amounts of meteorological input parameters with high spatial and temporal resolutions are necessary. However, the extreme scarcity and uneven distribution of the traditional meteorological observation stations in cold and arid regions of Northwest China makes it very difficult in meeting the requirements of hydrological simulations. Alternatively, regional climate models (RCMs), which can provide a variety of distributed meteorological data with high temporal and spatial resolution, have become an effective solution to improve hydrological simulation accuracy and to further study water resource responses to human activities and global climate change. In this study, abundant and evenly distributed virtual weather stations in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB) of Northwest China were built for the optimization of the input data, and thus a regional integrated environmental model system (RIEMS) based on RCM and a distributed hydrological model of soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) were integrated as a coupled climate–hydrological RIEMS-SWAT model, which was applied to simulate monthly runoff from 1995 to 2010 in the region. Results show that the simulated and observed values are close; Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency is higher than 0.65; determination coefficient (R2) values are higher than 0.70; percent bias is controlled within ±20%; and root-mean-square-error-observation standard deviation ratio is less than 0.65. These results indicate that the coupled model can present basin hydrological processes properly, and provide scientific support for prediction and management of basin water resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Plankton Community Stability and Its Relationship with Phytoplankton Species Richness in Lake Nansihu, China
Water 2016, 8(10), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100454
Received: 17 May 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1727 | PDF Full-text (5267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. The insurance hypothesis suggests that biodiversity could improve community productivity and reduce the temporal variability of main ecosystem processes. In the present study, we used a plankton community that was [...] Read more.
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. The insurance hypothesis suggests that biodiversity could improve community productivity and reduce the temporal variability of main ecosystem processes. In the present study, we used a plankton community that was investigated from 2011 to 2014 in Lake Nansihu to test this hypothesis and explore the mechanisms involved. As a result, 138 phytoplankton and 76 zooplankton species were identified in the lake, and their biomasses showed apparent seasonal variations. The average temporal stability index of zooplankton taxa was significantly higher than that of phytoplankton. Complex relationships were observed between the species richness and temporal stability of different phytoplankton taxa: a unimodal relationship for both Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta; a strong concave relationship for Euglenophyta; and no apparent relationship for both Chlorophyta and total phytoplankton. These relationships were primarily controlled by the portfolio effect; while the effects of overyielding and species asynchrony were relatively weak. Phytoplankton species richness had a significant positive influence on the temporal stability indices of protozoa, Rotifera and total zooplankton, while its influence on Cladocera and copepods was not significant. The dominant mechanisms were found to be ‘trophic overyielding’ and a weak ‘trophic portfolio effect’; however, ‘trophic species asynchrony’ played a minor role. These results demonstrated that the effects of diversity on community stability can be complex in natural ecosystems. In addition, the diversity of phytoplankton not only influenced its own temporal stability, but also affected the stability of zooplankton through trophic interactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Simplified Model to Estimate the Concentration of Inorganic Ions and Heavy Metals in Rivers
Water 2016, 8(10), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100453
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 4 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1790 | PDF Full-text (2718 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a model that uses only pH, alkalinity, and temperature to estimate the concentrations of major ions in rivers (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3, SO42−, Cl [...] Read more.
This paper presents a model that uses only pH, alkalinity, and temperature to estimate the concentrations of major ions in rivers (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3, SO42−, Cl, and NO3) together with the equilibrium concentrations of minor ions and heavy metals (Fe3+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Pb2+, and Zn2+). Mining operations have been increasing, which has led to changes in the pollution loads to receiving water systems, meanwhile most developing countries cannot afford water quality monitoring. A possible solution is to implement less resource-demanding monitoring programs, supported by mathematical models that minimize the required sampling and analysis, while still being able to detect water quality changes, thereby allowing implementation of measures to protect the water resources. The present model was developed using existing theories for: (i) carbonate equilibrium; (ii) total alkalinity; (iii) statistics of major ions; (iv) solubility of minerals; and (v) conductivity of salts in water. The model includes two options to estimate the concentrations of major ions: (1) a generalized method, which employs standard values from a world-wide data base; and (2) a customized method, which requires specific baseline data for the river of interest. The model was tested using data from four monitoring stations in Swedish rivers with satisfactory results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Off-Farm Employment on Irrigation Water Efficiency in North China
Water 2016, 8(10), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100452
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1595 | PDF Full-text (524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines the impacts of off-farm employment on irrigation water efficiency (IWE) with a set of household level data collected in Hebei Province in North China. A major finding is that households with higher shares of laborers working off-farm locally seem to [...] Read more.
This paper examines the impacts of off-farm employment on irrigation water efficiency (IWE) with a set of household level data collected in Hebei Province in North China. A major finding is that households with higher shares of laborers working off-farm locally seem to achieve higher IWEs. The effect of local off-farm employment is greater among those households that have made more efforts to use furrow irrigation. We also find that households with higher shares of elderly laborers and those with larger land holding are associated with lower IWEs. Households with better soil quality and those that pump from deeper wells are associated with higher IWEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
Coupling GIS with Stormwater Modelling for the Location Prioritization and Hydrological Simulation of Permeable Pavements in Urban Catchments
Water 2016, 8(10), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100451
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2652 | PDF Full-text (2814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS) are an alternative to conventional paving systems that allow water to filter through their layers instead of running off them. They are structural source control Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS), which can contribute to reducing increased flood risk due to [...] Read more.
Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS) are an alternative to conventional paving systems that allow water to filter through their layers instead of running off them. They are structural source control Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS), which can contribute to reducing increased flood risk due to the combination of two of the greatest challenges with which cities will have to deal in the future: urbanization and Climate Change. Hence, this research consisted of the design of a site selection methodology for the location prioritization of PPS in urban catchments, in order to simulate their potential to attenuate flooding caused by severe rainfall events. This was achieved through the coupling of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and stormwater models, whose combination provided a framework for both locating and characterizing PPS. The usefulness of the methodology was tested through a real case study consisting of an urban catchment located in Espoo (southern Finland), which demonstrated that PPS can make a significant difference in the amount of runoff generated in an urban catchment due to intense storms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Radiation Components in a Global Freshwater Model with Station-Based Observations
Water 2016, 8(10), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100450
Received: 3 July 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1860 | PDF Full-text (8005 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In many hydrological models, the amount of evapotranspired water is calculated using the potential evapotranspiration (PET) approach. The main driver of several PET approaches is net radiation, whose downward components are usually obtained from meteorological input data, whereas the upward components are calculated [...] Read more.
In many hydrological models, the amount of evapotranspired water is calculated using the potential evapotranspiration (PET) approach. The main driver of several PET approaches is net radiation, whose downward components are usually obtained from meteorological input data, whereas the upward components are calculated by the model itself. Thus, uncertainties can be large due to both the input data and model assumptions. In this study, we compare the radiation components of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model, driven by two meteorological input datasets and two radiation setups from ERA-Interim reanalysis. We assess the performance with respect to monthly observations provided by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) and the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). The assessment is done for the global land area and specifically for energy/water limited regions. The results indicate that there is no optimal radiation input throughout the model variants, but standard meteorological input datasets perform better than those directly obtained by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the key variable net radiation. The low number of observations for some radiation components, as well as the scale mismatch between station observations and 0.5° × 0.5° grid cell size, limits the assessment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reconstructing Historical VOC Concentrations in Drinking Water for Epidemiological Studies at a U.S. Military Base: Summary of Results
Water 2016, 8(10), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100449
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1807 | PDF Full-text (3813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A U.S. government health agency conducted epidemiological studies to evaluate whether exposures to drinking water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC) at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, were associated with increased health risks to children and adults. These health studies [...] Read more.
A U.S. government health agency conducted epidemiological studies to evaluate whether exposures to drinking water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC) at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, were associated with increased health risks to children and adults. These health studies required knowledge of contaminant concentrations in drinking water—at monthly intervals—delivered to family housing, barracks, and other facilities within the study area. Because concentration data were limited or unavailable during much of the period of contamination (1950s–1985), the historical reconstruction process was used to quantify estimates of monthly mean contaminant-specific concentrations. This paper integrates many efforts, reports, and papers into a synthesis of the overall approach to, and results from, a drinking-water historical reconstruction study. Results show that at the Tarawa Terrace water treatment plant (WTP) reconstructed (simulated) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations reached a maximum monthly average value of 183 micrograms per liter (μg/L) compared to a one-time maximum measured value of 215 μg/L and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s current maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 μg/L during the period November 1957–February 1987. At the Hadnot Point WTP, reconstructed trichloroethylene (TCE) concentrations reached a maximum monthly average value of 783 μg/L compared to a one-time maximum measured value of 1400 μg/L during the period August 1953–December 1984. The Hadnot Point WTP also provided contaminated drinking water to the Holcomb Boulevard housing area continuously prior to June 1972, when the Holcomb Boulevard WTP came on line (maximum reconstructed TCE concentration of 32 μg/L) and intermittently during the period June 1972–February 1985 (maximum reconstructed TCE concentration of 66 μg/L). Applying the historical reconstruction process to quantify contaminant-specific monthly drinking-water concentrations is advantageous for epidemiological studies when compared to using the classical exposed versus unexposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Water Footprint of the Mediterranean and American Diets
Water 2016, 8(10), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100448
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3634 | PDF Full-text (586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Global food demand is increasing rapidly as a result of multiple drivers including population growth, dietary shifts and economic development. Meeting the rising global food demand will require expanding agricultural production and promoting healthier and more sustainable diets. The goal of this paper [...] Read more.
Global food demand is increasing rapidly as a result of multiple drivers including population growth, dietary shifts and economic development. Meeting the rising global food demand will require expanding agricultural production and promoting healthier and more sustainable diets. The goal of this paper is to assess and compare the water footprint (WF) of two recommended diets (Mediterranean and American), and evaluate the water savings of possible dietary shifts in two countries: Spain and the United States (US). Our results show that the American diet has a 29% higher WF in comparison with the Mediterranean, regardless of products’ origin. In the US, a shift to a Mediterranean diet would decrease the WF by 1629 L/person/day. Meanwhile, a shift towards an American diet in Spain will increase the WF by 1504 L/person/day. The largest share of the WF of both diets is always linked to green water (62%–75%). Grey water in the US is 67% higher in comparison with Spain. Only five products account for 36%–46% of the total WF of the two dietary options in both countries, being meat, oil and dairy products the food items with the largest WFs. Our study demonstrates that adopting diets based on a greater consumption of vegetables, fruits and fish, like the Mediterranean one, leads to major water savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint Assessment)
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