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Water, Volume 16, Issue 10 (May-2 2024) – 144 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Rainwater harvesting (RWH) involves the diversion, capture, and storage of rainwater for later use. Incorporating a first-flush diverter in a RWH system can improve the water quality of harvested rainwater. This two-part paper evaluates the water quality of roof runoff from three roof types; quantifies first-flush diversion based on a mass removal of pollutants from both simulated and actual storms; evaluates first flush based on continuous conductivity measurements; and investigates the potential for long-term accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils receiving harvested roof runoff with no first-flush diversion. Results indicate that current first flush diverters may be undersized if using mass removal as a design target, and using harvested rainwater from rooftops may potentially lead to accumulation of PAHs in soil when a first-flush diverter is not utilized. View this paper
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21 pages, 6361 KiB  
Article
Modeling Environmental Vulnerability for 2050 Considering Different Scenarios in the Doce River Basin, Brazil
by Jasmine Alves Campos, Demetrius David da Silva, Gabrielle Ferreira Pires, Elpídio Inácio Fernandes Filho, Ricardo Santos Silva Amorim, Frederico Carlos Martins de Menezes Filho, Celso Bandeira de Melo Ribeiro, Juliana Ferreira Lorentz and Uilson Ricardo Venâncio Aires
Water 2024, 16(10), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101459 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Understanding climate change and land use impacts is crucial for mitigating environmental degradation. This study assesses the environmental vulnerability of the Doce River Basin for 2050, considering future climate change and land use and land cover (LULC) scenarios. Factors including slope, elevation, relief [...] Read more.
Understanding climate change and land use impacts is crucial for mitigating environmental degradation. This study assesses the environmental vulnerability of the Doce River Basin for 2050, considering future climate change and land use and land cover (LULC) scenarios. Factors including slope, elevation, relief dissection, precipitation, temperature, pedology, geology, urban distance, road distance, and LULC were evaluated using multicriteria analysis. Regional climate models Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5 under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios were employed. The Land Change Modeler tool simulated 2050 LULC changes and hypothetical reforestation of legal reserve (RL) areas. Combining two climate and two LULC scenarios resulted in four future vulnerability scenarios. Projections indicate an over 300 mm reduction in average annual precipitation and an up to 2 °C temperature increase from 2020 to 2050. Scenario 4 (RCP 8.5 and LULC for 2050 with reforested RLs) showed the greatest basin area in the lowest vulnerability classes, while scenario 3 (RCP 4.5 and LULC for 2050) exhibited more high-vulnerability areas. Despite the projected relative improvement in environmental vulnerability by 2050 due to reduced rainfall, the complexity of associated relationships must be considered. These results contribute to mitigating environmental damage and adapting to future climatic conditions in the Doce River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Climate Change)
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15 pages, 2534 KiB  
Article
Mitigation of Karenia brevis Cells and Brevetoxins Using Curcumin, a Natural Supplement
by Emily R. Hall, Cynthia A. Heil, Jessica D. Frankle, Sarah Klass, Victoria Devillier, Vincent Lovko, Jennifer H. Toyoda and Richard Pierce
Water 2024, 16(10), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101458 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Curcumin, a natural plant product, was investigated as a mitigation tool against Karenia brevis, the toxic dinoflagellate responsible for Florida red tides. A series of laboratory bench-top studies were conducted with additions of 0.1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 [...] Read more.
Curcumin, a natural plant product, was investigated as a mitigation tool against Karenia brevis, the toxic dinoflagellate responsible for Florida red tides. A series of laboratory bench-top studies were conducted with additions of 0.1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/L curcumin to K. brevis at an average of 1.0 × 106 cells/L to determine the efficacy of curcumin against K. brevis cells and brevetoxins and to optimize treatment dosage. Treatment with 5 mg/L of curcumin reduced K. brevis cell abundance by 89% and total brevetoxins by 60% within 24 h. Lower concentrations of curcumin (0.1–3 mg/L) exhibited between a 2 and 45% reduction in K. brevis and a reduction in brevetoxins of between 2 and 44% within 24 h. At the highest curcumin doses, 30 and 40 mg/L, a 100% reduction in cell abundance was observed by 6 h, with reduction in total brevetoxins by at least 64% in 48 h. These results suggest that curcumin, used alone or potentially in combination with other technologies, is a promising K. brevis bloom mitigation option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Harmful Algae in Aquatic Ecosystems)
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18 pages, 8324 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Elbow Draft Tubes for Variable Speed Propeller Turbine
by Jiří Souček and Petr Nowak
Water 2024, 16(10), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101457 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 561
Abstract
The design of the elbow draft tubes is challenging due to the complexity of the flow. The whole turbine unit’s power output strongly depends on the draft tube function, especially for the low-head turbines. The article presents a novel approach to optimizing elbow [...] Read more.
The design of the elbow draft tubes is challenging due to the complexity of the flow. The whole turbine unit’s power output strongly depends on the draft tube function, especially for the low-head turbines. The article presents a novel approach to optimizing elbow draft tubes for a variable-speed propeller turbine designed for low-head applications. First, the study addresses the specifics of the propeller variable speed turbine by comparing the classical Kaplan turbine. Then, the grid scaling test is conducted to evaluate the uncertainty of the pressure regeneration. Further, a new approach to parameterising the elbow draft tube geometry is introduced. The study employs ANSYS CFX 2021 R1 software for numerical simulation to optimise the elbow draft tube geometry in the CAESES environment. After the sensitivity test and deselecting the non-sensitive parameters, we perform multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) optimization. The optimization process results in a Pareto front of optimised elbow draft tube shapes with the best pressure regeneration for different draft tube construction heights, enabling the selection of suitable candidates for various locations. Minimal difference in the performance of the selected elbow draft tube shapes with the simple straight draft tube confirms a high-quality draft tube optimization achievement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water-Energy Nexus)
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16 pages, 3328 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Bioethanol (C2H5OH) Yield of Sweet Sorghum Varieties in a Semi-Arid Environment: The Impact of Deheading and Deficit Irrigation
by Mohammed A. Alsanad and Eman I. R. Emara
Water 2024, 16(10), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101456 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Bioethanol production offers promise in mitigating environmental impacts from ethanol consumption despite water scarcity. This study endeavors to evaluate the nuanced influence of different deheading times (45 days before harvest, 21 days before harvest, and no deheading) along with varying water regimes on [...] Read more.
Bioethanol production offers promise in mitigating environmental impacts from ethanol consumption despite water scarcity. This study endeavors to evaluate the nuanced influence of different deheading times (45 days before harvest, 21 days before harvest, and no deheading) along with varying water regimes on select sweet sorghum cultivars (Honey, Willy, MN1500, and Atlas), focusing on yield traits, theoretical ethanol production, and water productivity. Findings underscore the substantial impact of cultivation practices on bioethanol yield. A water deficit ranging from 30% to 70% resulted in a discernible reduction in stalk yields of 17.86% to 18.54% and in sugar yields of 0.2 to 0.31 Mg ha−1, accompanied by a corresponding decline in theoretical ethanol yield of 120.9 to 180.9 L ha−1. Additionally, notable enhancements in Brix and sugar content of 16.32% to 18.42% and 16.81% to 19.03%, respectively, were observed across both seasons. Of particular significance, the Honey variety, subjected to a 30% water deficit and deheading at 21 days before harvest, demonstrated exceptional growth and yield characteristics. These empirical insights furnish valuable guidance for optimizing sweet sorghum cultivation practices, thereby augmenting sustainable bioethanol production and propelling forward the frontier of renewable energy technologies towards a more environmentally sustainable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improved Irrigation Management Practices in Crop Production)
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12 pages, 505 KiB  
Article
Case Study for Predicting Failures in Water Supply Networks Using Neural Networks
by Viviano de Sousa Medeiros, Moisés Dantas dos Santos and Alisson Vasconcelos Brito
Water 2024, 16(10), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101455 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 624
Abstract
This study deals with the prediction of recurring failures in water supply networks, a complex and costly task, but essential for the effective maintenance of these vital infrastructures. Using historical failure data provided by Companhia de Água e Esgotos da Paraíba (CAGEPA), the [...] Read more.
This study deals with the prediction of recurring failures in water supply networks, a complex and costly task, but essential for the effective maintenance of these vital infrastructures. Using historical failure data provided by Companhia de Água e Esgotos da Paraíba (CAGEPA), the research focuses on predicting the time until the next failure at specific points in the network. The authors divided the failures into two categories: Occurrences of New Faults (ONFs) and Recurrences of Faults (RFs). To perform the predictions, they used predictive models based on machine learning, more specifically on MLP (Multi-Layer Perceptron) neural networks. The investigation unveiled that through the analysis of historical failure data and the consideration of variables including altitude, number of failures on the same street, and days between failures, it is possible to achieve an accuracy greater than 80% in predicting failures within a 90-day interval. This demonstrates the feasibility of using fault history to predict future water supply outages with significant accuracy. These forecasts allow water utilities to plan and optimize their maintenance, minimizing inconvenience and losses. The article contributes significantly to the field of water infrastructure management by proposing the applicability of a data-driven approach in diverse urban settings and across various types of infrastructure networks, including those pertaining to energy or communication. These conclusions underscore the paramount importance of systematic data collection and analysis in both averting failures and optimizing the allocation of resources within water utilities. Full article
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15 pages, 3623 KiB  
Article
Systemic Risk Analysis of Safety, Progress, and Investment in the Construction of a Water Transfer Project and the Importance of Common Cause Failure
by Shan He, Hui Wang, Jiaming Zhang, Jiayi Fan, Yunlong Zheng, Jijun Xu, Weishuai Cheng, Mingzhi Yang and Chenzhu Shen
Water 2024, 16(10), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101454 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Safety, progress, and investment risks are correlated during the construction period of large-scale water transfer projects. However, previous studies have only considered individual risk factors, overlooking the potential systemic risk posed to safety, progress, and investment, as well as any underlying common cause [...] Read more.
Safety, progress, and investment risks are correlated during the construction period of large-scale water transfer projects. However, previous studies have only considered individual risk factors, overlooking the potential systemic risk posed to safety, progress, and investment, as well as any underlying common cause failures. Since traditional risk analysis methods are ill-suited to addressing common cause failure, this paper’s objective was to establish a comprehensive evaluation index framework and to identify the basic events of common cause failure. To do that, we developed a risk analysis method that models common cause failure based on a Bayesian network for assessing that systemic risk. The Henan Section of the Yangtze-to-Huaihe River Water Diversion Project in China was then used as a case study. The results show that a variety of common cause failure events, such as epidemic disease, design alteration, lagged approval process, heavy rain in the flood season, renewal material and failing equipment, construction accidents, and external interference, can significantly impact the safety, progress, and investment systemic risk. Design alteration poses the greatest risk, with renewal material and failing equipment exerting the strongest influence among all common cause failure events. It is also possible to elucidate the predominant causal chains; specifically, the contributing influence of each basic failure event to the systemic risk can be clarified by adjusting their respective initial state. The failure of renewal material and failing equipment was found to significantly increase the safety risk. This study effectively simulated the complex causal relationships and uncertainties of pertinent risk factors, thereby enhancing our understanding of the systemic risk associated with safety, progress, and investment in large-scale water transfer projects. Full article
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13 pages, 3865 KiB  
Article
Bibliometric Analysis of Nitrogen Removal in Constructed Wetlands: Current Trends and Future Research Directions
by Jiahao Dong and Shaoping Kuang
Water 2024, 16(10), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101453 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Nitrogen pollution in water environments has reached critical levels globally, primarily stemming from agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, and untreated sewage. The excessive presence of nitrogen compounds poses a significant threat to water quality, leading to adverse impacts on ecosystems and human health. Reaching [...] Read more.
Nitrogen pollution in water environments has reached critical levels globally, primarily stemming from agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, and untreated sewage. The excessive presence of nitrogen compounds poses a significant threat to water quality, leading to adverse impacts on ecosystems and human health. Reaching a breakthrough in the technology of constructed wetlands (CWs) for mitigating nitrogen pollution is hindered by existing knowledge gaps regarding the mechanisms involved in the removal process. Reaching this understanding, we offer a comprehensive summary of current advancements and theories in this research field. Initially, bibliometric techniques were employed to identify yearly patterns in publications and areas of research focus. Subsequently, the chosen documents underwent statistical analysis using VOSviewer_1.6.20 to determine countries’ annual productivity, significant publication years, influential authors, keyword clustering analysis, and more. Finally, a comprehensive overview is provided on the elimination of nitrogen through CWs, encompassing insights into microbial communities and structure types. This analysis aims to uncover potential strategies for optimizing the rate of nitrogen removal. Furthermore, this study elucidates the current research trend concerning the nitrogen removal performance of CWs and identifies challenges and future research directions in this field. Full article
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11 pages, 2408 KiB  
Essay
New Insights into Turbulent and Laminar Flow Relationships Using Darcy–Weisbach and Poiseuille Laws
by Francesco Fiorillo, Libera Esposito, Michele Ginolfi and Guido Leone
Water 2024, 16(10), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101452 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Analytical solutions for turbulent and laminar water flow conditions are developed considering the drainage process of a simple tank reservoir, using the Darcy–Weisbach and the Poiseuille laws, respectively. Near the critical value of the Reynolds number, the Darcy–Weisbach and the Poiseuille laws do [...] Read more.
Analytical solutions for turbulent and laminar water flow conditions are developed considering the drainage process of a simple tank reservoir, using the Darcy–Weisbach and the Poiseuille laws, respectively. Near the critical value of the Reynolds number, the Darcy–Weisbach and the Poiseuille laws do not match, and there is a gap regarding the possibility of describing the drainage analytically. This gap corresponds to the critical zone of the Moody diagram, where theoretically a constant discharge occurs under a decreasing hydraulic gradient. In the critical zone, this hydraulic behavior of the flow reflects the different energy losses occurring during the drainage, as the laminar flow is a more efficient flow condition than the turbulent one. In natural systems (e.g., springs and karst aquifers), a smooth transition from the turbulent to the laminar water flow occurs due to the heterogeneity in the medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
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1 pages, 127 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Abu Arra, A.; Şişman, E. Characteristics of Hydrological and Meteorological Drought Based on Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Curves. Water 2023, 15, 3142
by Ahmad Abu Arra and Eyüp Şişman
Water 2024, 16(10), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101451 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 391
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
13 pages, 4013 KiB  
Article
Water Composition, Biomass, and Species Distribution of Vascular Plants in Lake Agmon-Hula (LAH) (1993–2023) and Nearby Surroundings: A Review
by Moshe Gophen
Water 2024, 16(10), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101450 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
A significant change to the land cover in the Hula Valley was carried out during the 1950s: A swampy area densely covered by aquatic vegetation and the old shallow lake Hula were drained. The natural shallow lake and swamps land cover were converted [...] Read more.
A significant change to the land cover in the Hula Valley was carried out during the 1950s: A swampy area densely covered by aquatic vegetation and the old shallow lake Hula were drained. The natural shallow lake and swamps land cover were converted into agricultural development land use in two stages: (1) Drainage that was accomplished in 1957; (2) Implementation of the renovated hydrological system structure, including the newly created shallow Lake Agmon-Hula (LAH), was completed in 2007. The long-term data record of the restored diversity of the submerged and emerged aquatic plant community, and its relation to water quality in the newly created shallow Lake Agmon-Hula LAH, was statistically evaluated. Internal interactions within the LAH ecosystem between aquatic plants and water quality, including nitrification, de-nitrification, sedimentation, photosynthetic intensity, and plant biomass and nutrient composition, were statistically evaluated. The plant community in LAH maintains a seasonal growth cycle of onset during late spring–summer and dieback accompanied by decomposed degradation during fall–early winter. The summer peak of aquatic plant biomass and consequent enhancement of photosynthetic intensity induces a pH increase during daytime and carbonate precipitation. Nevertheless, the ecosystem is aerobic and sulfate reduction and H2S concentration are negligible. The Hula reclamation project (HP) is aimed at the improvement of eco-tourism’s integration into management design. The vegetation research confirms habitat enrichment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Vegetation in Freshwater Ecology)
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20 pages, 3101 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Banana-Waste-Derived Biosorbent for Congo Red Removal from Aqueous Solutions: Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Breakthrough Studies
by Samah Daffalla, Amel Taha, Enshirah Da’na and Mohamed R. El-Aassar
Water 2024, 16(10), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101449 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 561
Abstract
This study investigates the adsorption of Congo red (CR) dye from wastewater using banana peel biochar (BPBC) in both batch and fixed-bed column modes. BPBC was characterized using FTIR, SEM, XRD, TGA, and BET analysis, revealing a predominantly mesoporous structure with a surface [...] Read more.
This study investigates the adsorption of Congo red (CR) dye from wastewater using banana peel biochar (BPBC) in both batch and fixed-bed column modes. BPBC was characterized using FTIR, SEM, XRD, TGA, and BET analysis, revealing a predominantly mesoporous structure with a surface area of 9.65 m2/g. Batch adsorption experiments evaluated the effectiveness of BPBC in removing CR, investigating the influence of the BPBC dosage, initial CR concentration, and solution pH. Results showed optimal CR removal at pH levels below 4, suggesting a favorable electrostatic interaction between the adsorbent and the dye. Furthermore, a pseudo-first-order kinetic model best described the adsorption process. The Freundlich isotherm provided a better fit compared to the Langmuir and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) models, implying a heterogeneous adsorption surface. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) from the Langmuir model was 35.46 mg/g. To assess continuous operation, breakthrough curves were obtained in fixed-bed column experiments with varying bed heights (1–3.6 cm). The results demonstrated efficient CR removal by BPBC, highlighting its potential for wastewater treatment. Finally, this study explored the feasibility of BPBC regeneration and reuse through four adsorption–desorption cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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24 pages, 8090 KiB  
Article
Karenia brevis and Pyrodinium bahamense Utilization of Dissolved Organic Matter in Urban Stormwater Runoff and Rainfall Entering Tampa Bay, Florida
by Amanda L. Muni-Morgan, Mary G. Lusk and Cynthia A. Heil
Water 2024, 16(10), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101448 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 628
Abstract
This study investigated how nitrogen and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from stormwater runoff and rainfall support the growth of Karenia brevis and Pyrodinium bahamense. Excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis tracked changes in the optical properties of DOM in each [...] Read more.
This study investigated how nitrogen and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from stormwater runoff and rainfall support the growth of Karenia brevis and Pyrodinium bahamense. Excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis tracked changes in the optical properties of DOM in each bioassay, revealing greater reactivity of terrestrial humic-like DOM. Significant increases in cell yield and specific growth rates were observed upon additions of runoff for both species, with significant increases in specific growth rates upon the addition of a 2 in simulated rain event for P. bahamense only. By hour 48, 100% of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in each treatment was utilized by P. bahamense, and by hour 72, over 50% of the DON was utilized by K. brevis. The percentage of bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was greater for P. bahamense compared to K. brevis, suggesting a greater affinity for DOC compounds by P. bahamense. However, the bioavailability of DOM for each species could be owed to distinct chemical characteristics of labile DOM conveyed from each site. This study demonstrates that stormwater runoff and rainfall are both sources of labile DOM and DON for K. brevis and P. bahamense, which has implications for blooms of these species in Tampa Bay waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Harmful Algae in Aquatic Ecosystems)
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18 pages, 3933 KiB  
Article
Flood Propagation Characteristics in a Plain Lake: The Role of Multiple River Interactions
by Qiuqin Wu, Zhichao Wang, Xinfa Xu, Zhiwen Huang, Tianfu Wen, Wensun You and Yang Xia
Water 2024, 16(10), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101447 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Plain lakes play a crucial role in the hydrological cycle of a watershed, but their interactions with adjacent rivers and downstream water bodies can create complex river–lake relationships, often leading to frequent flooding disasters. Taking Poyang Lake as an example, this paper delves [...] Read more.
Plain lakes play a crucial role in the hydrological cycle of a watershed, but their interactions with adjacent rivers and downstream water bodies can create complex river–lake relationships, often leading to frequent flooding disasters. Taking Poyang Lake as an example, this paper delves into its interaction with the Yangtze River, revealing the spatiotemporal patterns of flood propagation within the lake and its impact on surrounding flood control measures. The aim is to provide insights for flood management in similar environments worldwide. This study employs a comprehensive approach combining hydrological statistical analysis and two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, based on extensive hydrological, topographic, and socio-economic data. The results indicate that the annual maximum outflow from Poyang Lake is primarily controlled by floods within the watershed, while the highest annual lake water level is predominantly influenced by floods from the Yangtze River. The peak discharge typically reaches the lake outlet within 48 h, with the peak water level taking slightly longer at 54 h. However, water storage in the lake can shorten the time that it takes for the peak discharge to arrive. When converging with floods from the Yangtze River, the peak water level may be delayed by up to 10 days, due to the top-supporting interaction. Furthermore, floods from the “Five Rivers” propagate differently within the lake, affecting various lake regions to differing degrees. Notably, floods from the Fu River cause the most significant rise in the lake’s water level under the same flow rate. The top-supporting effect from the Yangtze River also significantly impacts the water surface slope of Poyang Lake. When the Yangtze River flood discharge significantly exceeds that of the “Five Rivers” (i.e., when the top-supporting intensity value, f, exceeds four), the lake surface becomes as flat as a reservoir. During major floods in the watershed, the water level difference in the lake can increase dramatically, potentially creating a “dynamic storage capacity” of up to 840 million cubic meters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Risk Identification and Management)
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12 pages, 1089 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Public Water Supply Unreliability
by Fahad Alzahrani and Rady Tawfik
Water 2024, 16(10), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101446 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Public water supply unreliability is a problem that causes human hardships and remains common in the United States. In this paper, we attempt to examine the factors associated with public water supply unreliability. We measure public water service unreliability by the issuance of [...] Read more.
Public water supply unreliability is a problem that causes human hardships and remains common in the United States. In this paper, we attempt to examine the factors associated with public water supply unreliability. We measure public water service unreliability by the issuance of boil water notices (BWNs). By using a Negative Binomial regression model and data from West Virginia community water systems in 2020, we find that water systems that purchase their water from other water systems, have more educated and experienced operators, and serve high-income areas and a higher percentage of Native residents are expected to issue more BWNs. On the other hand, water systems that are small and serve a higher percentage of rural, educated, employed residents are expected to issue fewer BWNs. The findings emphasize the need to move beyond simplistic assumptions about water system reliability and consider the combined influence of technical, socio-economic, and demographic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Water Distribution Systems)
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23 pages, 9412 KiB  
Article
Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation of Sediment Erosion around Submarine Pipelines
by Sheng Yan, Dong Wang, Yan Li, Yu Gao, Jianguo Lin and Yawei Shi
Water 2024, 16(10), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101445 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Sediment erosion around submarine pipelines is a popular topic, widely investigated in both ocean and submarine-pipeline engineering. In this paper, the incompressible smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) method is modified for simulation of local scouring process around the submarine pipeline under the action of unidirectional [...] Read more.
Sediment erosion around submarine pipelines is a popular topic, widely investigated in both ocean and submarine-pipeline engineering. In this paper, the incompressible smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) method is modified for simulation of local scouring process around the submarine pipeline under the action of unidirectional flow. The erosion model is based on the Clear Water Particle–Turbid Water Particle–Critical Shear Stress (CWP-TWP-CSS) concept, and a sand–water two-phase model is proposed to deal with the sediment-entrained flow. The results of the numerical simulation are compared with the experimental data to verify the accuracy and applicability of the numerical model. The scouring process around the pipeline is investigated under different conditions, i.e., pipeline diameters, gap ratios, and flow velocities. The ISPH model is further used to study the flow characteristics of the scour pits around the submarine pipeline and the influence of the vortices on the maximum scour depth, to provide a theoretical basis for the stability design of submarine pipelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Challenges in Ocean Engineering and Environmental Effects)
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16 pages, 1324 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Potential of a Biocoagulant Produced from Prickly Pear Peel Waste Valorization for Wastewater Treatment
by Miguel Mauricio Aguilera Flores, Oswaldo Emmanuel Robles Miranda, Nahum Andrés Medellín Castillo, Verónica Ávila Vázquez, Omar Sánchez Mata, Rosendo Vázquez Bañuelos and Carolina Estefanía Chávez Murillo
Water 2024, 16(10), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101444 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
This study evaluated the potential of a biocoagulant produced from prickly pear peel waste valorization and its use as a biocoagulant aid mixed with aluminum sulfate to remove turbidity in domestic wastewater. A central composite design (CCD) and a simplex lattice design (SLD) [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the potential of a biocoagulant produced from prickly pear peel waste valorization and its use as a biocoagulant aid mixed with aluminum sulfate to remove turbidity in domestic wastewater. A central composite design (CCD) and a simplex lattice design (SLD) of two components (biocoagulant and aluminum sulfate) were developed to determine the optimal doses and pH of the biocoagulant and optimal mixing proportions. Both designs optimized the coagulation process from an analysis of variance to fit the experimental data to mathematical models and an optimization analysis to obtain the highest percentage of turbidity removal. The results showed that a water pH of 4 and a biocoagulant dose of 100 mg/L are optimal conditions for a turbidity removal of 76.1%. The potential decreases to 51.7% when the wastewater pH is maintained at 7.8 and a dose of 250 mg/L is used. This efficiency could be increased to 58.2% by using a mixture with optimal proportions of 30% biocoagulant and 70% aluminum sulfate. The experimental data were fitted to two quadratic models, estimating model prediction errors of 0.42% and 2.34%, respectively. Therefore, these results support the valorization of prickly pear peel waste to produce a biocoagulant, which could be used in acid and alkaline wastewater or as a biocoagulant aid mixed with aluminum sulfate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Field of Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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13 pages, 1138 KiB  
Article
Artificial Floating Islands for the Removal of Nutrients and Improvement of the Quality of Urban Wastewater
by Luis Alfredo Hernández-Vásquez, Claudia Romo-Gómez, Alejandro Alvarado-Lassman, Francisco Prieto-García, Cesar Camacho-López and Otilio Arturo Acevedo-Sandoval
Water 2024, 16(10), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101443 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
A high amount of nutrients can be found in urban wastewater (UW), which makes it difficult to treat. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes, and Salvinia molesta in the [...] Read more.
A high amount of nutrients can be found in urban wastewater (UW), which makes it difficult to treat. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes, and Salvinia molesta in the treatment of UW. To evaluate the potential of each macrophyte, phytoremediation bioassays were established; the hydraulic retention time for each bioassay was 15 days. The physicochemical analysis of the water samples considered pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total carbon (TC), phosphates (PO43-P), nitrate (NO3-N), and total nitrogen (TN). To evaluate the phytoremediation potential of each plant, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) for NO3-N and PO43-P were evaluated. Likewise, the relative growth rates (RGRs) and total chlorophyll production of the macrophytes were measured. The results showed that the highest efficiency was achieved with the bioassays with E. crassipes, with removal values of 69.7%, 68.8%, 58.7%, 69.4%, 56.3%, and 40.9% for turbidity, COD, TOC, PO43-P, NO3-N, and TN, respectively. The phytoremediation potential results showed that, for BCF, the highest value was 4.88 mg/g of PO43-P with E. crassipes, and for TF, it was 6.17 mg/g of PO43-P with S. molesta. The measurement of RGR and total chlorophyll for E. crassipes showed an increase of 0.00024 gg−1d−1 and an increase of 4.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the other macrophytes suffered decreases in chlorophyll content and RGR. Thus, E. crassipes is defined as the macrophyte with the greatest potential for the UW phytoremediation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Organic Solid Waste and Wastewater Management)
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28 pages, 8620 KiB  
Article
Geochemistry of Arsenic and Salinity-Contaminated Groundwater and Mineralogy of Sediments in the Coastal Aquifers of Southwest Bangladesh
by Md Riaz Uddin, Ashraf Uddin, Ming-Kuo Lee, Jake Nelson, Anwar Zahid, Md Maruful Haque and Nazmus Sakib
Water 2024, 16(10), 1442; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101442 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
This study aimed to develop a geochemical database by thoroughly analyzing groundwater and sediments from coastal aquifers of southwest Bangladesh. Moreover, we investigated the source of sediment deposition and the mechanisms behind the presence of arsenic and salinity in groundwater. The seasonal distribution [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop a geochemical database by thoroughly analyzing groundwater and sediments from coastal aquifers of southwest Bangladesh. Moreover, we investigated the source of sediment deposition and the mechanisms behind the presence of arsenic and salinity in groundwater. The seasonal distribution patterns of arsenic among the shallow and deep coastal aquifers were found to be 45.12 µg/l and 20.65 µg/l during dry and wet seasons, respectively. Moreover, the groundwater salinity distribution ranged from 3262.88 mg/l to 1930.88 mg/l during the dry and wet seasons. Cored sediment samples showed fine to medium sands of 92%, with silt and clay particles. The petrographic study of authigenic and heavy minerals revealed that the mineral grains were subangular to angular, indicating their textural immaturity of coastal sediments. The reactivity of goethite (FeOOH) and siderite (FeCO3) minerals suggests that the aquifers were subjected to slightly oxidized to moderately reducing conditions, with ORP values ranging from +50.40 mv to −149.5 mv. Such redox conditions could potentially result in the enrichment and mobility of arsenic in the groundwater. Although arsenic concentrations in deep aquifers are relatively low, higher salinity values are found in both shallow and intermediate coastal aquifers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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18 pages, 8209 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Rainfall and Temperature Trends in the Yellow River Basin, China from 2023 to 2100
by Hui Li, Hongxu Mu, Shengqi Jian and Xinan Li
Water 2024, 16(10), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101441 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 519
Abstract
China’s Yellow River Basin (YRB) is sensitive to climate change due to its delicate ecosystem and complex geography. Water scarcity, soil erosion, and desertification are major challenges. To mitigate the YRB’s ecological difficulties, climate change must be predicted. Based on the analysis of [...] Read more.
China’s Yellow River Basin (YRB) is sensitive to climate change due to its delicate ecosystem and complex geography. Water scarcity, soil erosion, and desertification are major challenges. To mitigate the YRB’s ecological difficulties, climate change must be predicted. Based on the analysis of the evolution features of hydro-meteorological elements, the CMIP6 climate model dataset with Delta downscaling and the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) is utilized to quantitatively explore the future variations in precipitation and temperature in the YRB. The following results are drawn: The spatial resolution of the CMIP6 climate model is less than 0.5° × 0.5° (i.e., about 55 km × 55 km), which is improved to 1 km × 1 km by the downscaling of Delta and has outstanding applicability to precipitation and temperature in the YRB. The most accurate models for monthly mean temperature are CESM2-WACCM, NorESM2-LM, and ACCESS-CM2, and for precipitation are ACCESS-ESM1-5, CESM2-WACCM, and IPSL-CM6A-LR. Between 2023 and 2100, annual precipitation increases by 6.89, 5.31, 7.02, and 10.18 mm/10a under the ssp126, ssp245, ssp370, and ssp585 climate scenarios, respectively, with considerable variability in precipitation in the YRB. The annual temperature shows a significant upward trend, and the change rates under the different climate scenarios are, respectively, 0.1 °C/10a, 0.3 °C/10a, 0.5 °C/10a, and 0.7 °C/10a. The increase is positively correlated with emission intensity. Based on the EOF analysis, temperature and precipitation mainly exhibit a consistent regional trend from 2023 to 2100, with the primary modal EOF1 of precipitation for each scenario exhibiting a clear spatial distribution in the southeast–northwest. Full article
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20 pages, 8297 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Seepage Element Containing Drainage Pipe
by Xiaozhou Xia, Xinxiang Xu, Xin Gu and Qing Zhang
Water 2024, 16(10), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101440 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Drainage pipes are often positioned downstream of embankments to mitigate pore pressure, thereby reducing the risk of dam failure. Considering that the size of drainage pipes is much smaller than that of embankment dams, directly discretizing the drainage pipes will generate a huge [...] Read more.
Drainage pipes are often positioned downstream of embankments to mitigate pore pressure, thereby reducing the risk of dam failure. Considering that the size of drainage pipes is much smaller than that of embankment dams, directly discretizing the drainage pipes will generate a huge number of elements. Therefore, this paper proposes a seepage element containing drainage pipes. In this element, the permeability of the drainage pipe is taken as the third type of permeable conductivity condition, and it is considered in the energy functional. The governing equations for the steady-state and the transient seepage element containing drainage pipe are derived using the variational principle, and the infiltration matrix, equivalent nodal seepage array, and water storage matrix of the seepage element containing drainage pipe are obtained. In conjunction with the user-defined element module UEL of ABAQUS 2016 software, the established seepage element containing drainage pipe is programmed. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed seepage element containing drainage pipe are verified through seepage field simulations of three examples. Finally, the influence of the permeable conductivity of drainage pipes on the pressure reduction effect is investigated, providing a reference for the layout of drainage pipes in embankment defense systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Water)
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16 pages, 3223 KiB  
Article
Time-Domain Transfer Learning for Accurate Heavy Metal Concentration Retrieval Using Remote Sensing and TrAdaBoost Algorithm: A Case Study of Daxigou, China
by Yun Yang, Qingzhen Tian, Han Bai, Yongqiang Wei, Yi Yan and Aidi Huo
Water 2024, 16(10), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101439 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Traditionally, the assessment of heavy metal concentrations using remote sensing technology is sample-intensive, with expensive model development. Using a mining area case study of Daxigou, China, we propose a cross-time-domain transfer learning model to monitor heavy metal pollution using samples collected from different [...] Read more.
Traditionally, the assessment of heavy metal concentrations using remote sensing technology is sample-intensive, with expensive model development. Using a mining area case study of Daxigou, China, we propose a cross-time-domain transfer learning model to monitor heavy metal pollution using samples collected from different time domains. Specifically, spectral indices derived from Landsat 8 multispectral images, terrain, and other auxiliary data correlative to soil heavy metals were prepared. A cross time-domain sample transfer learning model proposed in the paper based on the TrAdaBoost algorithm was used for the Cu content mapping in the topsoil by selective use of soil samples acquired in 2017 and 2019. We found that the proposed model accurately estimated the concentration of Cu in the topsoil of the mining area in 2019 and performed better than the traditional TrAdaBoost algorithms. The goodness of fit (R2) of the test set increased from 0.55 to 0.66; the relative prediction deviation (RPD) increased from 1.37 to 1.76; and finally, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSE), decreased from 8.33 to 7.24 mg·kg−1. The proposed model is potentially applicable to more accurate and inexpensive monitoring of heavy metals, facilitating remediation-related efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Evaluation of Hydrology and Ecology in Mining Areas)
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28 pages, 11403 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of a National Seven-Day Ensemble Streamflow Forecast Service for Australia
by Mohammed Abdul Bari, Mohammad Mahadi Hasan, Gnanathikkam Emmanual Amirthanathan, Hapu Arachchige Prasantha Hapuarachchi, Aynul Kabir, Alex Daniel Cornish, Patrick Sunter and Paul Martinus Feikema
Water 2024, 16(10), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101438 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 583
Abstract
The Australian Bureau of Meteorology offers a national operational 7-day ensemble streamflow forecast service covering regions of high environmental, economic, and social significance. This semi-automated service generates streamflow forecasts every morning and is seamlessly integrated into the Bureau’s Hydrologic Forecasting System (HyFS). Ensemble [...] Read more.
The Australian Bureau of Meteorology offers a national operational 7-day ensemble streamflow forecast service covering regions of high environmental, economic, and social significance. This semi-automated service generates streamflow forecasts every morning and is seamlessly integrated into the Bureau’s Hydrologic Forecasting System (HyFS). Ensemble rainfall forecasts, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and Poor Man’s Ensemble (PME), available in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) suite, are used to generate these streamflow forecasts. The NWP rainfall undergoes pre-processing using the Catchment Hydrologic Pre-Processer (CHyPP) before being fed into the GR4H rainfall–runoff model, which is embedded in the Short-term Water Information Forecasting Tools (SWIFT) hydrological modelling package. The simulated streamflow is then post-processed using Error Representation and Reduction In Stages (ERRIS). We evaluated the performance of the operational rainfall and streamflow forecasts for 96 catchments using four years of operational data between January 2020 and December 2023. Performance evaluation metrics included the following: CRPS, relative CRPS, CRPSS, and PIT-Alpha for ensemble forecasts; NSE, PCC, MAE, KGE, PBias, and RMSE; and three categorical metrics, CSI, FAR, and POD, for deterministic forecasts. The skill scores, CRPS, relative CRPS, CRPSS, and PIT-Alpha, gradually decreased for both rainfall and streamflow as the forecast horizon increased from Day 1 to Day 7. A similar pattern emerged for NSE, KGE, PCC, MAE, and RMSE as well as for the categorical metrics. Forecast performance also progressively decreased with higher streamflow volumes. Most catchments showed positive performance skills, meaning the ensemble forecast outperformed climatology. Both streamflow and rainfall forecast skills varied spatially across the country—they were generally better in the high-runoff-generating catchments, and poorer in the drier catchments situated in the western part of the Great Dividing Range, South Australia, and the mid-west of Western Australia. We did not find any association between the model forecast skill and the catchment area. Our findings demonstrate that the 7-day ensemble streamflow forecasting service is robust and draws great confidence from agencies that use these forecasts to support decisions around water resource management. Full article
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18 pages, 9889 KiB  
Article
Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Baseflow Based on Monthly Water Balance Modeling and Baseflow Separation
by Huawei Xie, Haotian Hu, Donghui Xie, Bingjiao Xu, Yuting Chen, Zhengjie Zhou, Feizhen Zhang and Hui Nie
Water 2024, 16(10), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101437 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Baseflow is the part of streamflow that is mainly replenished by groundwater. The protection of the biological environment and the growth of its water resources greatly depend on the spatial and temporal evolution of baseflow. Therefore, the Baizhiao (BZA) and Shaduan (SD) catchments [...] Read more.
Baseflow is the part of streamflow that is mainly replenished by groundwater. The protection of the biological environment and the growth of its water resources greatly depend on the spatial and temporal evolution of baseflow. Therefore, the Baizhiao (BZA) and Shaduan (SD) catchments of the Jiaojiang River Basin (JRB) in the Zhejiang province of China were selected as study areas. The ABCD model and Eckhardt method were used to calculate baseflow and baseflow index (BFI). The temporal and spatial evolution patterns of baseflow were analyzed through statistical analysis and the Mann–Kendall test. The results showed that the ABCD model performs well in simulating overall hydrological processes on the monthly streamflow at BAZ and SD stations with NSE (Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency) values of 0.82 and 0.83 and Pbias (Percentage Bias) values of 9.2% and 8.61%, respectively. The spatial–temporal distribution of the BFI indicates the higher baseflow contribution in upstream areas compared to downstream areas at both stations. The baseflow and BFI had significant upward trends at the BZA and SD stations in the dry season, while their trends were not uniform during the wet period. These findings are essential guidance for water resource management in the JRB regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reservoir Control Operation and Water Resources Management)
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12 pages, 1650 KiB  
Article
A New Concept of Flashboard Risers in Controlled Drainage Structures
by Michał Napierała
Water 2024, 16(10), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101436 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Drainage water management (DWM), also known as controlled drainage (CD), is one of the edge-of-field strategies mainly designed to reduce the nitrate load from subsurface drainage systems. By limiting runoff, we also increase local retention, contributing to the sustainable management of water resources. [...] Read more.
Drainage water management (DWM), also known as controlled drainage (CD), is one of the edge-of-field strategies mainly designed to reduce the nitrate load from subsurface drainage systems. By limiting runoff, we also increase local retention, contributing to the sustainable management of water resources. For that purpose, CD involves using different kinds of controlled drainage devices. They are usually based on simple flashboard risers or stop-logs that regulate the drainage intensity by raising and lowering the drainage outlet. The problem with this type of device is the need for manual control, which can cause the CD system to be more demanding in terms of maintenance. A new approach to water management by CD allows the possibility of individual disassembly of each board without necessarily removing all of them. Thanks to the use of sideling runners, the water management process is much quicker. This is especially important when a farmer needs to manage water in a few controlled drainage devices in the field. The different variants of the design are shown here, as well as the way of stop-log assembly and control and the costs of maintaining similar devices. The advantages and disadvantages are described, and the usefulness of the new patented solution is assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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25 pages, 3481 KiB  
Review
The Occurrence, Distribution, Environmental Effects, and Interactions of Microplastics and Antibiotics in the Aquatic Environment of China
by Yiping Guo, Wanfei Shao, Weigao Zhao and Hong Zhu
Water 2024, 16(10), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101435 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) and antibiotics (ATs) have been detected in various aquatic environments and characterized as novel contaminants that have attracted worldwide attention. This review summarizes the characteristics of MPs and ATs, analyzes the sources of MPs and ATs in aquatic environments, reviews the [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) and antibiotics (ATs) have been detected in various aquatic environments and characterized as novel contaminants that have attracted worldwide attention. This review summarizes the characteristics of MPs and ATs, analyzes the sources of MPs and ATs in aquatic environments, reviews the concentration distribution of the two pollutants in China, and introduces the environmental effects of mixing MPs and ATs. Studies on single pollutants of MPs or ATs are well established, but the interactions between the two in aquatic environments are rarely mentioned. The physicochemical characteristics of MPs make them carriers of ATs, which greatly increase their risk of being potential hazards to the environment. Therefore, in this article, the interaction mechanisms between MPs and ATs are systematically sorted out, mainly including hydrophobic, electrostatic, intermolecular interactions, microporous filling, charge-assisted hydrogen bonding, cation-bonding, halogen bonding, and CH/π interactions. Also, factors affecting the interaction between ATs and MPs, such as the physicochemical properties of MPs and ATs and environmental factors, are also considered. Finally, this review identifies some new research topics and challenges for MPs and ATs, in order to gain deeper insight into their behavioral fate and toxic mechanisms. Full article
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19 pages, 6292 KiB  
Article
Formation of Abnormal Gas-Geochemical Fields and Dissolved Gases Transport at the Shallow Northeastern Shelf of Sakhalin Island in Warm Season: Expedition Data and Remote Sensing
by Nadezhda Syrbu, Andrey Kholmogorov, Igor Stepochkin, Vyacheslav Lobanov and Svetlana Shkorba
Water 2024, 16(10), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101434 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Our paper deals with gas-geochemical measurements of CH4 and CO2, as well as the first measurements of dissolved H2 and He in the waters of the eastern shelf of Sakhalin Island, obtained during cruise 68 on the R/V Akademik [...] Read more.
Our paper deals with gas-geochemical measurements of CH4 and CO2, as well as the first measurements of dissolved H2 and He in the waters of the eastern shelf of Sakhalin Island, obtained during cruise 68 on the R/V Akademik Oparin (OP68) on 12–18 August 2023. The shallow eastern shelf has high concentrations of dissolved methane and helium in the water. The combined anomalies of methane and helium indicate the presence of an ascending deep fluid. The sources of methane in the studied area are the underlying oil- and gas-bearing rocks extending to the coast of the island. The deep faults of the region and the minor discontinuities that accompany them along the eastern coast of Sakhalin Island create a fluid-permeable geological environment both on the shallow shelf and on the coastal part of the island. East Sakhalin current and counter-current influence gases that migrate from lithospheric sources; these currents form a special hydrological regime that ensures high solubility of the gases released and their transfer under the lower boundary of the seasonal pycnocline to the east, where they are involved in the general circulation of the Sea of Okhotsk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
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15 pages, 6666 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Phytoplankton Primary Productivity in Qinghai Lake Using Ocean Color Satellite Data: Seasonal and Interannual Variations
by Xuan Ban, Yingchao Dang, Peng Shu, Hongfang Qi, Ying Luo, Fei Xiao, Qi Feng and Yadong Zhou
Water 2024, 16(10), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101433 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Estimation of primary production in Qinghai Lake is crucial for the aquatic ecosystem management in the northeastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. This study used the Vertically Generalized Production Model (VGPM) with ocean color satellite data to estimate phytoplankton primary productivity (PP) in Qinghai Lake during [...] Read more.
Estimation of primary production in Qinghai Lake is crucial for the aquatic ecosystem management in the northeastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. This study used the Vertically Generalized Production Model (VGPM) with ocean color satellite data to estimate phytoplankton primary productivity (PP) in Qinghai Lake during the non-freezing period from 2002 to 2023. Field data from 2018 and 2023 were used to calibrate and verify the model. The results showed a seasonal trend in chlorophyll-a and PP, with the lowest values in May and peaks from June to September. Qinghai Lake was identified as oligotrophic, with annual mean chlorophyl-a of 0.24–0.40 µg/L and PP of 40–369 mg C/m2/day. The spatial distribution of PP was low in the center of the lake and high near the shores and estuaries. An interesting periodic increasing trend in PP every 2 to 4 years was observed from 2002 to 2023. This study established a remote sensing method for PP assessment in Qinghai Lake, revealing seasonal and interannual variations and providing a useful example for monitoring large saline mountain lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Environmental Factors on Aquatic Ecosystem)
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13 pages, 2555 KiB  
Article
Research on Salt Drainage Efficiency and Anti-Siltation Effect of Subsurface Drainage Pipes with Different Filter Materials
by Xu Wang, Jingli Shen, Liqin Fan and Yonghong Zhang
Water 2024, 16(10), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101432 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Subsurface pipes covered with geotextiles and filters are essential for preventing clogging and ensuring efficient drainage. To address low salt discharge efficiency due to subsurface drainage pipes (SDPs) clogging easily, sand gravel, straw, and combined sand gravel–straw were set above SDPs, respectively, within [...] Read more.
Subsurface pipes covered with geotextiles and filters are essential for preventing clogging and ensuring efficient drainage. To address low salt discharge efficiency due to subsurface drainage pipes (SDPs) clogging easily, sand gravel, straw, and combined sand gravel–straw were set above SDPs, respectively, within a setting of uniform geotextiles. The influences of different filter materials on the drainage efficiency and salt discharge effect of the SDPs, as well as the effects of different filter materials on the salt drainage efficiency and anti-siltation effect of the SDPs were studied by performing simulation experiments in a laboratory. The results confirmed the following: (1) The salt removal rates of the SDPs externally wrapped with materials exceeded 95%. The subsurface pipe treated with the sand gravel filter material had the highest desalting rate (93.69%) and soil profiles with total salt contents that were 17.7% and 20.5% lower than those treated with the straw and combined sand gravel–straw materials, respectively. (2) The soil salinity of the sand gravel filter material around the SDPs was between 1.57 and 3.6 g/kg, and the drainage rate (R) was 0.97, so its salt-leaching effect was the best. (3) The sand gravel filter material increased the characteristic particle size of the soil above the SDP by 8.4%. It could effectively intercept coarse particles, release fine particles, and facilitate the formation of a highly permeable soil skeleton consisting of coarse particles, such as sand particles surrounding the soil. (4) The use of the straw filter material produced dense filter cake layers on the upstream surfaces of the geotextiles. When the sand gravel and combined sand gravel–straw filter materials were used, soil particles remained in the geotextile fiber structure, and a large number of pores were still retained. Therefore, the sand gravel filter material was the most suitable for the treatment of Yinbei saline–alkali soil in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Hydrology on Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation)
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13 pages, 8052 KiB  
Article
Research on Multi-Factor Effects of Nitrogen Loss in Slope Runoff
by Lei Wang, Na Wang, Qing Zhang, Jiajun Wu, Shilei Wang, Min Pang, Jifeng Wang, Chao Zhou, Yehui Han, Zhixin Yang and Liang Jin
Water 2024, 16(10), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101431 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 461
Abstract
To study the characteristics of nitrogen (N) loss on slopes, different vegetation (bare soil, alfalfa), slopes (5°, 10°, 15°), and rainfall intensities (40, 60, 80 mm/h) were set as variable factors in simulated rainfall experiments. Surface runoff accounts for 60.38–96.16% of total runoff [...] Read more.
To study the characteristics of nitrogen (N) loss on slopes, different vegetation (bare soil, alfalfa), slopes (5°, 10°, 15°), and rainfall intensities (40, 60, 80 mm/h) were set as variable factors in simulated rainfall experiments. Surface runoff accounts for 60.38–96.16% of total runoff and most N loss (57.69–88.67% of NO3-N). Alfalfa can reduce average concentrations of N loss in runoff and reduce N loss in surface runoff by more than 48.29%, as well as subsurface runoff by 3.8%. Average N loss in subsurface runoff exceeds that of surface runoff. Rainfall intensity most affects N loss from surface runoff in bare soil conditions, and slope most affects N loss in subsurface runoff. Rainfall intensity in alfalfa treatments most influences runoff volume and N loss. The comprehensive effects of rainfall intensity, slope, and vegetation cover on the total loss of various forms of nitrogen in surface runoff can be described using a linear correlation equation, with a correlation coefficient between 0.84 and 0.91. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Vegetation in Freshwater Ecology)
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6 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Hydrodynamics of Water Pump Station System
by Changliang Ye, Yuan Zheng, Kan Kan, Ran Tao and Huixiang Chen
Water 2024, 16(10), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101430 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 526
Abstract
As an indispensable part of water conservancy engineering construction, the importance of pumping stations is reflected in several aspects [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrodynamics of Water Pump Station System)
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