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Atmosphere, Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Satellite-Observed Transport of Dust to the East China Sea and the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: Contribution of Dust to the Increase in Chlorophyll during Spring 2010
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110152
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1939 | PDF Full-text (4934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiple data sets were combined to investigate five dust storm events over East Asia in spring 2010 and their impacts on chlorophyll in the East China Sea (ECS) and the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). Satellite-observed column aerosol images were able to show [...] Read more.
Multiple data sets were combined to investigate five dust storm events over East Asia in spring 2010 and their impacts on chlorophyll in the East China Sea (ECS) and the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). Satellite-observed column aerosol images were able to show the spatial distribution of the transport of dust from the source regions to the two seas for some of the dust storm events. The CALIPSO satellite showed the vertical structure of dust aerosol for a greater number of dust storm events, including some weak events. This was confirmed by simulations of dust deposition and backward trajectories traced to dust source regions. The simulated dust deposition flux for five dust storms ranged from 13.0 to 145.6 mg·m−2·d−1 in the ECS and from 0.6 to 5.5 mg·m−2·d−1 in the NPSG, suggesting that the highest deposition was about one order of magnitude higher than the lowest. The estimated nutrients from dust showed that dust containing iron had the greatest effect on phytoplankton growth in both seas; the iron deposited by one dust storm event accounted for at least 5% of growth and satisfied the increase in demand required for chlorophyll a concentration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Momentum Transported by the Radiation Field of a Long Transient Dipole and Time Energy Uncertainty Principle
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110151
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1780 | PDF Full-text (1521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper describes the net momentum transported by the transient electromagnetic radiation field of a long transient dipole in free space. In the dipole a current is initiated at one end and propagates towards the other end where it is absorbed. The results [...] Read more.
The paper describes the net momentum transported by the transient electromagnetic radiation field of a long transient dipole in free space. In the dipole a current is initiated at one end and propagates towards the other end where it is absorbed. The results show that the net momentum transported by the radiation is directed along the axis of the dipole where the currents are propagating. In general, the net momentum P transported by the electromagnetic radiation of the dipole is less than the quantity U / c , where U is the total energy radiated by the dipole and c is the speed of light in free space. In the case of a Hertzian dipole, the net momentum transported by the radiation field is zero because of the spatial symmetry of the radiation field. As the effective wavelength of the current decreases with respect to the length of the dipole (or the duration of the current decreases with respect to the travel time of the current along the dipole), the net momentum transported by the radiation field becomes closer and closer to U / c , and for effective wavelengths which are much shorter than the length of the dipole, P U / c . The results show that when the condition P U / c is satisfied, the radiated fields satisfy the condition Δ t Δ U h / 4 π where Δ t is the duration of the radiation, Δ U is the uncertainty in the dissipated energy and h is the Plank constant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Patterns of Dekadal Rainfall Variation Over a Selected Region in Lake Victoria Basin, Uganda
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110150
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 4 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1943 | PDF Full-text (1427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding variations in rainfall in tropical regions is important due to its impacts on water resources, health and agriculture. This study assessed the dekadal rainfall patterns and rain days to determine intra-seasonal rainfall variability during the March–May season using the Mann–Kendall (M [...] Read more.
Understanding variations in rainfall in tropical regions is important due to its impacts on water resources, health and agriculture. This study assessed the dekadal rainfall patterns and rain days to determine intra-seasonal rainfall variability during the March–May season using the Mann–Kendall ( M K ) trend test and simple linear regression ( S L R ) over the period 2000–2015. Results showed an increasing trend of both dekadal rainfall amount and rain days (third and seventh dekads). The light rain days ( S L R = 0.181; M K = 0.350) and wet days ( S L R = 0.092; M K = 0.118) also depict an increasing trend. The rate of increase of light rain days and wet days during the third dekad (light rain days: S L R = 0.020; M K = 0.279 and wet days: S L R = 0.146; M K = 0.376) was slightly greater than during the seventh dekad (light rain days: S L R = 0.014; M K = 0.018 and wet days: S L R = 0.061; M K = 0.315) dekad. Seventy-four percent accounted for 2–4 consecutive dry days, but no significant trend was detected. The extreme rainfall was increasing over the third ( M K = 0.363) and seventh ( M K = 0.429) dekads. The rainfall amount and rain days were highly correlated (r: 0.43–0.72). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Precipitation with Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Stratospheric Volcanic Aerosols on Age-of-Air and Transport of Long-Lived Species
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110149
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
The radiative perturbation associated to stratospheric aerosols from major explosive volcanic eruptions may induce significant changes in stratospheric dynamics. The aerosol heating rates warm up the lower stratosphere and cause a westerly wind anomaly, with additional tropical upwelling. Large scale transport of stratospheric [...] Read more.
The radiative perturbation associated to stratospheric aerosols from major explosive volcanic eruptions may induce significant changes in stratospheric dynamics. The aerosol heating rates warm up the lower stratosphere and cause a westerly wind anomaly, with additional tropical upwelling. Large scale transport of stratospheric trace species may be perturbed as a consequence of this intensified Brewer–Dobson circulation. The radiatively forced changes of the stratospheric circulation during the first two years after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (June 1991) may help explain the observed trend decline of long-lived greenhouse gases at surface stations (approximately −8 and −0.4 ppbv/year for CH4 and N2O, respectively). This decline is partly driven by the increased mid- to high-latitude downward flux at the tropopause and also by an increased isolation of the tropical pipe in the vertical layer near the tropopause, with reduced horizontal eddy mixing. Results from a climate-chemistry coupled model are shown for both long-lived trace species and the stratospheric age-of-air. The latter results to be younger by approximately 0.5 year at 30 hPa for 3–4 years after the June 1991 Pinatubo eruption, as a result of the volcanic aerosols radiative perturbation and is consistent with independent estimates based on long time series of in situ profile measurements of SF6 and CO2. Younger age of air is also calculated after Agung, El Chichón and Ruiz eruptions, as well as negative anomalies of the N2O growth rate at the extratropical tropopause layer. This type of analysis is made comparing the results of two ensembles of model simulations (1960–2005), one including stratospheric volcanic aerosols and their radiative interactions and a reference case where the volcanic aerosols do not interact with solar and planetary radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Radiative Effects)
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Open AccessShort Note
Short-Term Effects of Drying and Rewetting on CO2 and CH4 Emissions from High-Altitude Peatlands on the Tibetan Plateau
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110148
Received: 27 August 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 20 November 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1334 | PDF Full-text (3909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study used mesocosms to examine the effects of alternate drying and rewetting on CO2 and CH4 emissions from high-altitude peatlands on the Tibetan Plateau. The drying and rewetting experiment conducted in this study included three phases: a 10-day predrying phase, [...] Read more.
This study used mesocosms to examine the effects of alternate drying and rewetting on CO2 and CH4 emissions from high-altitude peatlands on the Tibetan Plateau. The drying and rewetting experiment conducted in this study included three phases: a 10-day predrying phase, a 32-day drying phase, and an 18-day rewetting phase. During the experiment, the water table varied between 0 and 50 cm with respect to the reference peat column where the water table stayed constant at 0 cm. The study found that drying and rewetting had no significant effect on CO2 emissions from the peatland, while CH4 emissions decreased. The cumulative CH4 emissions in the control group was 2.1 times higher than in the drying and rewetting treatment over the study period. Moreover, CO2 and CH4 emissions were positively correlated with soil temperature, and the drying process increased the goodness of fit of the regression models predicting the relationships between CO2 and CH4 emissions and temperature. These results indicate that small-scale water table variation has a limited effect on CO2 emissions, but might reduce CH4 emissions in high-altitude peatlands on the Tibetan Plateau. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Methodology to Reduce the Computational Effort in the Evaluation of the Lightning Performance of Distribution Networks
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110147
Received: 24 August 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 20 November 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1299 | PDF Full-text (1826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The estimation of the lightning performance of a power distribution network is of great importance to design its protection system against lightning. An accurate evaluation of the number of lightning events that can create dangerous overvoltages requires a huge computational effort, as it [...] Read more.
The estimation of the lightning performance of a power distribution network is of great importance to design its protection system against lightning. An accurate evaluation of the number of lightning events that can create dangerous overvoltages requires a huge computational effort, as it implies the adoption of a Monte Carlo procedure. Such a procedure consists of generating many different random lightning events and calculating the corresponding overvoltages. The paper proposes a methodology to deal with the problem in two computationally efficient ways: (i) finding out the minimum number of Monte Carlo runs that lead to reliable results; and (ii) setting up a procedure that bypasses the lightning field-to-line coupling problem for each Monte Carlo run. The proposed approach is shown to provide results consistent with existing approaches while exhibiting superior Central Processing Unit (CPU) time performances. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of PM10 Chemical Source Profiles for Geological Dust from the South-West Region of China
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110146
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1673 | PDF Full-text (1927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10) chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, [...] Read more.
Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10) chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Be, Tl and Pb), nine ions (F, Cl, SO42−, NO3, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+), and carbon-containing species (organic carbon and elemental carbon) were determined to construct these profiles. Individual source profiles were averaged and compared to quantify similarities and differences in chemical abundances using the profile-compositing method. Overall, the major components of PM10 in geological sources were crustal minerals and undefined fraction. Different chemical species could be used as tracers for various types of geological dust in the region that resulted from different anthropogenic influence. For example, elemental carbon, V and Zn could be used as tracers for urban paved road dust; Al, Si, K+ and NH4+ for agricultural soil; Al and Si for natural soil; and SO42− for urban resuspended dust. The enrichment factor analysis showed that Cu, Se, Sr and Ba were highly enriched by human activities in geological dust samples from south-west China. Elemental ratios were taken to highlight the features of geological dust from south-west China by comparing with northern urban fugitive dust, loess and desert samples. Low Si/Al and Fe/Al ratios can be used as markers to trace geological sources from southwestern China. High Pb/Al and Zn/Al ratios observed in urban areas demonstrated that urban geological dust was influenced seriously by non-crustal sources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Optimized WRF Precipitation Forecast over a Complex Topography Region during Flood Season
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110145
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1694 | PDF Full-text (34485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model has been utilized to generate quantitative precipitation forecasts with higher spatial and temporal resolutions. However, factors including horizontal resolution, domain size, and the physical parameterization scheme have a strong impact on the dynamic [...] Read more.
In recent years, the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model has been utilized to generate quantitative precipitation forecasts with higher spatial and temporal resolutions. However, factors including horizontal resolution, domain size, and the physical parameterization scheme have a strong impact on the dynamic downscaling ability of the WRF model. In this study, the influence of these factors has been analyzed in precipitation forecasting for the Xijiang Basin, southern China—a region with complex topography. The results indicate that higher horizontal resolutions always result in higher Critical Success Indexes (CSI), but higher biases as well. Meanwhile, the precipitation forecast skills are also influenced by the combination of microphysics parameterization scheme and cumulus convective parameterization scheme. On the basis of these results, an optimized configuration of the WRF model is built in which the horizontal resolution is 10 km, the microphysics parameterization is the Lin scheme, and the cumulus convective parameterization is the Betts–Miller–Janjic scheme. This configuration is then evaluated by simulating the daily weather during the 2013–2014 flood season. The high Critical Success Index scores and low biases at various thresholds and lead times confirm the high accuracy of the optimized WRF model configuration for Xijiang Basin. However, the performance of the WRF model varies from different sub-basins due to the complexity of the mesoscale convective system (MCS) over this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue WRF Simulations at the Mesoscale: From the Microscale to Macroscale)
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Low-Molecular Weight Aldehydes by Selected Houseplants under Different Light Intensities and CO2 Concentrations
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110144
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 5 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
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Abstract
The removal of five low-molecular weight aldehydes by two houseplants (Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms and Chamaedorea elegans) were investigated in a laboratory simulation environment with short-term exposure to different low light intensities and CO2 concentrations. Under normal circumstances, the C [...] Read more.
The removal of five low-molecular weight aldehydes by two houseplants (Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms and Chamaedorea elegans) were investigated in a laboratory simulation environment with short-term exposure to different low light intensities and CO2 concentrations. Under normal circumstances, the C1–C5 aldehyde removal rates of Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms and Chamaedorea elegans (Lour.) Harms ranged from 0.311 μmol/m2/h for valeraldehyde to 0.677 μmol/m2/h for formaldehyde, and 0.526 μmol/m2/h for propionaldehyde to 1.440 μmol/m2/h for formaldehyde, respectively. However, when the light intensities varied from 0 to 600 lx, a significant correlation between the aldehyde removal rate and the light intensity was found. Moreover, the CO2 experiments showed that the total aldehyde removal rates of Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms and Chamaedorea elegans (Lour.) Harms decreased 32.0% and 43.2%, respectively, with increasing CO2 concentrations from 350 ppmv to 1400 ppmv. This might be explained by the fact that the excessive CO2 concentration decreased the stomatal conductance which limited the carbonyl uptake from the stomata. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Freezing Drizzle, Sleet and Snow on Microphysical Characteristics of Supercooled Fog during the Icing Process in a Mountainous Area
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110143
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1177 | PDF Full-text (3165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Both the similar and different effects of freezing drizzle, sleet and snow on microphysical properties of supercooled fog were analyzed for fourteen events during a comprehensive wire icing, fog, and precipitation observation experiment conducted at Enshi radar station (30°17′N, 109°16′E; 1722 m a.s.l.) [...] Read more.
Both the similar and different effects of freezing drizzle, sleet and snow on microphysical properties of supercooled fog were analyzed for fourteen events during a comprehensive wire icing, fog, and precipitation observation experiment conducted at Enshi radar station (30°17′N, 109°16′E; 1722 m a.s.l.) on a hilltop in Shibanling, Hubei, China. Liquid precipitation is in a relatively stable form in mountainous areas. Short-term precipitation (1–3 h) is dominant with temperature below 0 °C. The wet scavenging effect of freezing drizzle on small fog droplets with a size range less than 6–12 μm is weak but is stronger for fog droplets with a larger size, which is opposite to the effects of solid precipitation, broadening the fog droplet spectra significantly. As the fog droplet diameter increases, the distributions of droplet spectra change from leptokurtosis to platykurtosis and from positive skewness to negative skewness. Occurrence of freezing drizzle would improve the positive correlation of N-r in dissipation and oscillation periods, resulting in the N-r relationship having a weak negative correlation in the maturity period, and resulting in the transition of the N-L and N-r relationships into positive correlations in the development period. Meanwhile, the emergence of solid precipitation particles would result in negative values for the correlation coefficients of N-L and N-r. The change in relationships among the microphysical properties was caused by the occurrence of different phase precipitation, showing the influence on the main microphysical mechanisms of supercooled fog. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bacterial and Fungal Aerosols in Rural Nursery Schools in Southern Poland
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110142
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1174 | PDF Full-text (1739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study aimed to characterize airborne bacteria and fungi populations present in rural nursery schools in the Upper Silesia region of Poland during winter and spring seasons through quantification and identification procedures. Bacterial and fungal concentration levels and size distributions were obtained by [...] Read more.
This study aimed to characterize airborne bacteria and fungi populations present in rural nursery schools in the Upper Silesia region of Poland during winter and spring seasons through quantification and identification procedures. Bacterial and fungal concentration levels and size distributions were obtained by the use of a six-stage Andersen cascade impactor. Results showed a wide range of indoor bioaerosols levels. The maximum level of viable bacterial aerosols indoors was about 2600 CFU·m−3, two to three times higher than the outdoor level. Fungi levels were lower, from 82 to 1549 CFU·m−3, with indoor concentrations comparable to or lower than outdoor concentrations. The most prevalent bacteria found indoors were Gram-positive cocci (>65%). Using the obtained data, the nursery school exposure dose (NSED) of bioaerosols was estimated for both the children and personnel of nursery schools. The highest dose for younger children was estimated to range: 327–706 CFU·kg−1 for bacterial aerosols and 31–225 CFU·kg−1 for fungal aerosols. These results suggest an elevated risk of adverse health effects on younger children. These findings may contribute to the promotion and implementation of preventative public health programs and the formulation of recommendations aimed at providing healthier school environments. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Biomass Combustion
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110141
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 22 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1845 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emission factor is a relative measure and can be used to estimate emissions from multiple sources of air pollution. For this reason, data from literature on particulate matter emission factors from different types of biomass were evaluated in this paper. Initially, the main [...] Read more.
Emission factor is a relative measure and can be used to estimate emissions from multiple sources of air pollution. For this reason, data from literature on particulate matter emission factors from different types of biomass were evaluated in this paper. Initially, the main sources of particles were described, as well as relevant concepts associated with particle measurements. In addition, articles about particle emissions were classified and described in relation to the sampling environment (open or closed) and type of burned biomass (agricultural, garden, forest, and dung). Based on this analysis, a set of emission factors was presented and discussed. Important observations were made about the main emission sources of particulate matter. Combustion of compacted biomass resulted in lower particulate emission factors. PM2.5 emissions were predominant in the burning of forest biomass. Emission factors were more elevated in laboratory burning, followed by burns in the field, residences and combustors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Burning)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Particulate Carbon in Precipitation during the Rainy Season in Xiamen Island, China
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7110140
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 19 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1447 | PDF Full-text (2782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Measuring wet deposition of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) aerosol is crucial for the understanding of their circulation and climate effect. To further understand the wet deposition of particulate carbon (OC and EC), precipitation samples were collected from April to August [...] Read more.
Measuring wet deposition of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) aerosol is crucial for the understanding of their circulation and climate effect. To further understand the wet deposition of particulate carbon (OC and EC), precipitation samples were collected from April to August 2014 on Xiamen Island in China. EC and water insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) concentrations were analyzed using a thermal optical method to investigate temporal variations and wet deposition fluxes. The average EC and WIOC concentrations were 7.3 μgC·L−1 and 495.3 μgC·L−1, respectively, which are both comparable to the results reported in European areas. EC and WIOC concentrations were higher in spring than in summer. Higher EC concentrations were found in April, which were probably associated with the transport of air masses from northern continental areas. Higher WIOC concentrations were found in May and were mainly attributed to air masses from the South China Sea. Lower concentrations of EC and WIOC in the summer were primarily due to the clean air masses transported from the ocean. The wet deposition flux was calculated as the product of concentration and precipitation amount. Average wet deposition fluxes of EC and WIOC were estimated to be 0.6 mgC·m−2·month−1 and 36.7 mgC·m−2·month−1, respectively. Wet deposition fluxes of EC and WIOC exhibited similar concentration trends. The largest flux in EC wet deposition occurred in April (1.8 mgC·m−2·month−1), while the largest flux in WIOC wet deposition occurred in May (63.1 mgC·m−2·month−1). Full article
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