Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Water, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-61
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Exploration of an Optimal Policy for Water Resources Management Including the Introduction of Advanced Sewage Treatment Technologies in Zaozhuang City, China
Water 2016, 8(12), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120608
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such
[...] Read more.
Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such as transformation of economic development, restriction of groundwater exploitation, and improvement of water environment. In this paper, we develop a linear optimization model by input–output analysis to study water resources management with the introduction of three advanced sewage treatment technologies for pollutant treatment and reclaimed water production. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. The proportion of primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry would be adjusted to 5.6%, 40.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The amount of reclaimed water supply could be increased by 91% and groundwater supply could be decreased by 6%. Based on the simulation, this model proposes a scientific reference on water resources management policies, including water environment control, water supply plan, and financial subsidy, to realize the sustainable development of economy and water resources usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Water Policy Collection)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Beyond the Clean Water Rule: Impacts of a Non-Jurisdictional Ditch on Headwater Stream Discharge and Water Chemistry
Water 2016, 8(12), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120607
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (974 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ephemeral drainage ditches in upland areas, such as those draining roads, are excluded from the jurisdiction of the U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA). While several studies have shown that road drainage and/or development in forested watersheds can impact water quality, the direct physical
[...] Read more.
Ephemeral drainage ditches in upland areas, such as those draining roads, are excluded from the jurisdiction of the U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA). While several studies have shown that road drainage and/or development in forested watersheds can impact water quality, the direct physical and chemical impacts of a single drainage ditch have not been identified. In this study, we measured water chemistry (silicon, calcium, and sulfate) and magnitude of discharge from one such feature and at the outlet of the catchment it is within. We found that discharge from the drainage ditch was sometimes over 10% of the larger stream into which it drains, despite the small relative size of the ditch catchment (1.1 ha) compared to the main catchment (43 ha). Furthermore, we observed sharp decreases in silicon and calcium and increases in sulfate concentrations downstream from the drainage ditch across longitudinal sampling of the stream network. This illustrates the impacts of a common feature in high relief, forested areas that when aggregated over the landscape are likely responsible for regional water quality impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Development and Assessment of the Physically-Based 2D/1D Model “TRENOE” for Urban Stormwater Quantity and Quality Modelling
Water 2016, 8(12), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120606
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The widespread use of separate stormwater systems requires better understanding of the interactions between urban landscapes and drainage systems. This paper describes a novel attempt of developing urban 2D-surface and 1D-drainage model “TRENOE” for urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling. The physically-based TREX
[...] Read more.
The widespread use of separate stormwater systems requires better understanding of the interactions between urban landscapes and drainage systems. This paper describes a novel attempt of developing urban 2D-surface and 1D-drainage model “TRENOE” for urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling. The physically-based TREX model and the conceptual CANOE model are integrated into the TRENOE platform, highlighting that the roofs of buildings are represented separately from the surface model, but simulated as virtual “sub-basins” in the CANOE model. The modelling approach is applied to a small urban catchment near Paris (Le Perreux sur Marne, 0.12 km2). Simulation scenarios are developed for assessing the influences of different “internal” (model structure, numerical issues) and “external” (parameters, input data) factors on model performance. The adequate numerical precision and the detailed information of land use data are identified as crucial elements of water quantity modelling. Contrarily, the high-resolution topographic data and the common variations of the water flow parameters are not equally significant at the scale of a small urban catchment. Concerning water quality modelling, particle size distribution is revealed to be an important factor, while the empirical USLE equations need to be completed by a raindrop detachment process. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle How Governance Regimes Shape the Implementation of Water Reuse Schemes
Water 2016, 8(12), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120605
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The governance dimensions of water reuse scheme development and operation, such as policies and regulatory frameworks, and public involvement and stakeholder collaboration, can serve to both facilitate and constrain wider adoption of water reuse practices. This paper explores the significance and underlying structure
[...] Read more.
The governance dimensions of water reuse scheme development and operation, such as policies and regulatory frameworks, and public involvement and stakeholder collaboration, can serve to both facilitate and constrain wider adoption of water reuse practices. This paper explores the significance and underlying structure of the key governance challenges facing the water reuse sector in Europe. It presents empirical evidence from interviews and focus group sessions conducted at four water reuse schemes: an indirect potable reuse scheme at Torreele (Belgium), the urban reuse of treated municipal wastewater at the London Olympic Park (United Kingdom) and at Sabadell (Spain), and the reuse of agro-industrial effluent for irrigation at Capitanata (Italy). The findings underscore the importance of clarity in policy arrangements around water reuse, as well as of the financial competitiveness of reuse projects compared to alternative water supply options. Operators of water reuse schemes expressed a preference for water quality standards, which focus on appropriateness for use rather than over-emphasise the waters’ origin so that unnecessary treatment and costs can be avoided. Positive public support was widely acknowledged as an important factor in the success or failure of water reuse schemes. We conclude that constructive institutional relationships underpin many of the challenges faced by reuse scheme operators and that greater emphasis should be given to building confidence and gaining trust in water service providers through early identification of how governance regimes shape the viability of new schemes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Riverbed Clogging and Sustainability of Riverbank Filtration
Water 2016, 8(12), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120604
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clogging refers to a reduction of riverbed hydraulic conductivity. Due to difficulties in determining the thickness of the clogging layer, the leakage coefficient (L) is introduced and used to quantify the recoverable portion of bank filtrate. L was determined at several riverbank filtration
[...] Read more.
Clogging refers to a reduction of riverbed hydraulic conductivity. Due to difficulties in determining the thickness of the clogging layer, the leakage coefficient (L) is introduced and used to quantify the recoverable portion of bank filtrate. L was determined at several riverbank filtration (RBF) sites in field tests and using an analytical solution. Results were compared with data from similar experiments in the early 1970s and 1991–1993. In the 1980s, severe river water pollution in conjunction with high water abstraction led to partly unsaturated conditions beneath the riverbed. A leakage coefficient L of 5 × 10−7 s−1 was determined. After water quality improvement, L increased to 1–1.5 × 10−6 s−1. An alternative, cost and time efficient method is presented to estimate accurate leakage coefficients. The analytical solution is based on groundwater level monitoring data from observation wells next to the river, which can later feed into numerical models. The analytical approach was able to reflect long-term changes as well as seasonal variations. Recommendations for its application are given based on experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Analysis of Potential Future Climate and Climate Extremes in the Brazos Headwaters Basin, Texas
Water 2016, 8(12), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120603
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Texas’ fast-growing economy and population, coupled with cycles of droughts due to climate change, are creating an insatiable demand for water and an increasing need to understand the potential impacts of future climates and climate extremes on the state’s water resources. The objective
[...] Read more.
Texas’ fast-growing economy and population, coupled with cycles of droughts due to climate change, are creating an insatiable demand for water and an increasing need to understand the potential impacts of future climates and climate extremes on the state’s water resources. The objective of this study was to determine potential future climates and climate extremes; and to assess spatial and temporal changes in precipitation (Prec), and minimum and maximum temperature (Tmin and Tmax, respectively), in the Brazos Headwaters Basin under three greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) for three future periods: 2020s (2011–2030), 2055s (2046–2065), and 2090s (2080–2099). Daily gridded climate data obtained from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) were used to downscale outputs from 15 General Circulation Models (GCMs) using the Long Ashton Research Station–Weather Generator (LARS-WG) model. Results indicate that basin average Tmin and Tmax will increase; however, annual precipitation will decrease for all periods. Annual precipitation will decrease by up to 5.2% and 6.8% in the 2055s and 2090s, respectively. However, in some locations in the basin, up to a 14% decrease in precipitation is projected in the 2090s under the A2 (high) emissions scenario. Overall, the northwestern and southern part of the Brazos Headwaters Basin will experience greater decreases in precipitation. Moreover, precipitation indices of the number of wet days (prec ≥ 5 mm) and heavy precipitation days (prec ≥ 10 mm) are projected to slightly decrease for all future periods. On the other hand, Tmin and Tmax will increase by 2 and 3 °C on average in the 2055s and 2090s, respectively. Mostly, projected increases in Tmin and Tmax will be in the upper range in the southern and southeastern part of the basin. Temperature indices of frost (Tmin < 0 °C) and ice days (Tmax < 0 °C) are projected to decrease, while tropical nights (Tmin > 20 °C) and summer days (Tmax > 25 °C) are expected to increase. However, while the frequency distribution of metrological drought shows slight shifts towards the dry range, there was no significant difference between the baseline and projected metrological drought frequency and severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Membrane Material and Surface Pore Size on the Fouling Properties of Submerged Membranes
Water 2016, 8(12), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120602
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the relationship between membrane material and the development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) using membranes with different pore sizes and hydrophilicities. Batch filtration tests were performed using submerged single hollow fiber membrane ultrafiltration (UF) modules with
[...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate the relationship between membrane material and the development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) using membranes with different pore sizes and hydrophilicities. Batch filtration tests were performed using submerged single hollow fiber membrane ultrafiltration (UF) modules with different polymeric membrane materials including cellulose acetate (CA), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with activated sludge taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The three UF hollow fiber membranes were prepared by a non-solvent-induced phase separation method and had similar water permeabilities and pore sizes. The results revealed that transmembrane pressure (TMP) increased more sharply for the hydrophobic PVDF membrane than for the hydrophilic CA membrane in batch filtration tests, even when membranes with similar permeabilities and pore sizes were used. PVDF hollow fiber membranes with smaller pores had greater fouling propensity than those with larger pores. In contrast, CA hollow fiber membranes showed good mitigation of membrane fouling regardless of pore size. The results obtained in this study suggest that the surface hydrophilicity and pore size of UF membranes clearly affect the fouling properties in MBR operation when using activated sludge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membranes for Water Treatment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Soft Measurement Modeling Based on Chaos Theory for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Water 2016, 8(12), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120581
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The precision of soft measurement for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is always restricted due to various factors in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To solve this problem, a new soft measurement modeling method based on chaos theory is proposed and is applied to
[...] Read more.
The precision of soft measurement for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is always restricted due to various factors in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To solve this problem, a new soft measurement modeling method based on chaos theory is proposed and is applied to BOD measurement in this paper. Phase space reconstruction (PSR) based on Takens embedding theorem is used to extract more information from the limited datasets of the chaotic system. The WWTP is first testified as a chaotic system by the correlation dimension (D), the largest Lyapunov exponents (λ1), the Kolmogorov entropy (K) of the BOD and other water quality parameters time series. Multivariate chaotic time series modeling method with principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) is then adopted to estimate the value of the effluent BOD. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has higher accuracy and better prediction ability than the corresponding modeling approaches not based on chaos theory. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Predicting the Specific Energy Consumption of Reverse Osmosis Desalination
Water 2016, 8(12), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120601
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Desalination is often considered an approach for mitigating water stress. Despite the abundance of saline water worldwide, additional energy consumption and increased costs present barriers to widespread deployment of desalination as a municipal water supply. Specific energy consumption (SEC) is a common measure
[...] Read more.
Desalination is often considered an approach for mitigating water stress. Despite the abundance of saline water worldwide, additional energy consumption and increased costs present barriers to widespread deployment of desalination as a municipal water supply. Specific energy consumption (SEC) is a common measure of the energy use in desalination processes, and depends on many operational and water quality factors. We completed multiple linear regression and relative importance statistical analyses of factors affecting SEC using both small-scale meta-data and municipal-scale empirical data to predict the energy consumption of desalination. Statistically significant results show water quality and initial year of operations to be significant and important factors in estimating SEC, explaining over 80% of the variation in SEC. More recent initial year of operations, lower salinity raw water, and higher salinity product water accurately predict lower values of SEC. Economic analysis revealed a weak statistical relationship between SEC and cost of water production. Analysis of associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions revealed important considerations of both electricity source and SEC in estimating the GHG-related sustainability of desalination. Results of our statistical analyses can aid decision-makers by predicting the SEC of desalination to a reasonable degree of accuracy with limited data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membranes for Water Treatment)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Indicator and Pathogen Removal by Low Impact Development Best Management Practices
Water 2016, 8(12), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120600
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microbial contamination in urban stormwater is one of the most widespread and challenging water quality issues in developed countries. Low impact development (LID) best management practices (BMPs) restore pre-urban hydrology by treating and/or harvesting urban runoff and stormwater, and can be designed to
[...] Read more.
Microbial contamination in urban stormwater is one of the most widespread and challenging water quality issues in developed countries. Low impact development (LID) best management practices (BMPs) restore pre-urban hydrology by treating and/or harvesting urban runoff and stormwater, and can be designed to remove many contaminants including pathogens. One particular type of LID BMP, stormwater biofilters (i.e., vegetated media filters, also known as bioinfiltration, bioretention, or rain gardens), is becoming increasingly popular in urban environments due to its multiple co-benefits (e.g., improved hydrology, water quality, local climate and aesthetics). However, increased understanding of the factors influencing microbial removal in biofilters is needed to effectively design and implement biofilters for microbial water quality improvement. This paper aims to provide a holistic view of microbial removal in biofilter systems, and reviews the effects of various design choices such as filter media, vegetation, infauna, submerged zones, and hydraulic retention time on microbial removal. Limitations in current knowledge and recommendations for future research are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens in Water)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Application of a Classifier Based on Data Mining Techniques in Water Supply Operation
Water 2016, 8(12), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120599
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
PDF Full-text (2514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data mining technology is applied to extract the water supply operation rules in this study. Five characteristic attributes—reservoir storage water, operation period number, water demand, runoff, and hydrological year—are chosen as the dataset, and these characteristic attributes are applied to build a mapping
[...] Read more.
Data mining technology is applied to extract the water supply operation rules in this study. Five characteristic attributes—reservoir storage water, operation period number, water demand, runoff, and hydrological year—are chosen as the dataset, and these characteristic attributes are applied to build a mapping relation with the optimal operation mode calculated by dynamic programming (DP). A Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) neural network and a classification and regression tree (CART) are chosen as data mining algorithms to build the LM neural network classifier and CART decision tree classifier, respectively. In order to verify the classification effect of the LM and CART, the two classifiers are applied to the operation mode recognition for the Heiquan reservoir, which is located in the Qinghai Province of China. The accuracies of the two classifiers are 73.6% and 86.9% for the training sample, and their accuracies are 65.8% and 83.3%, respectively, for the test sample, which indicates that the classification result of the CART classifier is better than that of the LM neural network classifier. Thus, the CART classifier is chosen to guide the long-series water supply operation. Compared to the operation result with the other operation scheme, the result shows that the water deficit index of the CART is mostly closest to the DP scheme, which indicates that the CART classifier can guide reservoir water supply operation effectively. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview The Development of Sustainable Saltwater-Based Food Production Systems: A Review of Established and Novel Concepts
Water 2016, 8(12), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120598
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The demand for seafood products on the global market is rising, particularly in Asia, as affluence and appreciation of the health benefits of seafood increase. This is coupled with a capture fishery that, at best, is set for stagnation and, at worst, significant
[...] Read more.
The demand for seafood products on the global market is rising, particularly in Asia, as affluence and appreciation of the health benefits of seafood increase. This is coupled with a capture fishery that, at best, is set for stagnation and, at worst, significant collapse. Global aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of the food industry and currently accounts for approximately 45.6% of the world’s fish consumption. However, the rapid development of extensive and semi-extensive systems, particularly intensive marine-fed aquaculture, has resulted in worldwide concern about the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of such systems. In recent years, there has been a significant amount of research conducted on the development of sustainable saltwater-based food production systems through mechanical (e.g., recirculatory aquaculture (RAS) systems) methods and ecosystem-based approaches (e.g., integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA)). This review article will examine the potential negative impacts of monocultural saltwater aquaculture operations and review established (RAS) and novel (IMTA; constructed wetlands; saltwater aquaponics) saltwater-based food production systems and discuss their (potential) contribution to the development of sustainable and environmentally-friendly systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
Open AccessArticle Generation of a Design Flood-Event Scenario for a Mountain River with Intense Sediment Transport
Water 2016, 8(12), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120597
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
International directives encourage the incorporation of sediment transport analyses into flood risk assessment, in recognition of the significant role played by sediment in flood hazard. However, examples of risk analysis frameworks incorporating the effect of sediment transport are still not widespread in the
[...] Read more.
International directives encourage the incorporation of sediment transport analyses into flood risk assessment, in recognition of the significant role played by sediment in flood hazard. However, examples of risk analysis frameworks incorporating the effect of sediment transport are still not widespread in the literature, resulting in a lack of clear guidelines. This manuscript considers a study site in the Italian Alps and presents a hydro-morphologic model for generation of flood scenarios towards hazard assessment. The analysis is concentrated on a design flood event with 100-year return period, for which an outflowing discharge is computed as a result of the river modeling. However, it is also argued how suitable model input parameter values can be obtained from analyses of river flows in a yearly duration curve. Modeling tools are discussed with respect to their capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis are site-specific, but the proposed methodology can be exported to other hydro-graphic basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stream Channel Stability, Assessment, Modeling, and Mitigation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Pricing Unmetered Irrigation Water under Asymmetric Information and Full Cost Recovery
Water 2016, 8(12), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120596
Received: 18 September 2016 / Revised: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to define an efficient pricing scheme for irrigation water in conditions of unmetered water use. The study is based on a principal-agent model and identifies a menu of contracts, defined as a set of payments and share
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to define an efficient pricing scheme for irrigation water in conditions of unmetered water use. The study is based on a principal-agent model and identifies a menu of contracts, defined as a set of payments and share of irrigated area, able to provide incentives for an efficient use of the resource by maximizing social welfare. The model is applied in the case study of the Çukas region (Albania) where irrigation water is not metered. The results demonstrate that using a menu of contracts makes it possible to define a second best solution that may improve the overall social welfare derived from irrigation water use compared with the existing pricing structure, though, in the specific case study, the improvement is small. Furthermore, the results also suggest that irrigation water pricing policy needs to take into account different farm types, and that appropriate contract-type pricing schemes have a potential role in providing incentives to farmers to make irrigation choices to the social optimum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Assessment of Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Demand Management Options: A Comprehensive Approach
Water 2016, 8(12), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120595
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic
[...] Read more.
A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic policy evaluation framework is not found in the literature. This paper reviews studies to evaluate water supply and/or demand management options conducted during 2000–2016. Primarily, the paper reviews the evaluation criteria used by different studies for decision making given their significant difference and the importance of a comprehensive set of criteria to complete a rigorous evaluation. In addition, a comprehensive set of water supply and demand management options are not considered together for a comparative assessment to prioritise best options for a certain area and time. Further, performance of these options needs to be evaluated for a range of uncertainties arising from changes of spatial and temporal variables of the system. While this paper highlights the important aspects that need to be included in a comprehensive policy evaluation framework, available studies collectively present a rich set of information to support it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Rainfall Interception Model for Alfalfa Canopy under Simulated Sprinkler Irrigation
Water 2016, 8(12), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120585
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Estimating canopy interception of water by plants during rainfall or sprinkler irrigation is a critical step for evaluating water-use efficiency. Most existing experimental studies and mathematic models of canopy interception have paid little attention to the interception losses of water by herbaceous plants.
[...] Read more.
Estimating canopy interception of water by plants during rainfall or sprinkler irrigation is a critical step for evaluating water-use efficiency. Most existing experimental studies and mathematic models of canopy interception have paid little attention to the interception losses of water by herbaceous plants. To better understand the canopy interception processes of herbaceous plants and to estimate the interception losses, a process-based dynamic interception model for alfalfa canopy was developed and validated by an experiment under conditions of simulated sprinkler irrigation. The parameters of the model included the maximum interception, the rate of interception of the alfalfa canopy, and the duration of sprinkler irrigation. The model demonstrated that the amount of interception increased rapidly with duration in the early stage of sprinkler irrigation, and then gradually leveled off until the maximum retention capacity of the canopy was reached. The maximum interception by the alfalfa canopy, ranging from 0.29 to 1.26 mm, increased nonlinearly with the increase of leaf area index (LAI) and sprinkling intensity. The rate of interception increased with the decrease of LAI and the increase of sprinkling intensities. Meanwhile, a nonlinear equation based on sprinkling intensity and plant height was proposed in order to more practically estimate the maximum interception by alfalfa canopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Water Management in Agriculture)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Origin of the Natural Water Chemical Composition in the Permafrost Region of the Eastern Slope of the Polar Urals
Water 2016, 8(12), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120594
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents the results of the study of water chemical composition and formation processes in the eastern slope of the Polar Ural where permafrost is widely spread. To date, this region has not been studied in detail. However, it is very important
[...] Read more.
This article presents the results of the study of water chemical composition and formation processes in the eastern slope of the Polar Ural where permafrost is widely spread. To date, this region has not been studied in detail. However, it is very important to have information on the natural waters in this region because they play a significant role in all geochemical processes, including climate formation. For this study, 107 water samples were collected from lakes, rivers and active layer waters. The studied waters are ultrafresh; total dissolved solids vary from 14 to 438 mg/L. pH ranges from 3.5 to 9.0. The chemical type of the studied waters is mostly HCO3–Ca–Mg. The geochemical environment of the studied waters contributes to the accumulation of such trace elements as Fe, Mn, Al, Ni, Au, Co, Li, Sc, Ti, Cr, Sr, Nb, Mo, Cs, La, Eu, Lu, Hg, and Se. The chemical composition peculiarities of active layer waters, rivers, lakes and waters of stone pits and exploration trenches and the description of their chemical composition formation processes are given in the present study. The water–rock interaction is a dominant process of water chemical composition formation in the studied region. The obtained results have both potential theoretical and practical applications. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Study of Energy Optimisation of Urban Water Distribution Systems Using Potential Elements
Water 2016, 8(12), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120593
Received: 29 October 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy use in water supply systems represents a significant portion of the global energy consumption. The electricity consumption due to the water pumping represents the highest proportion of the energy costs in these systems. This paper presents several comparative studies of energy efficiency
[...] Read more.
Energy use in water supply systems represents a significant portion of the global energy consumption. The electricity consumption due to the water pumping represents the highest proportion of the energy costs in these systems. This paper presents several comparative studies of energy efficiency in water distribution systems considering distinct configurations of the networks and also considers implementation of the variable-speed pumps. The main objective of this study is the energy optimisation of urban systems using optimal network configurations that reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency. The paper describes in detail four strategies for improving energy efficiency of water pumping: control systems to vary pump speed drive according to water demand, pumped storage tanks, intermediary pumping stations integrated in the network, and elevated storage tanks floating on the system. The improving energy efficiency of water pumping is briefly reviewed providing a representative real case study. In addition, a different approach for the hydraulic analysis of the networks and the determination of the optimal location of a pumped storage tank is provided. Finally, this study compares the results of the application of four water supply strategies to a real case in Romania. The results indicate high potential operating costs savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Groundwater Modeling in Support of Water Resources Management and Planning under Complex Climate, Regulatory, and Economic Stresses
Water 2016, 8(12), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120592
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Groundwater is an important resource that meets part or all of the water demand in many developed basins. Since it is an integral part of the hydrologic cycle, management of groundwater resources must consider not only the management of surface flows but also
[...] Read more.
Groundwater is an important resource that meets part or all of the water demand in many developed basins. Since it is an integral part of the hydrologic cycle, management of groundwater resources must consider not only the management of surface flows but also the variability in climate. In addition, agricultural and urban activities both affect the availability of water resources and are affected by it. Arguably, the Central Valley of the State of California, USA, can be considered a basin where all stresses that can possibly affect the management of groundwater resources seem to have come together: a vibrant economy that depends on water, a relatively dry climate, a disparity between water demand and availability both in time and space, heavily managed stream flows that are susceptible to water quality issues and sea level rise, degradation of aquifer conditions due to over-pumping, and degradation of the environment with multiple species becoming endangered. Over the past fifteen years, the California Department of Water Resources has developed and maintained the Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM) to aid in groundwater management and planning under complex, and often competing, requirements. This paper will describe features of IWFM as a generic modeling tool, and showcase several of its innovative applications within California. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Use of an Orographic Precipitation Model to Assess the Precipitation Spatial Distribution in Lake Kinneret Watershed
Water 2016, 8(12), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120591
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high-resolution 3-D orographic precipitation model (OPM) forced by Climate Forecast System (CFS) reanalysis fields was developed for the Lake Kinneret watershed (Israel-Syria-Lebanon territories). The OPM was tuned to represent the interaction between the advected and stratiform rainfall, and the local orographic enhancement.
[...] Read more.
A high-resolution 3-D orographic precipitation model (OPM) forced by Climate Forecast System (CFS) reanalysis fields was developed for the Lake Kinneret watershed (Israel-Syria-Lebanon territories). The OPM was tuned to represent the interaction between the advected and stratiform rainfall, and the local orographic enhancement. The OPM evaluation was focused on the densely instrumented lower part of the watershed. To evaluate the ungauged upper-elevation, bias-adjusted precipitation estimates from the Global-Hydro-Estimator were used. The OPM simulates higher rainfall amounts in the upper-elevation watershed compared to currently used rainfall estimates from an elevation dependent regression. The larger differences are during rain events with southwesterly wind flow and high moisture flux. These conditions, according to the OPM, are conducive to enhanced orographic lifting in the Hermon Mountain. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the higher wind speeds for southwesterly–northwesterly trajectories generate significant orographic lifting and increase the precipitation differences between the lower and upper elevations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the Hydrology and Ecology of the Yangtze River
Water 2016, 8(12), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120590
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Construction and operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) has significantly altered the downstream hydrological regime along the Yangtze River, which has in turn affected the environment, biodiversity and morphological configuration, and human development. The ecological and environmental systems of the middle and
[...] Read more.
Construction and operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) has significantly altered the downstream hydrological regime along the Yangtze River, which has in turn affected the environment, biodiversity and morphological configuration, and human development. The ecological and environmental systems of the middle and lower Yangtze River have been affected adversely, with the ecosystems of Poyang Lake and its deltas being among the most damaged. Besides posing a potential threat to the survival of migrant birds and aquatic species, operation of the TGD has also affected the human population, particularly with respect to water and food security. Though the above mentioned effects have been studied in previous papers, a comprehensive discussion has never been conducted. This paper provides the first ever summary of the impacts of the TGD on the downstream reaches of the Yangtze River. The costs and benefits identified provide a constructive reference that can be used in decision-making for sustainable development of water resources in other nations, especially those in the developing world. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Nutrients and Energy Balance Analysis for a Conceptual Model of a Three Loops off Grid, Aquaponics
Water 2016, 8(12), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120589
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food security, specifically in water scarce regions, is an increasing local and global challenge. Finding new ways to increase agricultural production in a sustainable manner is required. The current study suggests a conceptual model to integrate established recirculating aquaculture practices into a near-zero
[...] Read more.
Food security, specifically in water scarce regions, is an increasing local and global challenge. Finding new ways to increase agricultural production in a sustainable manner is required. The current study suggests a conceptual model to integrate established recirculating aquaculture practices into a near-zero discharge aquaponic system that efficiently utilizes water, excreted nutrients and organic matter for energy. The suggested model allows to significantly extend the planted area and recover energy in the form of biogas to operate the system off-grid. A mass balance model of nitrogen, carbon and energy was established and solved, based on data from the literature. Results demonstrate that a fish standing stock of about 700 kg would produce 3.4 tons of fish annually and enough nutrients to grow about 35 tons of tomatoes per year (chosen as a model plant) and recover sufficient energy (70 kWh/day) to run the system on biogas and use less water. If proven successful, this approach may play a major role in sustainably enhancing food security in rural and water scarce regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Hydrological Responses to Land Use/Cover Changes in the Olifants Basin, South Africa
Water 2016, 8(12), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120588
Received: 22 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper discusses the hydrological impacts of land use changes on the Olifants Basin in South Africa using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A three-phase land use scenario (2000, 2007 and 2013) employing the “fix-changing” method was used to simulate the
[...] Read more.
This paper discusses the hydrological impacts of land use changes on the Olifants Basin in South Africa using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A three-phase land use scenario (2000, 2007 and 2013) employing the “fix-changing” method was used to simulate the hydrology of the Olifants Basin. Changes in land uses were related to different hydrological responses through a multi-regression analysis to quantify the effects of land use changes. Results reveal that from 2000 to 2013, a 31.6% decrease in rangeland with concomitant increases in agriculture lands (20.1%), urban areas (10.5%) and forest (0.7%) led to a 46.97% increase in surface runoff generation. Further, urbanization was revealed as the strongest contributor to increases in surface runoff generation, water yield and evapotranspiration (ET). ET was found to be a key water availability determinant as it has a high negative impact on surface runoff and water yield. Urbanization and agriculture were the most essential environmental factors influencing water resources of the basin with ET playing a dominant role. The output of the paper provides a simplistic approach of evaluating the impacts of land use changes on water resources. The tools and methods used are relevant for policy directions on water resources planning and adaptation of strategies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Egg-Shaped Sewer Pipes Flow Performance
Water 2016, 8(12), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120587
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to analyze the open-channel flow in a new set of egg-shaped pipes for small combined sewer systems. The egg-shaped cross-section was selected after studying several geometries under different flow conditions. Once the egg-shaped cross-section was
[...] Read more.
A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to analyze the open-channel flow in a new set of egg-shaped pipes for small combined sewer systems. The egg-shaped cross-section was selected after studying several geometries under different flow conditions. Once the egg-shaped cross-section was defined, a real-scale physical model was built and a series of partial-full flow experiments were performed in order to validate the numerical simulations. Furthermore, the numerical velocity distributions were compared with an experimental formulation for analytic geometries, with comparison results indicating a satisfactory concordance. After the hydraulic performance of the egg-shaped pipe was analyzed, the numerical model was used to compare the average velocity and shear stress against an equivalent area circular pipe under low flow conditions. The proposed egg shape showed a better flow performance up to a filling ratio of h/H = 0.25. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Challenges)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Metal–Organic Framework-Functionalized Alumina Membranes for Vacuum Membrane Distillation
Water 2016, 8(12), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120586
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nature-mimetic hydrophobic membranes with high wetting resistance have been designed for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) in this study. This is achieved through molecular engineering of metal–organic framework (MOF)-functionalized alumina surfaces. A two-step synthetic strategy was invented to design the hydrophobic
[...] Read more.
Nature-mimetic hydrophobic membranes with high wetting resistance have been designed for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) in this study. This is achieved through molecular engineering of metal–organic framework (MOF)-functionalized alumina surfaces. A two-step synthetic strategy was invented to design the hydrophobic membranes: (1) to intergrow MOF crystals on the alumina tube substrate and (2) to introduce perfluoro molecules onto the MOF functionalized membrane surface. With the first step, the surface morphology, especially the hierarchical roughness, can be controlled by tuning the MOF crystal structure. After the second step, the perfluoro molecules function as an ultrathin layer of hydrophobic floss, which lowers the surface energy. Therefore, the resultant membranes do not only possess the intrinsic advantages of alumina supports such as high stability and high water permeability, but also have a hydrophobic surface formed by MOF functionalization. The membrane prepared under an optimum condition achieved a good VMD flux of 32.3 L/m2-h at 60 °C. This study may open up a totally new approach for design of next-generation high performance membrane distillation membranes for seawater desalination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membranes for Water Treatment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Potential of UAV Video Image Analysis for Planning Irrigation Needs of Golf Courses
Water 2016, 8(12), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120584
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (8492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Golf courses can be considered as precision agriculture, as being a playing surface, their appearance is of vital importance. Areas with good weather tend to have low rainfall. Therefore, the water management of golf courses in these climates is a crucial issue due
[...] Read more.
Golf courses can be considered as precision agriculture, as being a playing surface, their appearance is of vital importance. Areas with good weather tend to have low rainfall. Therefore, the water management of golf courses in these climates is a crucial issue due to the high water demand of turfgrass. Golf courses are rapidly transitioning to reuse water, e.g., the municipalities in the USA are providing price incentives or mandate the use of reuse water for irrigation purposes; in Europe this is mandatory. So, knowing the turfgrass surfaces of a large area can help plan the treated sewage effluent needs. Recycled water is usually of poor quality, thus it is crucial to check the real turfgrass surface in order to be able to plan the global irrigation needs using this type of water. In this way, the irrigation of golf courses does not detract from the natural water resources of the area. The aim of this paper is to propose a new methodology for analysing geometric patterns of video data acquired from UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) using a new Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) algorithm. A case study concerning maintained turfgrass, especially for golf courses, has been developed. It shows very good results, better than 98% in the confusion matrix. The results obtained in this study represent a first step toward video imagery classification. In summary, technical progress in computing power and software has shown that video imagery is one of the most promising environmental data acquisition techniques available today. This rapid classification of turfgrass can play an important role for planning water management. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Efficiency Criteria as a Solution to the Uncertainty in the Choice of Population Size in Population-Based Algorithms Applied to Water Network Optimization
Water 2016, 8(12), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120583
Received: 4 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different Population-based Algorithms (PbAs) have been used in recent years to solve all types of optimization problems related to water resource issues. However, the performances of these techniques depend heavily on correctly setting some specific parameters that guide the search for solutions. The
[...] Read more.
Different Population-based Algorithms (PbAs) have been used in recent years to solve all types of optimization problems related to water resource issues. However, the performances of these techniques depend heavily on correctly setting some specific parameters that guide the search for solutions. The initial random population size P is the only parameter common to all PbAs, but this parameter has received little attention from researchers. This paper explores P behaviour in a pipe-sizing problem considering both quality and speed criteria. To relate both concepts, this study applies a method based on an efficiency ratio E. First, specific parameters in each algorithm are calibrated with a fixed P. Second, specific parameters remain fixed, and the initial population size P is modified. After more than 600,000 simulations, the influence of P on obtaining successful solutions is statistically analysed. The proposed methodology is applied to four well-known benchmark networks and four different algorithms. The main conclusion of this study is that using a small population size is more efficient above a certain minimum size. Moreover, the results ensure optimal parameter calibration in each algorithm, and they can be used to select the most appropriate algorithm depending on the complexity of the problem and the goal of optimization. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Environmental Factors on the Temporal Stability of Phytoplankton Biomass in a Eutrophic Man-Made Lake
Water 2016, 8(12), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120582
Received: 23 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
PDF Full-text (4467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The stability of phytoplankton biomass is important in maintaining the health of an aquatic ecosystem. In this study, the main environmental factors and phytoplankton biomass were investigated monthly from May 2011 to April 2013 in a eutrophic lake. The influence of both the
[...] Read more.
The stability of phytoplankton biomass is important in maintaining the health of an aquatic ecosystem. In this study, the main environmental factors and phytoplankton biomass were investigated monthly from May 2011 to April 2013 in a eutrophic lake. The influence of both the mean values and variability (standard deviation) of environmental factors on the temporal stability index (TSI, measured as coefficient of variation) of phytoplankton was analyzed. Complex relationships were observed between the mean environmental factors and phytoplankton TSI: a positive relationship for dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH, a negative relationship for total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), a unimodal relationship for total phosphorus (TP), and no relationship for water temperature (WT). Mean values of DO and pH mainly influenced the stability of phytoplankton through increasing the average total biomass. However, mean TN and NH4+-N concentrations destabilized phytoplankton TSI primarily through increasing the variability of community biomass. There were also complex relationships between the variability of environmental factors and phytoplankton TSI: a negative relationship for TN, a unimodal relationship for NH4+-N and TP, and no relationship for WT, DO, and pH. The variability of nutrient concentrations mainly affected phytoplankton TSI through influencing the variability of community biomass, while their influence on the average total biomass was weak. Results in this research will be helpful in understanding the influence of environmental factors on the temporal stability of phytoplankton. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Bacterial Communities and Antibiotic Resistance Communities in a Full-Scale Hospital Wastewater Treatment Plant by High-Throughput Pyrosequencing
Water 2016, 8(12), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120580
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The community of whole microbes and antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) in hospital wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) receiving domestic wastewater (DWW) and hospital wastewater (HWW) was investigated. Samples from an influent of a secondary clarifier, at each treatment train, were characterized for the whole
[...] Read more.
The community of whole microbes and antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) in hospital wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) receiving domestic wastewater (DWW) and hospital wastewater (HWW) was investigated. Samples from an influent of a secondary clarifier, at each treatment train, were characterized for the whole microbial community and ARB on the antibiotic resistance database, based on high-throughput pyrosequencing. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that the abundance of Bacteroidetes in the DWW sample was higher (~1.6 times) than in the HWW sample, whereas the abundance of Proteobacteria in the HWW sample was greater than in the DWW sample. At the top twenty of the genus level, distinct genera were observed—Saprospiraceae in the DWW and Zoogloea in the HWW. Apart from the top twenty genera, minor genera showed various antibiotic resistance types based on the antibiotic resistance gene database. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Assessment of Managed Aquifer Recharge through Modeling—A Review
Water 2016, 8(12), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120579
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is the purposeful recharge of an aquifer for later recovery or environmental benefits and represents a valuable method for sustainable water resources management. Models can be helpful tools for the assessment of MAR systems. This review encompasses a survey
[...] Read more.
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is the purposeful recharge of an aquifer for later recovery or environmental benefits and represents a valuable method for sustainable water resources management. Models can be helpful tools for the assessment of MAR systems. This review encompasses a survey and an analysis of case studies which apply flow and transport models to evaluate MAR. The observed modeling objectives include the planning or optimization of MAR schemes as well as the identification and quantification of geochemical processes during injection, storage and recovery. The water recovery efficiency and the impact of the injected water on the ambient groundwater are further objectives investigated in the reviewed studies. These objectives are mainly solved by using groundwater flow models. Unsaturated flow models, solute transport models, reactive geochemical models as well as water balance models are also frequently applied and often coupled. As each planning step to setup a new MAR facility requires cost and time investment, modeling is used to minimize hazard risks and assess possible constraints of the system such as low recovery efficiency, clogging and geochemical processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top