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Article

Gas Exchanges and Stem Water Potential Define Stress Thresholds for Efficient Irrigation Management in Olive (Olea europea L.)

1
Department of Land Air and Water Resources, 213, Veihmeyer Hall, University California Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Dipartimento Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Forestali, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Edificio 4 Ingresso H, 90128 Palermo, Italy
3
Department of Plant Sciences, Wickson Hall, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(3), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030342
Received: 4 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Agriculture Water Efficiency)
With climate change and decreased water supplies, interest in irrigation scheduling based on plant water status is increasing. Stem water potential (ΨSWP) thresholds for irrigation scheduling in olive have been proposed, however, a physiologically-based evaluation of their reliability is needed. A large dataset collected at variable environmental conditions, growing systems, and genotypes was used to characterize the relation between ΨSWP and gas exchanges for olive. Based on the effect of drought stress on the ecophysiological parameters monitored, we described three levels of stress: no stress (ΨSWP above about −2 MPa), where the high variability of stomatal conductance (gs) suggests a tight stomatal control of water loss that limit ΨSWP drop, irrigation volumes applied to overcome this threshold had no effect on assimilation but reduced intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE); moderate-stress (ΨSWP between about −2.0 and −3.5 MPa), where iWUE can be increased without damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of leaves; and high-stress (ΨSWP below about −3.5 MPa), where gs dropped below 150 mmol m−2 s−1 and the intercellular CO2 concentration increased proportionally, suggesting non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was operative. This study confirmed that olive ΨSWP should be maintained between −2 and −3.5 MPa for optimal irrigation efficiency and to avoid harmful water stress levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: assimilation; stomatal conductance; photosynthesis; water status; water use efficiency assimilation; stomatal conductance; photosynthesis; water status; water use efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marino, G.; Caruso, T.; Ferguson, L.; Marra, F.P. Gas Exchanges and Stem Water Potential Define Stress Thresholds for Efficient Irrigation Management in Olive (Olea europea L.). Water 2018, 10, 342. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030342

AMA Style

Marino G, Caruso T, Ferguson L, Marra FP. Gas Exchanges and Stem Water Potential Define Stress Thresholds for Efficient Irrigation Management in Olive (Olea europea L.). Water. 2018; 10(3):342. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030342

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marino, Giulia; Caruso, Tiziano; Ferguson, Louise; Marra, Francesco P. 2018. "Gas Exchanges and Stem Water Potential Define Stress Thresholds for Efficient Irrigation Management in Olive (Olea europea L.)" Water 10, no. 3: 342. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030342

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