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Survey of Aquaponics in Europe

School of Agricultural Engineering, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040, Spain
Institute for Natural Resource Sciences, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Waedenswil 8820, Switzerland
Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Research, Herman Otto 15, Budapest 1022, Hungary
Faculty of Agricultural Science, Esterhazy Karoly University, Matrai ut 36, Gyongyos 3200, Hungary
Faculty of Life Science and IRI THESys, Humboldt University of Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, Berlin 10099, Germany
AQUAPRIMEUR SARL, rue de la Mer, Blainville-sur-Orne 14550, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: M. Haïssam Jijakli
Water 2016, 8(10), 468;
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
International aquaponic production has increased over the past decade, but less is known about research activities and production facilities operating in Europe. We conducted an online survey to get a better idea about research and production in Europe, focusing on five areas of aquaponics (i.e., demographics, facilities used, fish and crops produced, funding sources, and personal or company priorities for further development). The 68 respondents were distributed among 21 European countries, 43% were working at a university, and 19% were commercial producers. Only 11.8% of those surveyed had sold fish or plants in the past 12 months. Most respondents were male (66.2%) and had a post-graduate degree (91.7%). Facilities were generally new (74.5% constructed after 2010) and self-designed. Production figures were modest, with less than 10 respondents producing more than 1000 kg of fish or plants per year (mostly tilapia or catfish and herbs or lettuce). Systems were often funded by government grants (35.3%). The great majority of respondents (80.4%) stated that aquaponics was not their main source of income. Most respondents prioritized using aquaponics for educational purposes, while few (25%) used it to produce their own food or improve their health. Questions related to personal knowledge about aquaponics underlined the need for more training about fish diseases and plant pests. View Full-Text
Keywords: questionnaire; hydroponics; aquaculture; Europe; fish; aquaponics questionnaire; hydroponics; aquaculture; Europe; fish; aquaponics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Villarroel, M.; Junge, R.; Komives, T.; König, B.; Plaza, I.; Bittsánszky, A.; Joly, A. Survey of Aquaponics in Europe. Water 2016, 8, 468.

AMA Style

Villarroel M, Junge R, Komives T, König B, Plaza I, Bittsánszky A, Joly A. Survey of Aquaponics in Europe. Water. 2016; 8(10):468.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Villarroel, Morris, Ranka Junge, Tamas Komives, Bettina König, Ignacio Plaza, András Bittsánszky, and Agnès Joly. 2016. "Survey of Aquaponics in Europe" Water 8, no. 10: 468.

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