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Water, Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2014) , Pages 3575-3959

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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Niazi, A., Prasher, S.O., Adamowski, J., Gleeson, T. A System Dynamics Model to Conserve Arid Region Water Resources through Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Conjunction with a Dam. Water 2014, 6, 2300–2321
Water 2014, 6(12), 3957-3959; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123957
Received: 22 November 2014 / Revised: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2093 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have recently been made aware by Prof. Sharon Megdal (The University of Arizona) and Dr. Peter Dillon (CSIRO) of some errors and omissions in our recent paper [1]. The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper:[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems
Water 2014, 6(12), 3934-3956; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123934
Received: 21 October 2014 / Revised: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4091 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable water management (SWM) requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review [...] Read more.
Sustainable water management (SWM) requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1) How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2) What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3) What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4) What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1) all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2) increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dimensionless Analysis for Designing Domestic Rainwater Harvesting Systems at the Regional Level in Northern Taiwan
Water 2014, 6(12), 3913-3933; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123913
Received: 29 September 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2455 | PDF Full-text (2722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A regional-level and dimensionless analysis for designing a domestic rainwater harvesting system (DRWHS) was developed. To consider various combinations of water demand, storage capacity, effective roof area, and rainfall in DRWHS design, two dimensionless ratios were used, namely, demand fraction and storage fraction, [...] Read more.
A regional-level and dimensionless analysis for designing a domestic rainwater harvesting system (DRWHS) was developed. To consider various combinations of water demand, storage capacity, effective roof area, and rainfall in DRWHS design, two dimensionless ratios were used, namely, demand fraction and storage fraction, along with a relationship between the two ratios. Firstly, Northern Taiwan was divided into four sub-regions through cluster analysis based on the average annual 10-day rainfall distribution at rainfall stations and administrative districts. Easy-to-use dimensionless curves between demand fraction and storage fraction were obtained for five rainwater supply reliabilities of the DRWHS for the four sub-regions. Based on the dimensionless curves, a nomogram was constructed for designing DRWHSs at a rainwater supply reliability of 95% in the sub-region I. Storage capacities determined from the dimensionless curves showed a close fit with those determined from simulated values, but were larger than the values estimated from the method presented in the Green Building Evaluation Manual in most situations. The methodology developed herein can be used effectively for the preliminary design of a DRWHS and for overcoming the difficulties faced in designing a DRWHS without rainfall data and with incomplete rainfall data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Displacement Height and Surface Roughness Length to Determination Boundary Layer Development Length over Stepped Spillway
Water 2014, 6(12), 3888-3912; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123888
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3017 | PDF Full-text (1082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the most uncertain parameters in stepped spillway design is the length (from the crest) of boundary layer development. The normal velocity profiles responding to the steps as bed roughness are investigated in the developing non-aerated flow region. A detailed analysis of [...] Read more.
One of the most uncertain parameters in stepped spillway design is the length (from the crest) of boundary layer development. The normal velocity profiles responding to the steps as bed roughness are investigated in the developing non-aerated flow region. A detailed analysis of the logarithmic vertical velocity profiles on stepped spillways is conducted through experimental data to verify the computational code and numerical experiments to expand the data available. To determine development length, the hydraulic roughness and displacement thickness, along with the shear velocity, are needed. This includes determining displacement height d and surface roughness length z0 and the relationship of d and z0 to the step geometry. The results show that the hydraulic roughness height ks is the primary factor on which d and z0 depend. In different step height, step width, discharge and intake Froude number, the relations d/ks = 0.22–0.27, z0/ks = 0.06–0.1 and d/z0 = 2.2–4 result in a good estimate. Using the computational code and numerical experiments, air inception will occur over stepped spillway flow as long as the Bauer-defined boundary layer thickness is between 0.72 and 0.79. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rehabilitation Priority Determination of Water Pipes Based on Hydraulic Importance
Water 2014, 6(12), 3864-3887; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123864
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2288 | PDF Full-text (616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a study conducted to develop a method to facilitate more reliable determination of the rehabilitation priority order for water pipes by taking into account the pipes’ hydraulic importance. Existing methods use only the pipeline deterioration rate to determine the rehabilitation [...] Read more.
This paper describes a study conducted to develop a method to facilitate more reliable determination of the rehabilitation priority order for water pipes by taking into account the pipes’ hydraulic importance. Existing methods use only the pipeline deterioration rate to determine the rehabilitation priority order. Accordingly, the deterioration rate under normal conditions and the hydraulic importance under abnormal conditions of water distribution pipelines were classified according to two different attributes. The deterioration rate of a water distribution pipeline was calculated in terms of the deterioration rate due to pipeline information factors and the deterioration rate resulting from the installation environment/external factors. The hydraulic importance of water distribution pipelines was calculated by considering the importance of a single pipe failure caused by water leakage or an accident and that of a multiple pipe failure caused by a disaster, such as an earthquake. These four attribute factors were employed in a multi-criteria decision-making process called a weighted utopian approach, developed in this study, that determines the final rehabilitation priority order for each pipeline. The study results indicate that the rehabilitation priority order can be determined more easily using this approach than with previously-developed methods and that the model developed is easier and more convenient to apply than existing rehabilitation priority order models that require a large amount of data, as well as complex failure probabilities and mathematical models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flood Frequency Analysis for the Annual Peak Flows Simulated by an Event-Based Rainfall-Runoff Model in an Urban Drainage Basin
Water 2014, 6(12), 3841-3863; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123841
Received: 8 October 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 19 November 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2489 | PDF Full-text (1467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The proper assessment of design flood is a major concern for many hydrological applications in small urban watersheds. A number of approaches can be used including statistical approach and the continuous simulation and design storm methods. However, each method has its own limitations [...] Read more.
The proper assessment of design flood is a major concern for many hydrological applications in small urban watersheds. A number of approaches can be used including statistical approach and the continuous simulation and design storm methods. However, each method has its own limitations and assumptions being applied to the real world. The design storm method has been widely used for a long time because of the simplicity of the method, but three critical assumptions are made such as the equality of the return periods between the rainfall and corresponding flood quantiles and the selections of the rainfall hyetograph and antecedent soil moisture conditions. Continuous simulation cannot be applied to small urban catchments with quick responses of runoff to rainfall. In this paper, a new flood frequency analysis for the simulated annual peak flows (FASAP) is proposed. This method employs the candidate rainfall events selected by considering a time step order of five minutes and a sliding duration without any assumptions about the conventional design storm method in an urban watershed. In addition, the proposed methodology was verified by comparing the results with the conventional method in a real urban watershed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring of Non-Point Source Pollutions from an Agriculture Watershed in South China
Water 2014, 6(12), 3828-3840; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123828
Received: 25 September 2014 / Revised: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2411 | PDF Full-text (990 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the characteristics of non-point sources (NPS) pollutions can provide theoretical support for improving water quality. Siheshui watershed located in south China was selected to explore the characteristics of NPS pollutions in rainfall-runoff process. In this small agricultural watershed, five flood events and [...] Read more.
Understanding the characteristics of non-point sources (NPS) pollutions can provide theoretical support for improving water quality. Siheshui watershed located in south China was selected to explore the characteristics of NPS pollutions in rainfall-runoff process. In this small agricultural watershed, five flood events and one non-flood event were monitored, and the water quantity and quality constituents were measured. The event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutant constituents in runoff flows were estimated. It is shown that the EMCs of BOD5, CODMn, TSS, TP, TN, and NH3-N in the flood events are remarkably larger than those in the non-flood event. The antecedent precipitation has a large effect on the output of the pollutant concentration. The pollutant load fluxes of most pollutant constituents change synchronously with the runoff flows, and the synchronization relationship is better than that between the pollutant concentrations and the runoff flows. The Pearson correlation analysis indicates that the EMCs of CODMn, TP, and TSS are significantly correlated with rainfall runoff characteristics in the flood events, while BOD5, TN, and NH3-N show weak correlations. In addition, the mean concentration method was used to estimate the annual NPS pollution load. It is shown that the proportions of the NPS pollution load to the total pollutant load are more than 80% from 2008 to 2010. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact Assessment and Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Alternative Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies Based on Treated Wastewater in Northern Gaza
Water 2014, 6(12), 3807-3827; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123807
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 19 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2743 | PDF Full-text (1168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For better planning of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) project, the most promising strategies should analyze the environmental impact, socio-economic efficiency, and their contribution to the existing or future water resource conditions in the region. The challenge of such studies is to combine [...] Read more.
For better planning of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) project, the most promising strategies should analyze the environmental impact, socio-economic efficiency, and their contribution to the existing or future water resource conditions in the region. The challenge of such studies is to combine and quantify a wide range of criteria from the environment and society. This necessity leads to an integrated concept and analysis. This paper outlines an integrated approach considering environmental, health, social and economic aspects to support in the decision-making process to implement a managed aquifer recharge project as a potential response to water resource problems. In order to demonstrate the approach in detail, this paper analysed several water resources management strategies based on MAR implementation, by using treated wastewater in the Northern Gaza Strip and the potential impacts of the strategies on groundwater resources, agriculture, environment, health, economy and society. Based on the Palestinian water policy (Year 2005–2025) on wastewater reuse, three MAR strategies were developed in close cooperation with the local decision makers. The strategies were compared with a base line strategy referred to as the so-called “Do Nothing Approach”. The results of the study show that MAR project implementation with treated wastewater at a maximum rate, considered together with sustainable development of groundwater, is the best and most robust strategy amongst those analyzed. The analysis shows the defined MAR strategies contribute to water resources development and environmental protection or improvement including an existing eutrophic lake. The integrated approach used in this paper may be applicable not only to MAR project implementation but also to other water resources and environmental development projects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Soil and Water Conservation Measures on Groundwater Levels and Recharge
Water 2014, 6(12), 3783-3806; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123783
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 23 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2916 | PDF Full-text (3394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Measures of soil and water conservation (SWC) could affect the hydrological process. The impacts of typical measures on groundwater recharge, levels and flow were analyzed based on simulated rainfall experiments and a groundwater model. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) was calibrated [...] Read more.
Measures of soil and water conservation (SWC) could affect the hydrological process. The impacts of typical measures on groundwater recharge, levels and flow were analyzed based on simulated rainfall experiments and a groundwater model. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) was calibrated and verified for bare slope, grassland and straw mulching scenarios based on the experiments. The results of the verification in groundwater balance, levels, runoff and flow field all showed that MODFLOW could be applied to study the impact of SWC measures on groundwater. Meanwhile, the results showed the recharge rate (α) and specific yield of the three soil layers (Sy1, Sy2 and Sy3) were the most sensitive parameters to the change in the underlying surface. Then, the impacts of the SWC measures’ construction and destruction on the groundwater regime were studied. The results indicated the measures could strengthen groundwater recharge. The amounts of groundwater recharge, runoff and level were on the order of straw mulching > grassland > bare slope. When the underlying surface was converted from grass and mulching to bare slope, the recharge decreased by 42.2% and 39.1%. It was concluded that SWC measure construction would increase groundwater recharge and the measure destruction would decrease recharge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Land Use Change Dynamics and Its Impacts on Hydrological Processes in the Jialing River Basin
Water 2014, 6(12), 3758-3782; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123758
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 November 2014 / Published: 4 December 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2455 | PDF Full-text (2692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land use changes are important aspects of global change and affect regional water cycles, environmental quality, biodiversity and terrestrial ecosystems. To understand the temporal and spatial land use change in the Jialing River Basin and its impacts on the hydrological cycle, land use [...] Read more.
Land use changes are important aspects of global change and affect regional water cycles, environmental quality, biodiversity and terrestrial ecosystems. To understand the temporal and spatial land use change in the Jialing River Basin and its impacts on the hydrological cycle, land use change models and the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model were applied separately to the Jialing River Basin. Real change and final change were analyzed to determine the consequences of land use changes and their hydrological consequences. Real change is defined as the total variation during a fixed period, including increases and decreases. Thus, real change is the sum of the absolute values of the decrease and the increase. Final change is defined as the difference between the beginning and end of a given period for a specific factor. Overall, the amounts of settlement and shrub land area changed significantly in the entire Jialing River (with final change rates of 20.77% and −16.07%, respectively, and real change rates of 34.2% and 30.1%, respectively, from 1985 to 1995, as well as final and real change rates of 29.37%, 12.40%, 39.9% and 32.8%, respectively, from 1995 to 2000). Compared with the final change, the real change highlighted the rate of change and the change in woodland area. The land use changes in the Lueyang (LY), Shehong (SH) and Fengtan (FT) subcatchments were more dynamic than in the other subcatchments. The economy, population and macro-policy were the main factors responsible for driving the land use changes. The decrease in woodland area in the LY subcatchment corresponded with an increase in evapotranspiration (ET) and with decreases in the other hydrological elements. Overall, the final changes in the hydrological elements in the LY, SH and FT subcatchments were not significant due to the average and compensation effects. The LY subcatchment was mainly affected by the average effect, whereas the SH and FT subcatchments were affected by the average and compensation effects. The use of real change can increase the detectability of hydrological elements changes caused by land use change in SH and FT. The results of this study provide new insights regarding the examination of the effects of land use changes on hydrological regimes. These results are useful for land use planners and water resource managers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Policy Preferences about Managed Aquifer Recharge for Securing Sustainable Water Supply to Chennai City, India
Water 2014, 6(12), 3739-3757; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123739
Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 20 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 3 December 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2843 | PDF Full-text (1284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to bring out the policy changes with respect to managed aquifer recharge (focusing on infiltration ponds), which in the view of relevant stakeholders may ease the problem of groundwater depletion in the context of Chennai City; Tamil [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to bring out the policy changes with respect to managed aquifer recharge (focusing on infiltration ponds), which in the view of relevant stakeholders may ease the problem of groundwater depletion in the context of Chennai City; Tamil Nadu; India. Groundwater is needed for the drinking water security of Chennai and overexploitation has resulted in depletion and seawater intrusion. Current policies at the municipal; state and national level all support recharge of groundwater and rainwater harvesting to counter groundwater depletion. However, despite such favorable policies, the legal framework and the administrative praxis do not support systematic approaches towards managed aquifer recharge in the periphery of Chennai. The present study confirms this, considering the mandates of governmental key-actors and a survey of the preferences and motives of stakeholder representatives. There are about 25 stakeholder groups with interests in groundwater issues, but they lack a common vision. For example, conflicting interest of stakeholders may hinder implementation of certain types of managed aquifer recharge methods. To overcome this problem, most stakeholders support the idea to establish an authority in the state for licensing groundwater extraction and overseeing managed aquifer recharge. Full article
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Open AccessComment
Karst Aquifer Recharge: Comments on Somaratne, N. Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers. Water 2014, 6, 2782–2807
Water 2014, 6(12), 3727-3738; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123727
Received: 17 October 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2166 | PDF Full-text (557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The article “Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers, Water 6: 2782–2807” by N. Somaratne evaluates various recharge estimation techniques applied to four limestone aquifers in South Australia. Somaratne [1] concludes that methods based on watertable fluctuations, groundwater modelling and water budgets are [...] Read more.
The article “Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers, Water 6: 2782–2807” by N. Somaratne evaluates various recharge estimation techniques applied to four limestone aquifers in South Australia. Somaratne [1] concludes that methods based on watertable fluctuations, groundwater modelling and water budgets are independent of recharge processes, and are therefore superior to the chloride mass balance (CMB) approach for karst aquifers. The current comment offers alternative interpretations from existing field measurements and previous literature, in particular for the Uley South aquifer, which is the focus of much of the article by Somaratne [1]. Conclusions regarding this system are revised, partly to account for the misrepresentation of previous studies. The aeolianite sediments of Uley South are mostly unconsolidated or poorly consolidated, and dissolution features in the calcrete capping provide point infiltration into a predominantly unconsolidated vadose zone, whereas Somaratne’s [1] findings require that the system comprises well-developed conduits in otherwise low-conductivity limestone. Somaratne’s [1] assertion that the basic premise of CMB is violated in Uley South is disputable, given strong evidence of relatively well-mixed groundwater arising from mostly diffuse recharge. The characterization of karst aquifer recharge should continue to rely on multiple techniques, including environmental tracers such as chloride. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Wetlands and Sustainability
Water 2014, 6(12), 3724-3726; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123724
Received: 17 November 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2242 | PDF Full-text (134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and [...] Read more.
This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization for water quality treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands and Sustainability)
Open AccessReview
Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US
Water 2014, 6(12), 3701-3723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123701
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3092 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses). Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack [...] Read more.
Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses). Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge) from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Future Climate Change and Baltic Sea Level Rise on Groundwater Recharge, Groundwater Levels, and Surface Leakage in the Hanko Aquifer in Southern Finland
Water 2014, 6(12), 3671-3700; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123671
Received: 28 September 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 20 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3327 | PDF Full-text (3601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The impact of climate change and Baltic Sea level rise on groundwater resources in a shallow, unconfined, low-lying coastal aquifer in Hanko, southern Finland, was assessed using the UZF1 model package coupled with the three-dimensional groundwater flow model MODFLOW to simulate flow from [...] Read more.
The impact of climate change and Baltic Sea level rise on groundwater resources in a shallow, unconfined, low-lying coastal aquifer in Hanko, southern Finland, was assessed using the UZF1 model package coupled with the three-dimensional groundwater flow model MODFLOW to simulate flow from the unsaturated zone through the aquifer. The snow and PET models were used to calculate the surface water availability for infiltration from the precipitation data used in UZF1. Infiltration rate, flow in the unsaturated zone and groundwater recharge were then simulated using UZF1. The simulation data from climate and sea level rise scenarios were compared with present data. The results indicated changes in recharge pattern during 2071–2100, with recharge occurring earlier in winter and early spring. The seasonal impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge were more significant, with surface overflow resulting in flooding during winter and early spring and drought during summer. Rising sea level would cause some parts of the aquifer to be under sea level, compromising groundwater quality due to intrusion of sea water. This, together with increased groundwater recharge, would raise groundwater levels and consequently contribute more surface leakage and potential flooding in the low-lying aquifer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Water Groundwater Interactions: From Theory to Practice)
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Open AccessArticle
Damaging Hydrogeological Events: A Procedure for the Assessment of Severity Levels and an Application to Calabria (Southern Italy)
Water 2014, 6(12), 3652-3670; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123652
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 27 November 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2442 | PDF Full-text (2972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A damaging hydrogeological event (DHE) is characterized by two components: a rainfall event and a subsequent damage event, which is the result of floods and landslides triggered by rainfall. The characteristics of both events depend on climatic, geomorphological and anthropogenic factors. In this [...] Read more.
A damaging hydrogeological event (DHE) is characterized by two components: a rainfall event and a subsequent damage event, which is the result of floods and landslides triggered by rainfall. The characteristics of both events depend on climatic, geomorphological and anthropogenic factors. In this paper, a methodology to classify the severity of DHEs is presented. A chart which considers indicators of both the damage (Dscore) and the daily rainfall (Rscore) values recorded in the study area is proposed. According to the chart, the events are classified into four types: ordinary events, with low Dscore and Rscore values; extraordinary events, with high Rscore values but low Dscore values; catastrophic events, characterized by non-exceptional rainfall (low Rscore) and severe damage (high Dscore); major catastrophic events, obtained by both high Dscore and Rscore values. Using this approach, the 2013 DHE that occurred in Calabria (Italy) was classified as an ordinary event, when compared to the previous ones, even though the widespread diffusion of damage data induced the perception of high severity damage. The rainfall that triggered this event confirms the negative trend of heavy daily precipitation detected in Calabria, and the damage can be ascribed more to sub-daily than daily rainfall affecting urbanized flood-prone areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrologic Simulations Driven by Satellite Rainfall to Study the Hydroelectric Development Impacts on River Flow
Water 2014, 6(12), 3631-3651; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123631
Received: 24 July 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 27 November 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2517 | PDF Full-text (6259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assesses the impact of hydroelectric dams on the discharge and total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in the Huong River basin in Vietnam. The analysis is based on hydrologic and sediment transport simulations by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model [...] Read more.
This study assesses the impact of hydroelectric dams on the discharge and total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in the Huong River basin in Vietnam. The analysis is based on hydrologic and sediment transport simulations by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model driven by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42V6 rainfall data, from January 2003 through December 2010. An upstream sub-basin not affected by the hydroelectric dams was used for model calibration. The calibration results indicate good agreement between simulated and observed daily data (0.67 Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, 0.82 Pearson correlation coefficient). The calibrated model for discharge and TSS simulation is then applied on another major sub-basin and then the whole Huong River basin. The simulation results indicate that dam operation in 2010 decreased downstream discharge during the rainy season by about 35% and augmented it during the dry season by about 226%. The downstream TSS concentration has decreased due to the dam operation but the total sediment loading increased during the dry season and decreased during the rainy season. On average, the dam construction and operation affected the pattern of discharge more than that of the sediment loading. Results indicate that SWAT, driven by remotely sensed inputs, can reasonably simulate discharge and water quality in ungauged or poorly gauged river basins and can be very useful for water resources assessment and climate change impact studies in such basins. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Removal of Pathogens by Membrane Bioreactors: A Review of the Mechanisms, Influencing Factors and Reduction in Chemical Disinfectant Dosing
Water 2014, 6(12), 3603-3630; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123603
Received: 16 October 2014 / Revised: 16 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3107 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The continued depletion of fresh drinking water resources throughout the world has increased the need for a variety of water treatment and recycling strategies. Conventional wastewater treatment processes rely on extensive chemical post-disinfection to comply with the stringent microbiological safety for water reuse. [...] Read more.
The continued depletion of fresh drinking water resources throughout the world has increased the need for a variety of water treatment and recycling strategies. Conventional wastewater treatment processes rely on extensive chemical post-disinfection to comply with the stringent microbiological safety for water reuse. When well designed and operated, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) can consistently achieve efficient removals of suspended solids, protozoa and coliform bacteria. Under optimal conditions, MBR systems can also significantly remove various viruses and phages. This paper provides an in-depth overview of the mechanisms and influencing factors of pathogen removal by MBR and highlights practical issues, such as reduced chemical disinfectant dosing requirements and associated economic and environmental benefits. Special attention has been paid to the aspects, such as membrane cleaning, membrane imperfections/breach and microbial regrowth, in the distribution system on the overall pathogen removal performance of MBR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle
Feasibility Study of a Simple and Low-Cost Device for Monitoring Trihalomethanes Presence in Water Supply Systems Based on Statistical Models
Water 2014, 6(12), 3590-3602; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123590
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2166 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a new method for predicting trihalomethanes (THMs) presence in networks of water supply systems, using a low-cost device that permits a fast monitoring of concentrations without need of complex analysis made in laboratories. This method, based on statistical models, allows [...] Read more.
This paper describes a new method for predicting trihalomethanes (THMs) presence in networks of water supply systems, using a low-cost device that permits a fast monitoring of concentrations without need of complex analysis made in laboratories. This method, based on statistical models, allows the estimation of THM concentration by monitoring parameters whose determination is direct and easy, and therefore, THM presence can be carried out in real-time. These parameters values are introduced in a multiple regression model resulting in the concentration of THMs levels. This model has taken into account parameters compulsory in water quality analysis and it has been shown that six parameters are enough to determine accurately THM concentration. In addition, the feasibility of a low-cost device that directly gives THM concentration is demonstrated. This device can be easily designed to be transported to different points of the water supply network where it is intended to make control campaigns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of the SUSTAIN Model to a Watershed-Scale Case for Water Quality Management
Water 2014, 6(12), 3575-3589; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6123575
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2730 | PDF Full-text (2274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low impact development (LID) is a relatively new concept in land use management that aims to maintain hydrological conditions at a predevelopment level without deteriorating water quality during land development. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed the System for Urban Stormwater [...] Read more.
Low impact development (LID) is a relatively new concept in land use management that aims to maintain hydrological conditions at a predevelopment level without deteriorating water quality during land development. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed the System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration model (SUSTAIN) to evaluate the performance of LID practices at different spatial scales; however, the application of this model has been limited relative to LID modeling. In this study, the SUSTAIN model was applied to a Taiwanese watershed. Model calibration and verification were performed, and different types of LID facilities were evaluated. The model simulation process and the verified model parameters could be used in other cases. Four LID scenarios combining bioretention ponds, grass swales, and pervious pavements were designed based on the land characteristics. For the SUSTAIN model simulation, the results showed that pollution reduction was mainly due to water quantity reduction, infiltration was the dominant mechanism and plant interception had a minor effect on the treatment. The simulation results were used to rank the primary areas for nonpoint source pollution and identify effective LID practices. In addition to the case study, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters was performed, showing that the soil infiltration rate was the most sensitive parameter affecting the LID performance. The objectives of the study are to confirm the applicability of the SUSTAIN model and to assess the effectiveness of LID practices in the studied watershed. Full article
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