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Water, Volume 8, Issue 9 (September 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Water Budget Analysis in Arid Regions, Application to the United Arab Emirates
Water 2016, 8(9), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090415
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2556 | PDF Full-text (5527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Population growth and economic development have impacted the capacity of water resources to meet demands in a number of arid countries. This study focuses on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where low rainfall, high rate of growth and agricultural development are resulting in [...] Read more.
Population growth and economic development have impacted the capacity of water resources to meet demands in a number of arid countries. This study focuses on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where low rainfall, high rate of growth and agricultural development are resulting in a dramatic depletion of groundwater resources and an increased dependence on desalination. A water budget for the region was developed. It represents the variations in groundwater storage as a balance of total precipitation, desalinated water and evapotranspiration. The components of the water budget are obtained from ground observations, documented information, models and remote sensing data, using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites to estimate changes in groundwater storage and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellites and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data to obtain precipitation and soil moisture respectively. Results show a negative trend of 0.5 cm/year in groundwater levels corresponding to an average decrease of 0.86 km3/year during the study period (2003 to 2012). This negative trend indicates that the aquifers are not being recharged fast enough to compensate for human withdrawals. Most of the precipitation was found to be lost through evapotranspiration. A discussion of the current water budget components is presented and propositions are made for a sustainable use of water resources in the UAE, including a more efficient use of recycled water. This analysis is applicable to other Gulf countries and it can help to determine the optimal allocation of water resources to optimize agricultural productivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Contributions of Climate Variability and Human Activities to Runoff Changes in the Upper Catchment of the Red River Basin, China
Water 2016, 8(9), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090414
Received: 7 August 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2026 | PDF Full-text (7298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantifying the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff changes will contribute to regional water resource planning and management. This study aims to separate the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff changes in the upper catchment of the [...] Read more.
Quantifying the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff changes will contribute to regional water resource planning and management. This study aims to separate the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff changes in the upper catchment of the Red River Basin in China. The Mann–Kendall test and Pettitt’s test methods were applied to identify the trends and change points of the hydro-meteorological variables. The hydrological sensitivity, climate elasticity and hydrological simulation methods were adopted to estimate the contributions of climate variability and human activities to runoff changes. Results showed that annual runoff significantly decreased by 1.57 mm/year during the period of 1961–2012. A change point in annual runoff coefficient occurred in 2002. Accordingly, the annual runoff series were divided into the baseline period (1961–2002) and the impacted period (2003–2012). Mean annual runoff of the impacted period decreased by 29.13% compared with the baseline period. Similar estimates of the contributions of climate variability and human activities were obtained by the three different methods. Climate variability was estimated to be responsible for 69%–71% of the reduction in annual runoff, and human activities accounted for 29%–31%. Climate variability was the main driving factor for runoff decrease in the catchment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Soil-Vegetation Dynamic Interactions in Changing Climate)
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Open AccessArticle
Discharge Fee Policy Analysis: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model of Water Resources and Water Environments
Water 2016, 8(9), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090413
Received: 4 June 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1962 | PDF Full-text (1041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General [...] Read more.
To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and output sources of the National Economic Production Department. Secondly, an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of Jiangsu province is developed to simulate various scenarios. By changing values of the discharge fees (increased by 50%, 100% and 150%), three scenarios are simulated to examine their influence on the overall economy and each industry. The simulation results show that an increased fee will have a negative impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, waste water may be effectively controlled. Also, this study demonstrates that along with the economic costs, the increase of the discharge fee will lead to the upgrading of industrial structures from a situation of heavy pollution to one of light pollution which is beneficial to the sustainable development of the economy and the protection of the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Method for Evaluating Riverside Well Locations Based on Allowable Withdrawal
Water 2016, 8(9), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090412
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
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Abstract
This study aims to derive the optimal solution for well locations based on the allowable withdrawal. To demonstrate the proposed technique, a numerical model of a typical well field at the Qinbei Power Plant was constructed and 20 possible drawdown scenarios were simulated [...] Read more.
This study aims to derive the optimal solution for well locations based on the allowable withdrawal. To demonstrate the proposed technique, a numerical model of a typical well field at the Qinbei Power Plant was constructed and 20 possible drawdown scenarios were simulated for each of three different arrangements of pumping wells. The concept of the Unit Increased Drawdown Value (UIDV) was used as a basis to select the location of pumping wells, where the UIDV is defined as the increase in drawdown associated with the addition of a unit of extraction. Results showed that for modeled well fields with the same number of wells and rates of exploitation, drawdown will reach the maximum and minimum when the well field is located in the recharge zone and discharge zone, respectively, because of the specific relationships between groundwater and surface water. This paper considered a pumping program with maximum exploitation and minimum costs corresponding to allowable withdrawals of 2.44 m3/s and 1.07 m3/s, respectively, and the relationship between groundwater and surface water was elucidated. The study results provide a theoretical basis for the layout of wells. The solution takes economic factors into consideration and describes the best solution for well locations to meet drawdown limitations during pumping applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Water Sustainability and Food Security through Increased Crop Water Productivity in Malawi
Water 2016, 8(9), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090411
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2727 | PDF Full-text (1521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agriculture accounts for most of the renewable freshwater resource withdrawals in Malawi, yet food insecurity and water scarcity remain as major challenges. Despite Malawi’s vast water resources, climate change, coupled with increasing population and urbanisation are contributing to increasing water scarcity. Improving crop [...] Read more.
Agriculture accounts for most of the renewable freshwater resource withdrawals in Malawi, yet food insecurity and water scarcity remain as major challenges. Despite Malawi’s vast water resources, climate change, coupled with increasing population and urbanisation are contributing to increasing water scarcity. Improving crop water productivity has been identified as a possible solution to water and food insecurity, by producing more food with less water, that is, to produce “more crop per drop”. This study evaluated crop water productivity from 2000 to 2013 by assessing crop evapotranspiration, crop production and agricultural gross domestic product (Ag GDP) contribution for Malawi. Improvements in crop water productivity were evidenced through improved crop production and productivity. These improvements were supported by increased irrigated area, along with improved agronomic practices. Crop water productivity increased by 33% overall from 2000 to 2013, resulting in an increase in maize production from 1.2 million metric tons to 3.6 million metric tons, translating to an average food surplus of 1.1 million metric tons. These developments have contributed to sustainable improved food and nutrition security in Malawi, which also avails more water for ecosystem functions and other competing economic sectors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Usefulness of the Lombard Method for Analyzing the Hydrological Impacts of Dams: The Case of the Manouane River Diversion Dam, Quebec, Canada
Water 2016, 8(9), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090410
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1693 | PDF Full-text (2808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of the Lombard method for analyzing dam-induced hydrologic impacts. The method was used to accurately detect the effects of the construction of a diversion dam in 2003 on annual and seasonal maximum and [...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of the Lombard method for analyzing dam-induced hydrologic impacts. The method was used to accurately detect the effects of the construction of a diversion dam in 2003 on annual and seasonal maximum and minimum daily flows in the Manouane River, Quebec, Canada, measured from 1980 to 2014. The Lombard method yields results that are nearly identical to results obtained using the monitoring (Kruskal-Wallis test) and long-term trend (Mann-Kendall test) methods. The Lombard method revealed a shift in mean values of annual and seasonal minimum daily flows in 2003, the year the dam was built. This shift is sharp for all four seasons. The dam induced a significant decrease in minimum daily flows in all four seasons. As far as maximum daily flows are concerned, unlike the monitoring method, the Lombard method detected a significant decrease only in the mean values of annual and spring maximum daily flows. This decrease occurred two years prior to the construction of the diversion dam. Instead, this decrease is interpreted to be the result of a significant decrease in spring precipitation after 1997. These hydrological changes are different from those induced by other types of dams in Quebec. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Artificial Recharge on Hydrochemistry: A Comparison of Two Fluvial Gravel Pit Lakes with Different Post-Excavation Uses in The Netherlands
Water 2016, 8(9), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090409
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1990 | PDF Full-text (4552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gravel pit lakes form when gravel deposits are excavated below the water table. We studied two fluvial gravel pit lakes called De Lange Vlieter (DLV Lake) and the Boschmolen Plas (BP Lake), in the Meuse River valley (The Netherlands). Water from the Meuse [...] Read more.
Gravel pit lakes form when gravel deposits are excavated below the water table. We studied two fluvial gravel pit lakes called De Lange Vlieter (DLV Lake) and the Boschmolen Plas (BP Lake), in the Meuse River valley (The Netherlands). Water from the Meuse River is pumped only into the DLV Lake that is used for drinking water production. The mean values, the linear trends and seasonal patterns of time series data (2003–2014), of temperature, pH, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate were compared using one-way tests of variance and tests of differences. The effects of river water infiltration on DLV Lake are (1) a change in lake water temperature; (2) an increase in nitrate concentration (3) an increase in phosphate concentration and (4) a decrease in sulphate concentration. The effects of the air blowers in DLV Lake are (1) mixing of lake water; (2) decreasing pH in spring and summer (3) water oxygenation. Linear regression analysis shows an initially increasing nitrate concentration in DLV Lake that can be explained by the input of nitrate rich Meuse river water. Instead decreasing nitrate and phosphate concentrations in BP Lake and Meuse River reflect a diminished use of fertilizers. The gravel pit lake water temperature does not reflect climatic changes but the use of DLV Lake for artificial recharge has an impact on the seasonal and long-term trends in hydrochemistry. This poses a challenge to lake managers to find the right balance between reduction of eutrophication and accumulation of nutrients and sulphate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Changes in the Hydrologic Regime of the Yangtze River and the Possible Impact of Reservoirs
Water 2016, 8(9), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090408
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 11 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1973 | PDF Full-text (9178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates hydrologic changes in the Yangtze River using long-term daily stream flow records (1955–2013) collected from four flow gauging stations located from the upper to the lower reaches of the river. The hydrologic regime is quantified using the Indicators of Hydrologic [...] Read more.
This paper investigates hydrologic changes in the Yangtze River using long-term daily stream flow records (1955–2013) collected from four flow gauging stations located from the upper to the lower reaches of the river. The hydrologic regime is quantified using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration, which statistically characterize hydrologic variation within each year. Scanning t-test is applied to analyze multiple changes in the hydrologic regime at different time scales. Then, coherency analysis is applied to identify common changes among different hydrologic indicators and across different reaches of the Yangtze River. The results point to various change patterns in the five components of hydrologic regime, including the magnitude of monthly water conditions, magnitude and duration of annual extreme water conditions, timing of annual extreme water conditions, frequency and duration of high and low pulses, and rate and frequency of water condition changes. The 32 hydrologic indicators feature multiple temporal-scale changes. Spatial variations can be observed in the hydrologic changes of the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the river. Common changes in different reaches consist of hydrologic indicators including the monthly flow in October and the low-flow indicators. The monthly flow in October is dominated by decreasing trends, while the monthly flows between January and March, the annual minimum 1/3/7/30/90-day flows, and the base flow index are characterized by increasing trends. Low pulse duration and total days of low pulses feature downward trends. The coherency analysis reveals significant relationships between the monthly flow in October and the low-flow indicators, indicating that reservoir regulation is an important factor behind the hydrologic changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrating Artificial Neural Networks into the VIC Model for Rainfall-Runoff Modeling
Water 2016, 8(9), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090407
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2154 | PDF Full-text (7245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A hybrid rainfall-runoff model was developed in this study by integrating the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model with artificial neural networks (ANNs). In the proposed model, the prediction interval of the ANN replaces separate, individual simulation (i.e., single simulation). The spatial heterogeneity of [...] Read more.
A hybrid rainfall-runoff model was developed in this study by integrating the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model with artificial neural networks (ANNs). In the proposed model, the prediction interval of the ANN replaces separate, individual simulation (i.e., single simulation). The spatial heterogeneity of horizontal resolution, subgrid-scale features and their influence on the streamflow can be assessed according to the VIC model. In the routing module, instead of a simple linear superposition of the streamflow generated from each subbasin, ANNs facilitate nonlinear mappings of the streamflow produced from each subbasin into the total streamflow at the basin outlet. A total of three subbasins were delineated and calibrated independently via the VIC model; daily runoff errors were simulated for each subbasin, then corrected by an ANN bias-correction model. The initial streamflow and corrected runoff from the simulation for individual subbasins serve as inputs to the ANN routing model. The feasibility of this proposed method was confirmed according to the performance of its application to a case study on rainfall-runoff prediction in the Jinshajiang River Basin, the headwater area of the Yangtze River. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strategic Framework for Sustainable Management of Drainage Systems in Semi-Arid Cities: An Iraqi Case Study
Water 2016, 8(9), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090406
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1790 | PDF Full-text (2351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the purpose of this paper, Erbil city, located in the northern part of Iraq, has been chosen as a representative case study for a large number of cities, particularly in semi-arid areas, lacking sustainable drainage systems (SuDS). The study assesses (a) the [...] Read more.
For the purpose of this paper, Erbil city, located in the northern part of Iraq, has been chosen as a representative case study for a large number of cities, particularly in semi-arid areas, lacking sustainable drainage systems (SuDS). The study assesses (a) the role of SuDS as a measure in areas with a water shortage; (b) water scarcity in decision-making processes; (c) the lack of legislation to implement SuDS; (d) the adverse effects of climate change on the urban drainage system; and (e) the effects of an increased population on SuDS implementation. An integrated methodology that incorporates a self-administrated questionnaire, workshops, face-to-face communication and interviews, as well as electronic media interactions, were used to achieve the objectives. A generic platform that consists of thirteen pillars, supporting the short to long-term national policies and strategies towards a sustainable urban drainage system, has been developed. Results showed that environmental laws need to be introduced. Findings also indicate that a growing population, which is partly due to an increase of internally displaced people, is a major challenge to an early application of SuDS, due to a rise in land demand and a lack of financial resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Political Ecology of Chinese Large Dams in Cambodia: Implications, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from the Kamchay Dam
Water 2016, 8(9), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090405
Received: 7 June 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 18 September 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2314 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, [...] Read more.
Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia: the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of future large dams in Cambodia. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Shedding Light on Increasing Trends of Phosphorus Concentration in Upper Austrian Rivers
Water 2016, 8(9), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090404
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 16 September 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1610 | PDF Full-text (1783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) impairment of surface waters still represents a major concern worldwide, despite decades of awareness and implementation of remedial measures. In view of this situation, it is all the more necessary to provide decision makers with reliable modelling tools, which can correctly [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) impairment of surface waters still represents a major concern worldwide, despite decades of awareness and implementation of remedial measures. In view of this situation, it is all the more necessary to provide decision makers with reliable modelling tools, which can correctly estimate the effect of alternative management strategies. This work tests the performance of the semi-empirical model MONERIS (Modelling of Nutrient Emissions in River Systems) in depicting and quantifying trends of instream total phosphorus (TP) concentration in three catchments located in Upper Austria, a region affected by high agricultural nutrients emissions. The model correctly depicts both the existence of increasing trends (4–µ g TP L 1 year 1 ) and the lack thereof (<0.1 µ g TP L 1 year 1 ) in different sub-catchments within the period 2001–2014, although it systematically underestimates the trends magnitude. Furthermore, MONERIS together with an optimized data management system has allowed identifying the probable cause of such trends. The results suggest that, despite considerable improvements achieved through enhanced P removal from wastewater and through the implementation of an agri-environmental programme, changes in land use and in cultivated crop types have led to an offsetting increase of erosion-driven emissions. This methodology offers high potential to predict the effect of different management scenarios, but further model fine-tuning concerning erosion and retention processes is required to improve the model accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Governance in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of Institutional and Political Context
Water 2016, 8(9), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090403
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2288 | PDF Full-text (435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water crises are often crises of governance. To address interrelated issues of securing access to sustainable sources of safe water for the world’s populations, scholar and practitioners have suggested fostering improved modes of water governance that support the implementation of integrated water resource [...] Read more.
Water crises are often crises of governance. To address interrelated issues of securing access to sustainable sources of safe water for the world’s populations, scholar and practitioners have suggested fostering improved modes of water governance that support the implementation of integrated water resource management (IWRM). Recently, implementation of an IWRM approach was announced as a target for achieving Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study employs an analytical hierarchy process with a SWOT analysis to assess the current institutional and political context of water governance in Bangladesh and evaluate IWRM as a means to achieve the SDGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Water Policy Collection)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolutionary and Holistic Assessment of Green-Grey Infrastructure for CSO Reduction
Water 2016, 8(9), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090402
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2364 | PDF Full-text (3099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent research suggests future alterations in rainfall patterns due to climate variability, affecting public safety and health in urban areas. Urban growth, one of the main drivers of change in the current century, will also affect these conditions. Traditional drainage approaches using grey [...] Read more.
Recent research suggests future alterations in rainfall patterns due to climate variability, affecting public safety and health in urban areas. Urban growth, one of the main drivers of change in the current century, will also affect these conditions. Traditional drainage approaches using grey infrastructure offer low adaptation to an uncertain future. New methodologies of stormwater management focus on decentralized approaches in a long-term planning framework, including the use of Green Infrastructure (GI). This work presents a novel methodology to select, evaluate, and place different green-grey practices (or measures) for retrofitting urban drainage systems. The methodology uses a hydrodynamic model and multi-objective optimization to design solutions at a watershed level. The method proposed in this study was applied in a highly urbanized watershed to evaluate the effect of these measures on Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO) quantity. This approach produced promising results and may become a useful tool for planning and decision making of drainage systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Land Use on Frequency of Floods in Yongding River Basin, China
Water 2016, 8(9), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090401
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 27 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2541 | PDF Full-text (10104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the debates surrounding the negative influences of flood control using dams or reservoirs on the eco-environment become fierce, non-structural flood control measures like land use change gain more attention. This study researched the effect of integrated and single land use changes on [...] Read more.
As the debates surrounding the negative influences of flood control using dams or reservoirs on the eco-environment become fierce, non-structural flood control measures like land use change gain more attention. This study researched the effect of integrated and single land use changes on three floods at small, medium and large scales, respectively, in Yongding River basin. A SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was used to simulate the effect of integrated and single land use changes on floods of different scales. The single land uses were set as S1, S2, S3 to represent the agricultural, grass and construction land changes. The results showed that: (1) the integrated land use changes reduced the small flood, the medium flood and the large flood by 14%, 13% and 5%; (2) the land use management functioned most effectively on medium-scale floods and least effectively on large-scale floods; (3) S1 decreased the medium floods optimally by 24% with a 7-day maximum runoff volume as the indicator and by 29% with a 1-day maximum flood discharge; (4) S2 reduced the medium floods optimally by 21% with runoff depth volume as the indicator; (5) S3 increased the medium floods optimally by 15% with a 1-day maximum flood discharge as the indicator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Groundwater Level Mapping Using Multiple-Point Geostatistics
Water 2016, 8(9), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090400
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract
Methods based on two-point geostatistics have been routinely used to interpolate random variables such as groundwater level and concentration and to estimate their values at un-sampled locations. These methods use the observed data to analyze spatial two-point correlations and ignore the higher order [...] Read more.
Methods based on two-point geostatistics have been routinely used to interpolate random variables such as groundwater level and concentration and to estimate their values at un-sampled locations. These methods use the observed data to analyze spatial two-point correlations and ignore the higher order moments that may play a key role in the characterization of complex patterns. In this work, a multiple-point geostatistics method is applied to interpolate groundwater level data. To do this, the ensemble simulated groundwater level maps after modeling full physics are used as training images to derive the multiple correlations. An example shows the advantages of using multiple-point geostatistics compared with the traditional two-point geostatistics methods (such as Kriging) for the interpolation of groundwater level data in a complex geological formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Characterization of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and CDOM-DOC Relationships for Highly Polluted Rivers
Water 2016, 8(9), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090399
Received: 16 July 2016 / Revised: 3 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1844 | PDF Full-text (5459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spectral characteristics of CDOM (Chromophoric dissolved organic matter) in water columns are a key parameter for bio-optical modeling. Knowledge of CDOM optical properties and spatial discrepancy based on the relationship between water quality and spectral parameters in the Yinma River watershed with in [...] Read more.
Spectral characteristics of CDOM (Chromophoric dissolved organic matter) in water columns are a key parameter for bio-optical modeling. Knowledge of CDOM optical properties and spatial discrepancy based on the relationship between water quality and spectral parameters in the Yinma River watershed with in situ data collected from highly polluted waters are exhibited in this study. Based on the comprehensive index method, the riverine waters showed serious contamination; especially the chemical oxygen demand (COD), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were out of range of the contamination warning. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total suspended matter (TSM) with prominent non-homogenizing were significantly high in the riverine waters, but chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) was the opposite. The ternary phase diagram showed that non-algal particle absorption played an important role in total non-water light absorption (>50%) in most sampling locations, and mean contributions of CDOM were 13% and 22% in the summer and autumn, respectively. The analysis of the ratio of absorption at 250–365 nm (E250:365) and the spectral slope (S275–295) indicated that CDOM had higher aromaticity and molecular weight in autumn than in summer, which is consistent with the results of water quality and the CDOM relative contribution rate. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the environmental variables OSM (Organic suspended matter) had a strong correlation with CDOM absorption, followed by heavy metals, e.g., Mn, Hg and Cr6+. However, for the specific UV absorbance (SUVA254), the seasonal values showed opposite results compared with the reported literature. The potential reasons were that more UDOM (uncolored dissolved organic matter) from human sources (wastewater effluent) existed in the waters. Terrigenous inputs simultaneously are in relation to the aCDOM(440)-DOC relationship with the correlation coefficient of 0.90 in the summer (two-tailed, p < 0.01), and 0.58 in the autumn (two-tailed, p < 0.05). Spatial distribution of the CDOM parameters exhibited that the downstream regions focused on dry land have high CDOM molecular weight and aromatic hydrocarbon. Partial sampling locations around the cities or countries generally showed abnormal values due to terrigenous inputs. As a bio-optical model parameter, the spectral characteristic of CDOM is helpful in adjusting the derived algorithms in highly polluted environments. The study on organic carbon and pollutants in highly polluted waters had an important contribution to global carbon balance estimation and water environment protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Historical Storminess and Hydro-Geological Hazard Temporal Evolution in the Solofrana River Basin—Southern Italy
Water 2016, 8(9), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090398
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1606 | PDF Full-text (3303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Precipitation extremes have always been part of the Earth’s climate system and associated multiple damaging hydrological events (MDHEs), the simultaneous triggering of different types of phenomena (landslides and floods), affect an always-increasing portion of human settlement areas. This paper aims to investigate the [...] Read more.
Precipitation extremes have always been part of the Earth’s climate system and associated multiple damaging hydrological events (MDHEs), the simultaneous triggering of different types of phenomena (landslides and floods), affect an always-increasing portion of human settlement areas. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between the temporal evolution of severe geomorphological events and combined precipitation indices as a tool to improve understanding the hydro-geological hazard at the catchment scale. The case study is the Solofrana river basin, Southern Italy, and the focus is on four of main municipalities severely affected by natural disasters. Data for about 45 MDH events, spanning 1951–2014, have been collected and analyzed for this purpose. A preliminary monthly scale analysis of event occurrences highlights a pronounced seasonal characterization of the phenomenon, as about 60% of the total number of reported events take place during the period from September to November. Following, a statistical analysis clearly indicates a significant increase in the frequency of occurrences of MDHEs during the last decades. Such an increase appears to be related to non-stationary features of an average catchment scale rainfall-runoff erosivity index, which combines maximum monthly, maximum daily, and a proxy of maximum hourly precipitation data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial–Temporal Dynamics of Wetland Vegetation Related to Water Level Fluctuations in Poyang Lake, China
Water 2016, 8(9), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090397
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract
Hydrological properties are driving forces of wetland systems. The influence of water level fluctuations on vegetation distribution is of growing interest as wetlands are increasingly disturbed by climate change and intensive human activity. Based on time series MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery [...] Read more.
Hydrological properties are driving forces of wetland systems. The influence of water level fluctuations on vegetation distribution is of growing interest as wetlands are increasingly disturbed by climate change and intensive human activity. Based on time series MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery from 2000 to 2012, we investigated the spatial–temporal dynamics of wetland vegetation in Poyang Lake using a combined Sen’s slope and Mann–Kendall (MK) test approach, and explored their correlations with water level fluctuations in different hydrological periods. The results showed that more than 34% of wetlands at lower elevations of Poyang Lake had experienced an increasing trend in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), whereas EVI in about 11% of the wetlands at higher elevations decreased significantly. Responses of grassland area extracted from MODIS EVI were found to be more sensitive to water level fluctuations in the southern lakes. The change rate of grassland area decreased with the rising water level during the rising period, but increased with the rising water level during the retreating period. Correlations between grassland area and water level were much weaker in the dry period. In addition, we found fluctuations of the main water body had negligible effect on grassland area since the water level at Xingzi station was below 14 m. These results provide new insights for predicting future changes of wetland vegetation influenced by the ongoing threats from climate change and human activity, and form a foundation for ecosystem management of Poyang Lake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Groundwater and Surface Water Availability via a Joint Simulation with a Double Control of Water Quantity and Ecologically Ideal Shallow Groundwater Depth: A Case Study on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China
Water 2016, 8(9), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090396
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1939 | PDF Full-text (16284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Joint assessment of groundwater-surface water resources can help develop sustainable regional water management plans for intensive agriculture. In this study, we estimated allowable groundwater and surface water quantities using a water balance model, WetSpass-GMS, for the Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 104 km [...] Read more.
Joint assessment of groundwater-surface water resources can help develop sustainable regional water management plans for intensive agriculture. In this study, we estimated allowable groundwater and surface water quantities using a water balance model, WetSpass-GMS, for the Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 104 km2), one of the most important grain production bases in China. We then applied a double control based on the groundwater availability and the concept of an ecologically ideal shallow groundwater depth (EISGD) to three different water use scenarios: (A) continuation of the current water use management; (B) maximal use of water resources under a double control; and (C) irrigation of 266.7 × 104 hectares that are suitable for rice cultivation. We found an annual allowable surface water quantity of 4.71 billion cubic meters for the region and an annual exploitable groundwater quantity of 4.65 billion cubic meters under full consideration of water requirements, i.e., sustaining river base flow, necessary riverine sediment transport, and ecological water supplies for wetlands and reservoirs. Our simulation results showed that for Scenario A, groundwater level in the region would continue falling, and that the groundwater levels in wet, normal and dry years would drop below the EISGD level in 2028, 2023 and 2019, respectively. For Scenario B, groundwater and surface water would be able to support rice paddies of 219.7 × 104 hectares, 212.7 × 104 hectares, and 209.3 × 104 hectares during wet, normal and dry years, respectively. For Scenario C, future demands on groundwater and surface water under wet, dry and normal years would all exceed their allowable supplies. Overall, this study indicates that integrated management plans promoting an increase of surface water use and a reduction in irrigation with groundwater should be developed for sustainable agriculture and ecological preservation on the Sanjiang Plain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Failure Analysis of a Water Supply Pumping Pipeline System
Water 2016, 8(9), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090395
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 12 September 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2009 | PDF Full-text (3661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the most important results of a theoretical, experimental and in situ investigation developed in connection with a water supply pumping pipeline failure. This incident occurred after power failure of the pumping system that caused the burst of a prestressed concrete [...] Read more.
This paper describes the most important results of a theoretical, experimental and in situ investigation developed in connection with a water supply pumping pipeline failure. This incident occurred after power failure of the pumping system that caused the burst of a prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP). Subsequently, numerous hydraulic transient simulations for different scenarios and various air pockets combinations were carried out in order to fully validate the diagnostic. As a result, it was determined that small air pocket volumes located along the pipeline profile were recognized as the direct cause of the PCCP rupture. Further, a detail survey of the pipeline was performed using a combination of non-destructive technologies in order to determine if immediate intervention was required to replace PCC pipes. In addition, a hydraulic model was employed to analyze the behavior of air pockets located at high points of the pipeline. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Course and Frequency of High Water Stages in Selected Catchments of the Upper Vistula Basin in the South of Poland
Water 2016, 8(9), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090394
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1685 | PDF Full-text (6659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents an analysis of the course and frequency of high water stages in selected catchments of the upper Vistula basin in the south of Poland. The following rivers were investigated: the Dunajec–Nowy Targ-Kowaniec cross-section, the Rudawa–Balice cross-section, the Kamienica–Nowy Sącz cross-section, [...] Read more.
The paper presents an analysis of the course and frequency of high water stages in selected catchments of the upper Vistula basin in the south of Poland. The following rivers were investigated: the Dunajec–Nowy Targ-Kowaniec cross-section, the Rudawa–Balice cross-section, the Kamienica–Nowy Sącz cross-section, the Wisłok–Tryńcza cross-section and the San–Przemyśl cross-section. Daily flows from the years 1983–2014 were used to determine maximum annual flows and maximum flows per summer and winter half-year. Selected floods were analyzed with reference to the following metrics: POTX (mean size of the flow determined based on high water stages exceeding the assumed threshold value), POT3F (number of high water stages exceeding the threshold value for each hydrological year), WPOT3F (number of high water stages exceeding the threshold value for the winter half-year and), LOPT3F (number of high water stages exceeding the threshold value for the summer half-year). The determined metrics were analyzed for trend (Mann-Kendall test), homogeneity (Kruskal-Wallis test), and heteroscedasticity (Levene test). Additionally, periodograms were used to determine periodicity of time series for maximum annual flows. The resulting computations indicated upward trends in the analyzed flood metrics but they were not significant in any case. Therefore, in the years 1983–2014 no factors were observed that would significantly affect the size and frequency of high water runoff from the investigated catchments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study on the Permeability of the Hydraulic-Stimulated Fracture Network in Naturally-Fractured Shale Gas Reservoirs
Water 2016, 8(9), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090393
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2253 | PDF Full-text (7613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As hydraulic fracturing is a fluid-rock coupling process, the permeability of the hydraulic-stimulated fracture network in the initial stage has great effects on the propagation of the hydraulic fracture network in the following stages. In this work, the permeability of the hydraulic-stimulated fracture [...] Read more.
As hydraulic fracturing is a fluid-rock coupling process, the permeability of the hydraulic-stimulated fracture network in the initial stage has great effects on the propagation of the hydraulic fracture network in the following stages. In this work, the permeability of the hydraulic-stimulated fracture network in shale gas reservoirs is investigated by a newly-proposed model based on the displacement discontinuity method. The permeability of the fracture network relies heavily on fracture apertures, which can be calculated with high precision by the displacement discontinuity method. The hydraulic fracturing processes are simulated based on the natural fracture networks reconstructed from the shale samples in the Longmaxi formation of China. The flow fields are simulated and the permeability is calculated based on the fracture configurations and fracture apertures after hydraulic fracturing treatment. It is found that the anisotropy of the permeability is very strong, and the permeability curves have similar shapes. Therefore, a fitting equation of the permeability curve is given for convenient use in the future. The permeability curves under different fluid pressures and crustal stress directions are obtained. The results show that the permeability anisotropy is stronger when the fluid pressure is higher. Moreover, the permeability anisotropy reaches the minimum value when the maximum principle stress direction is perpendicular to the main natural fracture direction. The investigation on the permeability is useful for answering how the reservoirs are hydraulically stimulated and is useful for predicting the propagation behaviors of the hydraulic fracture network in shale gas reservoirs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base
Water 2016, 8(9), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090392
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2026 | PDF Full-text (12503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary [...] Read more.
While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL) intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB) of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based) lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI) tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of a GIS Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for the Identification of Intrinsic Suitable Sites in Costa Rica for the Application of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) through Spreading Methods
Water 2016, 8(9), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090391
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3190 | PDF Full-text (6255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Costa Rica’s annual mean precipitation is above 3300 mm, but this precipitation is not evenly distributed in time or space, producing clear differentiated wet and dry seasons in most of the country. Droughts are also common phenomena which greatly affect the availability of [...] Read more.
Costa Rica’s annual mean precipitation is above 3300 mm, but this precipitation is not evenly distributed in time or space, producing clear differentiated wet and dry seasons in most of the country. Droughts are also common phenomena which greatly affect the availability of water resources. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes are being taken into consideration to enhance the underground water storage capacity of the country. The present study constitutes the first assessment for the identification of suitable sites for the implementation of MAR technology spreading methods (SM) in Costa Rica. The suitable sites are identified by means of a geographic information system multi-criteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA) based on four criteria: hydrogeological aptitude, terrain slope, top soil texture and drainage network density. Four steps are performed in order to identify these sites: problem definition, screening for suitable areas, suitability mapping, and sensitivity analysis. The suitability map was divided in two zones after the screening: suitable and unsuitable, the first zone was further divided in five classes according to the weighted linear combination (WLC) ranking. The results indicate that 61% of the country is suitable for conducting SM. This map is a tool for future implementation of MAR techniques in the country. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phosphorus Retention in Stormwater Control Structures across Streamflow in Urban and Suburban Watersheds
Water 2016, 8(9), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090390
Received: 23 May 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 August 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2361 | PDF Full-text (2721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that stormwater control measures (SCMs) are less effective at retaining phosphorus (P) than nitrogen. We compared P retention between two urban/suburban SCMs and their adjacent free-flowing stream reaches at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Study (LTER) site, and examined changes [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that stormwater control measures (SCMs) are less effective at retaining phosphorus (P) than nitrogen. We compared P retention between two urban/suburban SCMs and their adjacent free-flowing stream reaches at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Study (LTER) site, and examined changes in P retention in SCMs across flow conditions. Results show that, when compared with free-flowing stream reaches, the SCMs had significantly lower dissolved oxygen (%DO) and higher P concentrations, as well as lower mean areal retention rates and retention efficiencies of particulate P (PP). In all the SCMs, concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) consistently exhibited inverse correlations with %DO that was lower during summer base flows. Particulate phosphorus (PP) concentrations peaked during spring high flow period in both streams and in-line pond/SCMs, but they were also higher during summer base flows in suburban/urban SCMs. Meanwhile, PP areal retention rates and retention efficiencies of the SCMs changed from positive (indicating retention) during high flows to negative (indicating release) during low flows, while such changes across flow were not observed in free-flowing stream reaches. We attribute the changing roles of SCMs from a PP sink to a PP source to changes in SCM hydrologic mass balances, physical sedimentation and biogeochemical mobilization across flows. This study demonstrates that in suburban/urban SCMs, P retained during high flow events can be released during low flows. Cultivation of macrophytes and/or frequent sediment dredging may provide potential solutions to retaining both P and nitrogen in urban SCMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Reservoir Inflows Using Multi Climate-Models under RCPs—The Case of Mangla Dam in Pakistan
Water 2016, 8(9), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090389
Received: 28 March 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2655 | PDF Full-text (9572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Assessment of climate change on reservoir inflow is important for water and power stressed countries. Projected climate is subject to uncertainties related to climate change scenarios and Global Circulation Models (GCMs). This paper discusses the consequences of climate change on discharge. Historical climatic [...] Read more.
Assessment of climate change on reservoir inflow is important for water and power stressed countries. Projected climate is subject to uncertainties related to climate change scenarios and Global Circulation Models (GCMs). This paper discusses the consequences of climate change on discharge. Historical climatic and gauging data were collected from different stations within a watershed. Bias correction was performed on GCMs temperature and precipitation data. After successful development of the hydrological modeling system (SWAT) for the basin, streamflow was simulated for three future periods (2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100) and compared with the baseline data (1981–2010) to explore the changes in different flow indicators such as mean flow, low flow, median flow, high flow, flow duration curves, temporal shift in peaks, and temporal shifts in center-of-volume dates. From the results obtained, an overall increase in mean annual flow was projected in the basin under both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Winter and spring showed a noticeable increase in streamflow, while summer and autumn showed a decrease in streamflow. High flows were predicted to increase, but median flow was projected to decrease in the future under both scenarios. Flow duration curves showed that the probability of occurrence of high flow is likely to be more in the future. It was also noted that peaks were predicted to shift from May to July in the future, and the center-of-volume date of the annual flow may vary from −11 to 23 days in the basin, under both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. As a whole, the Mangla basin will face more floods and less droughts in the future due to the projected increase in high and low flows, decrease in median flows and greater temporal and magnitudinal variations in peak flows. These outcomes suggest that it is important to consider the influence of climate change on water resources to frame appropriate guidelines for planning and management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Undermining European Environmental Policy Goals? The EU Water Framework Directive and the Politics of Exemptions
Water 2016, 8(9), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090388
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 August 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2234 | PDF Full-text (228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the core legislative instrument in the European Union for the protection of water resources. Adopted in 2000, its objectives were to achieve “good status” for water bodies by 2015 and prevent any further deterioration. However, the European [...] Read more.
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the core legislative instrument in the European Union for the protection of water resources. Adopted in 2000, its objectives were to achieve “good status” for water bodies by 2015 and prevent any further deterioration. However, the European Commission and some stakeholders are rather dissatisfied with the implementation of the Directive so far, in particular with the use of exemptions to the environmental objectives. Exemptions are of paramount importance: they may constitute a significant obstacle to the achievement of the WFD’s objectives as they enable member states to lower the ambition of the Directive and to delay the achievement of good status, thereby undermining the environmental goal of the WFD. Critical voices observe an excessive reliance on exemptions, poor justifications, and great variations in their use. Based on an analysis of 120 policy documents and 15 semi-structured interviews, this article provides explanations for the politics of exemptions in EU water management. It shows that different viewpoints and interpretations on the WFD’s objectives and exemptions were already present in the negotiation phase of the Directive, but remained undefined on purpose. Moreover, dysfunctional decision-making procedures in the Common Implementation Strategy and the lack of political support in WFD implementation were significant obstacles to an agreement on this important issue. Finally, decisions on WFD implementation in member states were often driven by pragmatism. The article explains how the negotiations of the WFD and the EU-level discussion on the implementation of the Directive undermined environmental goals in EU governance; its findings are also relevant for policy fields other than water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
Open AccessArticle
Taxonomy of Means and Ends in Aquaculture Production—Part 2: The Technical Solutions of Controlling Solids, Dissolved Gasses and pH
Water 2016, 8(9), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090387
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 25 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 7 September 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1947 | PDF Full-text (2246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In engineering design, knowing the relationship between the means (technique) and the end (desired function or outcome) is essential. The means in Aquaculture are technical solutions like airlifts that are used to achive desired functionality (an end) like controlling dissolved gasses. In previous [...] Read more.
In engineering design, knowing the relationship between the means (technique) and the end (desired function or outcome) is essential. The means in Aquaculture are technical solutions like airlifts that are used to achive desired functionality (an end) like controlling dissolved gasses. In previous work, the authors identified possible functions by viewing aquaculture production systems as transformation processes in which inputs are transformed by treatment techniques (means) and produce outputs (ends). The current work creates an overview of technical solutions of treatment functions for both design and research purposes. A comprehensive literature review of all areas of technical solutions is identified and categorized into a visual taxonomy of the treatment functions for controlling solids, controlling dissolved gasses and controlling pH alkalinity and hardness. This article is the second in a sequence of four and partly presents the treatments functions in the taxonomy. The other articles in this series present complementary aspects of this research: Part 1, A transformational view on aquaculture and functions divided into input, treatment and output functions; Part 2, The current taxonomy paper; Part 3, The second part of the taxonomy; and Part 4, Mapping of the means (techniques) for multiple treatment functions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Economic Sustainability of Payments for Water Yield in Slash Pine Plantations in Florida
Water 2016, 8(9), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090382
Received: 10 June 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 7 September 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1824 | PDF Full-text (900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Forests play an important role with respect to water resources, and can be managed to increase surface- and groundwater recharge. With the creation of a forest water yield payment system, privately-owned forests, which comprise the majority of forest area in the Southeastern US, [...] Read more.
Forests play an important role with respect to water resources, and can be managed to increase surface- and groundwater recharge. With the creation of a forest water yield payment system, privately-owned forests, which comprise the majority of forest area in the Southeastern US, could become an important potential source of additional water supply. The economic tradeoffs between timber revenues and water yield are not well understood. To address this, we use the example case of slash pine production in Florida, and employ a forest stand-level optimal rotation model that incorporates forest management, and assessed a range of feasible water yield prices on forest profitability. Our analysis was limited to a range of water yield prices ($0.03, $0.07, and $0.30 kL−1) that would make water yield from slash pine economically competitive with water supply alternatives (e.g., reservoir construction). Even at relatively low water prices, we found that managing slash pine forests for both timber and water yield was preferred to managing just for timber when assuming an initial tree density less than 2200 trees·ha−1. However, with higher levels of initial tree planting density and low water prices, managing slash pine for timber production alone was more profitable unless stands are heavily-thinned, suggesting that even mid-rotation stands could be included in a forest water yield payments program. Compared to low-tree planting density and lightly thinned slash pine forests, an intensive approach of planting a lot of trees and then heavily thinning them generated 8% to 33% higher profits, and 11% more ($192 ha−1) on average. We conclude that payments for water yield are economically feasible for slash pine stands in Florida, and would benefit forest landowners, particularly with higher prices for water yield. Full article
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