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Atmosphere, Volume 12, Issue 4 (April 2021) – 111 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Under the framework of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollutants in Northeast Asia (LTP) project that was launched by governments of China, Japan, and Korea, three modeling groups simulated PM2.5 concentrations targeting the remote exit-and-entrance areas of transboundary transport over three countries. The employed models are WRF-CAMx (by China), NHM-RAQM2 (by Japan), and WRF-CMAQ (by Korea), and the results showed apparent bias that remains unexplored in both exit and entrance areas. Nevertheless, three models indicated higher NO3/SO42– ratios in exit-and-entrance areas especially in winter under the favorable environments for ammonium nitrate formation, and also suggested that gas-aerosol partitioning for semi-volatile species of ammonium nitrate could be achieved at the entrance areas of transboundary transport over China, Japan, and Korea. View this paper.
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Article
Proposal to Refine Solar Radiation of Typical Meteorological Year Database and Evaluation on the Influence of Air-Conditioning Load
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040524 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
The Typical meteorological year (TMY) database is often used to calculate air-conditioning loads, and it directly affects the building energy savings design. Among four kinds of TMY databases in China—including Chinese Typical Year Weather (CTYW), International Weather for Energy Calculations (IWEC), Solar Wind [...] Read more.
The Typical meteorological year (TMY) database is often used to calculate air-conditioning loads, and it directly affects the building energy savings design. Among four kinds of TMY databases in China—including Chinese Typical Year Weather (CTYW), International Weather for Energy Calculations (IWEC), Solar Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) and Chinese Standard Weather Data (CSWD)—only CSWD is measures solar radiation, and it is most used in China. However, the solar radiation of CSWD is a measured daily value, and its hourly value is separated by models. It is found that the cloud ratio (diffuse solar radiation divided by global solar radiation) of CSWD is not realistic in months of May, June and July while compared to the other sets of TMY databases. In order to obtain a more accurate cloud ratio of CSWD for air-conditioning load calculation, this study aims to propose a method of refining the cloud ratio of CSWD in Shanghai, China, using observed solar radiation and the Perez model which is a separation model of high accuracy. In addition, the impact of cloud ratio on air-conditioning load has also been discussed in this paper. It is shown that the cloud ratio can yield a significant impact on the air conditioning load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zero Energy Building and Indoor Thermal)
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Article
Influence of Meteorological Conditions and Aerosol Properties on the COVID-19 Contamination of the Population in Coastal and Continental Areas in France: Study of Offshore and Onshore Winds
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040523 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Human behaviors probably represent the most important causes of the SARS-Cov-2 virus propagation. However, the role of virus transport by aerosols—and therefore the influence of atmospheric conditions (temperature, humidity, type and concentration of aerosols)—on the spread of the epidemic remains an open and [...] Read more.
Human behaviors probably represent the most important causes of the SARS-Cov-2 virus propagation. However, the role of virus transport by aerosols—and therefore the influence of atmospheric conditions (temperature, humidity, type and concentration of aerosols)—on the spread of the epidemic remains an open and still debated question. This work aims to study whether or not the meteorological conditions related to the different aerosol properties in continental and coastal urbanized areas might influence the atmospheric transport of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Our analysis focuses on the lockdown period to reduce the differences in the social behavior and highlight those of the weather conditions. As an example, we investigated the contamination cases during March 2020 in two specific French areas located in both continental and coastal areas with regard to the meteorological conditions and the corresponding aerosol properties, the optical depth (AOD) and the Angstrom exponent provided by the AERONET network. The results show that the analysis of aerosol ground-based data can be of interest to assess a virus survey. We found that moderate to strong onshore winds occurring in coastal regions and inducing humid environment and large sea-spray production episodes coincides with smaller COVID-19 contamination rates. We assume that the coagulation of SARS-Cov-2 viral particles with hygroscopic salty sea-spray aerosols might tend to inhibit its viral infectivity via possible reaction with NaCl, especially in high relative humidity environments typical of maritime sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Health in the Mediterranean)
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Article
A Machine Learning Based Ensemble Forecasting Optimization Algorithm for Preseason Prediction of Atlantic Hurricane Activity
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040522 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
In this study, nine different statistical models are constructed using different combinations of predictors, including models with and without projected predictors. Multiple machine learning (ML) techniques are employed to optimize the ensemble predictions by selecting the top performing ensemble members and determining the [...] Read more.
In this study, nine different statistical models are constructed using different combinations of predictors, including models with and without projected predictors. Multiple machine learning (ML) techniques are employed to optimize the ensemble predictions by selecting the top performing ensemble members and determining the weights for each ensemble member. The ML-Optimized Ensemble (ML-OE) forecasts are evaluated against the Simple-Averaging Ensemble (SAE) forecasts. The results show that for the response variables that are predicted with significant skill by individual ensemble members and SAE, such as Atlantic tropical cyclone counts, the performance of SAE is comparable to the best ML-OE results. However, for response variables that are poorly modeled by individual ensemble members, such as Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico major hurricane counts, ML-OE predictions often show higher skill score than individual model forecasts and the SAE predictions. However, neither SAE nor ML-OE was able to improve the forecasts of the response variables when all models show consistent bias. The results also show that increasing the number of ensemble members does not necessarily lead to better ensemble forecasts. The best ensemble forecasts are from the optimally combined subset of models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning Applications in Earth System Science)
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Article
Study of Urban Heat Islands Using Different Urban Canopy Models and Identification Methods
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040521 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
This work aims to compare the performance of the single‑(SLUCM) and multilayer (BEP-Building effect parameterization) urban canopy models (UCMs) coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), along with the application of two urban heat island (UHI) identification methods. The identification methods [...] Read more.
This work aims to compare the performance of the single‑(SLUCM) and multilayer (BEP-Building effect parameterization) urban canopy models (UCMs) coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), along with the application of two urban heat island (UHI) identification methods. The identification methods are: (1) the “classic method”, based on the temperature difference between urban and rural areas; (2) the “local method” based on the temperature difference at each urban location when the model land use is considered urban, and when it is replaced by the dominant rural land use category of the urban surroundings. The study is performed as a case study for the city of Lisbon, Portugal, during the record-breaking August 2003 heatwave event. Two main differences were found in the UHI intensity (UHII) and spatial distribution between the identification methods: a reduction by half in the UHII during nighttime when using the local method; and a dipole signal in the daytime and nighttime UHI spatial pattern when using the classic method, associated with the sheltering effect provided by the high topography in the northern part of the city, that reduces the advective cooling in the lower areas under prevalent northern wind conditions. These results highlight the importance of using the local method in UHI modeling studies to fully isolate urban canopy and regional geographic contributions to the UHII and distribution. Considerable improvements were obtained in the near‑surface temperature representation by coupling WRF with the UCMs but better with SLUCM. The nighttime UHII over the most densely urbanized areas is lower in BEP, which can be linked to its larger nocturnal turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) near the surface and negative sensible heat (SH) fluxes. The latter may be associated with the lower surface skin temperature found in BEP, possibly owing to larger turbulent SH fluxes near the surface. Due to its higher urban TKE, BEP significantly overestimates the planetary boundary layer height compared with SLUCM and observations from soundings. The comparison with a previous study for the city of Lisbon shows that BEP model simulation results heavily rely on the number and distribution of vertical levels within the urban canopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions)
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Article
Snow Processes and Climate Sensitivity in an Arid Mountain Region, Northern Chile
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040520 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2055
Abstract
Seasonal snow and glaciers in arid mountain regions are essential in sustaining human populations, economic activity, and ecosystems, especially in their role as reservoirs. However, they are threatened by global atmospheric changes, in particular by variations in air temperature and their effects on [...] Read more.
Seasonal snow and glaciers in arid mountain regions are essential in sustaining human populations, economic activity, and ecosystems, especially in their role as reservoirs. However, they are threatened by global atmospheric changes, in particular by variations in air temperature and their effects on precipitation phase, snow dynamics and mass balance. In arid environments, small variations in snow mass and energy balance can produce large changes in the amount of available water. This paper provides insights into the impact of global warming on the mass balance of the seasonal snowpack in the mountainous Copiapó river basin in northern Chile. A dataset from an experimental station was combined with reanalysis data to run a physically based snow model at site and catchment scales. The basin received an average annual precipitation of approximately 130 mm from 2001 to 2016, with sublimation losses higher than 70% of the snowpack. Blowing snow sublimation presented an orographic gradient resultant from the decreasing air temperature and windy environment in higher elevations. Under warmer climates, the snowpack will remain insensitive in high elevations (>4000 m a.s.l.), but liquid precipitation will increase at lower heights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Measuring Snow Processes across Scales)
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Article
Measurements of NOx and Development of Land Use Regression Models in an East-African City
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040519 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1975
Abstract
Air pollution causes premature mortality and morbidity globally, but these adverse health effects occur over proportionately in low- and middle-income countries. Lack of both air pollution data and knowledge of its spatial distribution in African countries have been suggested to lead to an [...] Read more.
Air pollution causes premature mortality and morbidity globally, but these adverse health effects occur over proportionately in low- and middle-income countries. Lack of both air pollution data and knowledge of its spatial distribution in African countries have been suggested to lead to an underestimation of health effects from air pollution. This study aims to measure nitrogen oxides (NOx), as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), to develop Land Use Regression (LUR) models in the city of Adama, Ethiopia. NOx and NO2 was measured at over 40 sites during six days in both the wet and dry seasons. Throughout the city, measured mean levels of NOx and NO2 were 29.0 µg/m3 and 13.1 µg/m3, respectively. The developed LUR models explained 68% of the NOx variances and 75% of the NO2. Both models included similar geographical predictor variables (related to roads, industries, and transportation administration areas) as those included in prior LUR models. The models were validated by using leave-one-out cross-validation and tested for spatial autocorrelation and multicollinearity. The performance of the models was good, and they are feasible to use to predict variance in annual average NOx and NO2 concentrations. The models developed will be used in future epidemiological and health impact assessment studies. Such studies may potentially support mitigation action and improve public health. Full article
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Article
Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on Ambient Air Quality in Northwest China (NWC)
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040518 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 was discovered in Wuhan (Hubei) in late 2019 and covered the globe by March 2020. To prevent the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, China imposed a countrywide lockdown that significantly improved the air quality. To investigate the collective effect of SARS-CoV-2 on [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 was discovered in Wuhan (Hubei) in late 2019 and covered the globe by March 2020. To prevent the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, China imposed a countrywide lockdown that significantly improved the air quality. To investigate the collective effect of SARS-CoV-2 on air quality, we analyzed the ambient air quality in five provinces of northwest China (NWC): Shaanxi (SN), Xinjiang (XJ), Gansu (GS), Ningxia (NX) and Qinghai (QH), from January 2019 to December 2020. For this purpose, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), coarse particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) were obtained from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC). In 2020, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 improved by 2.72%, 5.31%, 7.93%, 8.40%, 8.47%, and 2.15%, respectively, as compared with 2019. The PM2.5 failed to comply in SN and XJ; PM10 failed to comply in SN, XJ, and NX with CAAQS Grade II standards (35 µg/m3, 70 µg/m3, annual mean). In a seasonal variation, all the pollutants experienced significant spatial and temporal distribution, e.g., highest in winter and lowest in summer, except O3. Moreover, the average air quality index (AQI) improved by 4.70%, with the highest improvement in SN followed by QH, GS, XJ, and NX. AQI improved in all seasons; significant improvement occurred in winter (December to February) and spring (March to May) when lockdowns, industrial closure etc. were at their peak. The proportion of air quality Class I improved by 32.14%, and the number of days with PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 as primary pollutants decreased while they increased for PM10, CO, and O3 in 2020. This study indicates a significant association between air quality improvement and the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in 2020. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Article
Climatic Effects of Spring Mesoscale Oceanic Eddies in the North Pacific: A Regional Modeling Study
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040517 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
A high-resolution atmospheric model of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) is used to investigate the climatic effects of mesoscale oceanic eddies (OEs) in the North Pacific (NPac) in spring and the respective effects of OEs in the northern NPac associated with the [...] Read more.
A high-resolution atmospheric model of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) is used to investigate the climatic effects of mesoscale oceanic eddies (OEs) in the North Pacific (NPac) in spring and the respective effects of OEs in the northern NPac associated with the Kuroshio Extension (KE) and of OEs in the southern NPac related to the subtropical countercurrent. Results show that mesoscale OEs in the NPac can strengthen the upper-level ridge (trough) in the central (eastern) subtropical NPac, together with markedly weakened (strengthened) westerly winds to its south. The mesoscale OEs in the whole NPac act to weaken the upper-level storm track and strengthen lower-level storm activities in the NPac. However, atmospheric responses to the northern and southern NPac OEs are more prominent. The northern NPac OEs can induce tropospheric barotropic responses with a tripole geopotential height (GPH) anomaly pattern to the north of 30° N, while the OEs in both the northern and southern NPac can enhance the upper-level ridge (trough) in the central (eastern) subtropical NPac. Additionally, the northern NPac OEs can shrink the lower-level subtropical high and weaken the easterly trade winds at the low latitudes, while the southern NPac OEs result in a southward shift of the lower-level subtropical high and an eastward shift of the upper-level westerly jet stream. The southern and northern NPac OEs have similar effects on the storm track, leading to an enhanced lower-level storm track over the KE via moistening the atmospheric boundary layer; and they can also exert significant remote influences on lower- and upper-level storm activities over the Northeast Pacific off the west coast of North America. When the intensities of OEs are doubled in the model, the spatial distribution of atmospheric responses is robust, with a larger and more significant magnitude. Additionally, although OEs are part of the mesoscale oceanic processes, the springtime OEs play an opposite role in mesoscale sea-surface temperature anomalies. These findings point to the potential of improving the forecasts of extratropical springtime storm systems and the projections of their responses to future climate change, by improving the representation of ocean eddy-atmosphere interaction in forecast and climate models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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Article
Associations between Exposure to Industrial Air Pollution and Prevalence of Asthma and Atopic Diseases in Haifa Bay Area
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040516 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Haifa Bay Area (HBA) contains Israel’s principal industrial area, and there are substantial public concerns about health effects from its emissions. We aimed to examine associations between exposure to air pollution from HBA industrial area with prevalent asthma and other atopic diseases at [...] Read more.
Haifa Bay Area (HBA) contains Israel’s principal industrial area, and there are substantial public concerns about health effects from its emissions. We aimed to examine associations between exposure to air pollution from HBA industrial area with prevalent asthma and other atopic diseases at age 17. This is a cross-sectional study. The study population included all adolescents born in Israel and whose medical status was evaluated for mandatory military recruitment by the Israeli medical corps during 1967–2017. We analyzed prevalent asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. We estimated exposure to industrial air pollution by a kriging interpolation of historical SO2 observations and adjusted the associations to the year of birth, SES, school orientation, and traffic pollution. The study population included n = 2,523,745 adolescents, among which 5.9% had prevalent asthma and 4.6% had allergic rhinitis. Residency in HBA was associated with a higher adjusted risk of asthma, compared with non-HBA residency. Still, this association was limited to the three lowest exposure categories, while the highest exposure group had the lowest adjusted risk. Sensitivity analyses and other atopic diseases presented similar results. These results do not provide support for causal relationships between HBA industry-related emissions and prevalent atopic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Human Exposures in Israel)
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Erratum
Erratum: Hussein et al. Indoor Particle Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Exposures in Middle Eastern Microenvironments. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 41
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040515 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
The authors would like to correct the published article [...] Full article
Article
Initial Results of Long-term Continuous Observation of Lightning Discharges by FALMA in Chinese Inland Plateau Region
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040514 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
We started a long-term continuous observation of lightning discharges in the Chinese inland plateau region using a fast antenna lightning mapping array (FALMA). During the first year of observation, 2019, we recorded lightning discharges on 25 days in Yinchuan city, the capital of [...] Read more.
We started a long-term continuous observation of lightning discharges in the Chinese inland plateau region using a fast antenna lightning mapping array (FALMA). During the first year of observation, 2019, we recorded lightning discharges on 25 days in Yinchuan city, the capital of Ningxia. Most of the lightning discharges appeared to occur in the afternoons of individual thunderstorm days in August. We studied the cloud-to-ground (CG) flash percentages, lightning discharge source spatiotemporal distributions, and preliminary breakdown (PB) process characteristics for the two thunderstorm cases that produced the most frequent lightning flashes in 2019 over a wide area. It was found that (1) CG flashes in these two thunderstorms accounted for 28.4% and 32.5% of total lightning flashes, respectively; (2) most lightning discharge sources in these two thunderstorms occurred at temperatures between 5 and −30 °C, with a peak at around −10 °C; and (3) more than 90% of well-mapped PB processes of intracloud (IC) flashes propagated downward. By overlapping the altitudes and the progression directions of the PB processes on the lightning source spatiotemporal distributions, we inferred that the main negative charge of the two storms observed in Ningxia, China, was at a height of around −15 to −25 °C (7 to 9 km) and the main positive charge was at a height of around 5 to 0 °C (2 to 4 km). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling)
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Article
Immediate and Delayed Meteorological Effects on COVID-19 Time-Varying Infectiousness in Tropical Cities
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040513 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
The novel coronavirus, which was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has been spreading globally at an unprecedented rate, leading to the virus being declared a global pandemic by the WHO on 12 March 2020. The clinical disease, COVID-19, associated with [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus, which was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has been spreading globally at an unprecedented rate, leading to the virus being declared a global pandemic by the WHO on 12 March 2020. The clinical disease, COVID-19, associated with the pandemic is caused by the pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Aside from the inherent transmission dynamics, environmental factors were found to be associated with COVID-19. However, most of the evidence documenting the association was from temperate locations. In this study, we examined the association between meteorological factors and the time-varying infectiousness of COVID-19 in the Philippines. We obtained the daily time series from 3 April 2020 to 2 September 2020 of COVID-19 confirmed cases from three major cities in the Philippines, namely Manila, Quezon, and Cebu. Same period city-specific daily average temperature (degrees Celsius; °C), dew point (degrees Celsius; °C), relative humidity (percent; %), air pressure (kilopascal; kPa), windspeed (meters per second; m/s) and visibility (kilometer; km) data were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration—National Climatic Data Center. City-specific COVID-19-related detection and intervention measures such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing and community quarantine measures were extracted from online public resources. We estimated the time-varying reproduction number (Rt) using the serial interval information sourced from the literature. The estimated Rt was used as an outcome variable for model fitting via a generalized additive model, while adjusting for relevant covariates. Results indicated that a same-day and the prior week’s air pressure was positively associated with an increase in Rt by 2.59 (95% CI: 1.25 to 3.94) and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.02 to 3.50), respectively. Same-day RT-PCR was associated with an increase in Rt, while the imposition of community quarantine measures resulted in a decrease in Rt. Our findings suggest that air pressure plays a role in the infectiousness of COVID-19. The determination of the association of air pressure on infectiousness, aside from the testing frequency and community quarantine measures, may aide the current health systems in controlling the COVID-19 infectiousness by integrating such information into an early warning platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biometeorology)
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Article
Forecasting of Extreme Storm Tide Events Using NARX Neural Network-Based Models
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040512 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
The extreme values of high tides are generally caused by a combination of astronomical and meteorological causes, as well as by the conformation of the sea basin. One place where the extreme values of the tide have a considerable practical interest is the [...] Read more.
The extreme values of high tides are generally caused by a combination of astronomical and meteorological causes, as well as by the conformation of the sea basin. One place where the extreme values of the tide have a considerable practical interest is the city of Venice. The MOSE (MOdulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico) system was created to protect Venice from flooding caused by the highest tides. Proper operation of the protection system requires an adequate forecast model of the highest tides, which is able to provide reliable forecasts even some days in advance. Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX) neural networks are particularly effective in predicting time series of hydrological quantities. In this work, the effectiveness of two distinct NARX-based models was demonstrated in predicting the extreme values of high tides in Venice. The first model requires as input values the astronomical tide, barometric pressure, wind speed, and direction, as well as previously observed sea level values. The second model instead takes, as input values, the astronomical tide and the previously observed sea level values, which implicitly take into account the weather conditions. Both models proved capable of predicting the extreme values of high tides with great accuracy, even greater than that of the models currently used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning for Extreme Events)
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Article
Effects of Densification on Urban Microclimate—A Case Study for the City of Vienna
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040511 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
Climate adaptation, mitigation, and protecting strategies are becoming even more important as climate change is intensifying. The impacts of climate change are especially tangible in dense urban areas due to the inherent characteristics of urban structure and materiality. To assess impacts of densification [...] Read more.
Climate adaptation, mitigation, and protecting strategies are becoming even more important as climate change is intensifying. The impacts of climate change are especially tangible in dense urban areas due to the inherent characteristics of urban structure and materiality. To assess impacts of densification on urban climate and potential adaptation strategies a densely populated Viennese district was modeled as a typical sample area for the city of Vienna. The case study analyzed the large-scale densification potential and its potential effects on microclimate, air flow, comfort, and energy demand by developing 3D models of the area showing the base case and densification scenarios. Three methods were deployed to assess the impact of urban densification: Micro-climate analysis (1) explored urban heat island phenomena, wind pattern analysis (2) investigated ventilation and wind comfort at street level, and energy and indoor climate comfort analysis (3) compared construction types and greening scenarios and analyzed their impact on the energy demand and indoor temperatures. Densification has negative impacts on urban microclimates because of reducing wind speeds and thus weakening ventilation of street canyons, as well as accelerating heat island effects and associated impact on the buildings. However, densification also has daytime cooling effects because of larger shaded areas. On buildings, densification may have negative effects especially in the new upper, sun-exposed floors. Construction material has less impact than glazing area and rooftop greening. Regarding adaptation to climate change, the impacts of street greening, green facades, and green roofs were simulated: The 24-h average mean radiant temperature (MRT) at street level can be reduced by up to 15 K during daytime. At night there is only a slight reduction by a few tenths of 1 K MRT. Green facades have a similar effect on MRT reduction, while green roofs show only a slight reduction by a few tenths of 1 K MRT on street level. The results show that if appropriate measures were applied, negative effects of densification could be reduced, and positive effects could be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Design Guidelines for Climate Change)
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Article
Seasonal Variations of Carbonyls and Their Contributions to the Ozone Formation in Urban Atmosphere of Taiyuan, China
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040510 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Ambient carbonyls are critical precursors of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). To better understand the pollution characteristics of carbonyls in Taiyuan, field samplings were conducted, and 13 carbonyls were detected in an urban site of Taiyuan for the four [...] Read more.
Ambient carbonyls are critical precursors of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). To better understand the pollution characteristics of carbonyls in Taiyuan, field samplings were conducted, and 13 carbonyls were detected in an urban site of Taiyuan for the four seasons. The total concentration of carbonyls in the atmosphere was 19.67 ± 8.56 μg/m3. Formaldehyde (7.70 ± 4.78 μg/m3), acetaldehyde (2.95 ± 1.20 μg/m3) and acetone (5.57 ± 2.41 μg/m3) were the dominant carbonyl compounds, accounting for more than 85% of the total carbonyls. The highest values for formaldehyde and acetone occurred in summer and autumn, respectively, and the lowest occurred in winter. The variations for acetaldehyde were not distinct in the four seasons. Formaldehyde and acetone levels increased obviously in the daytime and decreased at night, while acetaldehyde did not show significant diurnal variations. Higher temperature and stronger sunlight intensity could facilitate the photochemical reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and enhance the O3 levels in summer. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde contributed 70–95% of carbonyls’ ozone formation potential (OFP) caused by carbonyls with the highest totals of 268.62 μg/m3 and 38.14 μg/m3, respectively. The highest concentrations of carbonyls from south and southwest winds in summer suggest that the coke industries in the southern Taiyuan Basin should be, firstly, controlled for the alleviation of ozone pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Article
Wind Energy Assessment during High-Impact Winter Storms in Southwestern Europe
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040509 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
The electricity produced through renewable resources is dependent on the variability of weather conditions and, thus, on the availability of the resource, as is the case with wind energy. This study aims to assess the wind resource available and the wind energy potential [...] Read more.
The electricity produced through renewable resources is dependent on the variability of weather conditions and, thus, on the availability of the resource, as is the case with wind energy. This study aims to assess the wind resource available and the wind energy potential (WEP) during the December months for the three years 2017, 2018, and 2019, in southwestern Europe, when several high-impact storms affected the region. Additionally, a comparison of Prandtl’s logarithmic law and Power-law equations for extrapolation of the vertical wind profile is performed for onshore conditions, to evaluate the differences in terms of energy production, with the use of different equations. To assess the effect of the strong winds associated with the storms, 10 m wind components are used, with a 6-hourly temporal resolution, for the December months over the southwestern Europe region (30° N–65° N; 40° W–25° E). Results are compared to the climatology (1981–2010) and show an increase of wind intensity of 1.86 m·s−1 in southwestern Europe during December 2019, and a decrease up to 2.72 m·s−1 in December 2018. WEP is calculated for the selected wind turbine, 4 MW E-126 EP3—ENERCON, as well as the values following the wind resource record, that is, (i) higher values in December 2019 in the offshore and onshore regions, reaching 35 MWh and 20 MWh per day, respectively, and (ii) lower values in December 2018, with 35 MWh and 15 MWh per day for offshore and onshore. Differences in WEP when using the two equations for extrapolation of wind vertical profile reached 60% (40%) in offshore (onshore) regions, except for the Alps, where differences of up to 80% were reached. An additional analysis was made to understand the influence of the coefficients of soil roughness and friction used in each equation (Prandtl’s logarithmic law and Power-law), for the different conditions of onshore and offshore. Finally, it is notable that the highest values of wind energy production occurred on the stormy days affecting southwestern Europe. Therefore, we conclude that these high-impact storms had a positive effect on the wind energy production in this region. Full article
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Article
The Influence of Magnetic Turbulence on the Energetic Particle Transport Upstream of Shock Waves
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040508 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
Energetic particles are ubiquitous in the interplanetary space and their transport properties are strongly influenced by the interaction with magnetic field fluctuations. Numerical experiments have shown that transport in both the parallel and perpendicular directions with respect to the background magnetic field is [...] Read more.
Energetic particles are ubiquitous in the interplanetary space and their transport properties are strongly influenced by the interaction with magnetic field fluctuations. Numerical experiments have shown that transport in both the parallel and perpendicular directions with respect to the background magnetic field is deeply affected by magnetic turbulence spectral properties. Recently, making use of a numerical model with three dimensional isotropic turbulence, the influence of turbulence intermittency and magnetic fluctuations on the energetic particle transport was investigated in the solar wind context. Stimulated by this previous theoretical work, here we analyze the parallel transport of supra-thermal particles upstream of interplanetary shock waves by using in situ particle flux measurements; the aim was to relate particle transport properties to the degree of intermittency of the magnetic field fluctuations and to their relative amplitude at the energetic particle resonant scale measured in the same regions. We selected five quasi-perpendicular and five quasi-parallel shock crossings by the ACE satellite. The analysis clearly shows a tendency to find parallel superdiffusive transport at quasi-perpendicular shocks, with a significantly higher level of the energetic particle fluxes than those observed in the quasi-parallel shocks. Furthermore, the occurrence of anomalous parallel transport is only weakly related to the presence of magnetic field intermittency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Instabilities in Fluids and Plasmas)
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Article
Multiscale Modeling of Convection and Pollutant Transport Associated with Volcanic Eruption and Lava Flow: Application to the April 2007 Eruption of the Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island)
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040507 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Volcanic eruptions can cause damage to land and people living nearby, generate high concentrations of toxic gases, and also create large plumes that limit observations and the performance of forecasting models that rely on these observations. This study investigates the use of micro- [...] Read more.
Volcanic eruptions can cause damage to land and people living nearby, generate high concentrations of toxic gases, and also create large plumes that limit observations and the performance of forecasting models that rely on these observations. This study investigates the use of micro- to meso-scale simulation to represent and predict the convection, transport, and deposit of volcanic pollutants. The case under study is the 2007 eruption of the Piton de la Fournaise, simulated using a high-resolution, coupled lava/atmospheric approach (derived from wildfire/atmosphere coupled code) to account for the strong, localized heat and gaseous fluxes occurring near the vent, over the lava flow, and at the lava–sea interface. Higher resolution requires fluxes over the lava flow to be explicitly simulated to account for the induced convection over the flow, local mixing, and dilution. Comparisons with air quality values at local stations show that the simulation is in good agreement with observations in terms of sulfur concentration and dynamics, and performs better than lower resolution simulation with parameterized surface fluxes. In particular, the explicit representation of the thermal flows associated with lava allows the associated thermal breezes to be represented. This local modification of the wind flow strongly impacts the organization of the volcanic convection (injection height) and the regional transport of the sulfur dioxide emitted at the vent. These results show that explicitly solving volcanic activity/atmosphere complex interactions provides realistic forecasts of induced pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coupled Fire-Atmosphere Simulation)
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Article
Venus Atmospheric Dynamics at Two Altitudes: Akatsuki and Venus Express Cloud Tracking, Ground-Based Doppler Observations and Comparison with Modelling
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040506 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
We present new results of our studies of zonal and meridional winds in both hemispheres of Venus, using ground- and space-based coordinated observations. The results obtained from telescope observations were retrieved with a Doppler velocimetry method. The wind velocities retrieved from space used [...] Read more.
We present new results of our studies of zonal and meridional winds in both hemispheres of Venus, using ground- and space-based coordinated observations. The results obtained from telescope observations were retrieved with a Doppler velocimetry method. The wind velocities retrieved from space used an improved cloud-tracked technique based on the phase correlation between images. We present evidence that the altitude level sensed by our Doppler velocimetry method is approximately four kilometres higher (~4 km) than that using ground-tracked winds (using 380 or 365 nm). Since we often take advantage of coordinated space and ground observations simultaneously, this altitude difference will be very relevant in order to estimate the vertical wind shear at the related heights in future observation campaigns. We also explored a previous coordinated campaign using Akatsuki observations and its Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) at 283 and 365 nm filters, which showed that cloud-tracked winds showed a difference of about 10–15 ms−1, as in the case of the comparison between the Doppler velocimetry winds and the 365 nm cloudtracked winds. The results’ comparison also strongly suggested that the cloud-tracked winds based on the 283 nm filter’s images were sensing at about the same atmospheric altitude level as the Doppler winds. The observational results were compared with the ground-to-thermosphere 3D model developed at the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (IPSL-Venus General Circulation Model (VGCM)) and AFES-Venus General Circulation Model (GCM), at several pressure levels (and related heights). The analysis and results showed the following: (1) additional confirmation of the coherence and complementarity in the results provided by these techniques on both the spatial and temporal time scales of the two methods; (2) we noticed in the following that the results from the two different Akatsuki/UVI filters (283 and 365 nm) showed an average difference of about 10–15 ± 5 ms−1, and we suggest this may be related to SO2 atmospheric fluctuations and the particular conditions in the coordinated observing time window; (3) we present evidence indicating that, in the context of our observations, visible Doppler methods (highly self-consistent) seem to sense wind speeds at a vertical level closer to or within the range sensed by the UVI 283 nm filter images (again, in the context of our observations); (4) modelling predicted wind profiles suggests that the layers of the atmosphere of Venus sensed by the methods referred to in Point 3 differ by approximately four km in altitude (~4 ± 2 km) regarding the cloud-tracked winds retrieved using 365 or 380 nm images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observations of Venus Atmosphere)
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Article
Atmospheric Thermal and Dynamic Vertical Structures of Summer Hourly Precipitation in Jiulong of the Tibetan Plateau
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040505 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
It is an important to study atmospheric thermal and dynamic vertical structures over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and their impact on precipitation by using long-term observation at representative stations. This study exhibits the observational facts of summer precipitation variation on subdiurnal scale and [...] Read more.
It is an important to study atmospheric thermal and dynamic vertical structures over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and their impact on precipitation by using long-term observation at representative stations. This study exhibits the observational facts of summer precipitation variation on subdiurnal scale and its atmospheric thermal and dynamic vertical structures over the TP with hourly precipitation and intensive soundings in Jiulong during 2013–2020. It is found that precipitation amount and frequency are low in the daytime and high in the nighttime, and hourly precipitation greater than 1 mm mostly occurs at nighttime. Weak precipitation during the daytime may be caused by air advection, and strong precipitation at nighttime may be closely related with air convection. Both humidity and wind speed profiles show obvious fluctuation when precipitation occurs, and the greater the precipitation intensity, the larger the fluctuation. Moreover, the fluctuation of wind speed is small in the morning, large at noon and largest at night, presenting a similar diurnal cycle to that of convective activity over the TP, which is conductive to nighttime precipitation. Additionally, the inverse layer is accompanied by the inverse humidity layer, and wind speed presents multi-peaks distribution in its vertical structure. Both of these are closely related with the underlying surface and topography of Jiulong. More studies on physical mechanism and numerical simulation are necessary for better understanding the atmospheric phenomenon over the TP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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Article
Changes in Air Quality Associated with Mobility Trends and Meteorological Conditions during COVID-19 Lockdown in Northern England, UK
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040504 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2646
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered catastrophic impacts on human life, but at the same time demonstrated positive impacts on air quality. In this study, the impact of COVID-19 lockdown interventions on five major air pollutants during the pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown periods is analysed [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered catastrophic impacts on human life, but at the same time demonstrated positive impacts on air quality. In this study, the impact of COVID-19 lockdown interventions on five major air pollutants during the pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown periods is analysed in three urban areas in Northern England: Leeds, Sheffield, and Manchester. A Generalised Additive Model (GAM) was implemented to eliminate the effects of meteorological factors from air quality to understand the variations in air pollutant levels exclusively caused by reductions in emissions. Comparison of lockdown with pre-lockdown period exhibited noticeable reductions in concentrations of NO (56.68–74.16%), NO2 (18.06–47.15%), and NOx (35.81–56.52%) for measured data. However, PM10 and PM2.5 levels demonstrated positive gain during lockdown ranging from 21.96–62.00% and 36.24–80.31%, respectively. Comparison of lockdown period with the equivalent period in 2019 also showed reductions in air pollutant concentrations, ranging 43.31–69.75% for NO, 41.52–62.99% for NOx, 37.13–55.54% for NO2, 2.36–19.02% for PM10, and 29.93–40.26% for PM2.5. Back trajectory analysis was performed to show the air mass origin during the pre-lockdown and lockdown periods. Further, the analysis showed a positive association of mobility data with gaseous pollutants and a negative correlation with particulate matter. Full article
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Article
Exploring the Thermal Microcosms at the Forest Floor—A Case Study of a Temperate Forest
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040503 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
With the expected changes in summer weather due to global warming, knowledge of the microclimatic variability at the forest floor dramatically increased in importance for silviculture, wildfire management and biodiversity issues. Thus, during the warm season in 2014, thermal aspects within a heterogeneous [...] Read more.
With the expected changes in summer weather due to global warming, knowledge of the microclimatic variability at the forest floor dramatically increased in importance for silviculture, wildfire management and biodiversity issues. Thus, during the warm season in 2014, thermal aspects within a heterogeneous forest were recorded at nine sites and compared to data from a nearby weather station. It was found that soil (−5 cm) and near-surface (0–2 cm) temperatures under shaded conditions stayed remarkably cooler than temporarily or fully radiated spots inside and outside the forest; largest differences occurred in maxima (July: 22.5 °C to 53.5 °C). Solar radiation was found to be the main driver for the strong heating of near-surface microhabitats, which could be reinforced by the vegetation type (moss). The weather station widely reflected the average condition on forest floor, but lacks the biological meaningful temperature extremes. The measurement system (internal versus external sensor) resulted in differences of up to 6 K. The findings underline the importance of old or dense stands for maintaining cool microrefugia. However, also the need for careful selection and analysis of microclimatic measurements in forests, representative for specific microhabitats, under consideration of ground vegetation modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality Assessment and Management)
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Article
Particle Size Analysis of African Dust Haze over the Last 20 Years: A Focus on the Extreme Event of June 2020
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040502 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
Over the last decades, the impact of mineral dust from African deserts on human health and climate has been of great interest to the scientific community. In this paper, the climatological analysis of dusty events of the past 20 years in the Caribbean [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, the impact of mineral dust from African deserts on human health and climate has been of great interest to the scientific community. In this paper, the climatological analysis of dusty events of the past 20 years in the Caribbean area has been performed using a particulate approach. The focus is made on June 2020 extreme event dubbed “Godzilla”. To carry out this study, different types of data were used (ground-based, satellites, model, and soundings) on several sites in the Caribbean islands. First, the magnitude of June 2020 event was clearly highlighted using satellite imagery. During the peak of this event, the value of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μμm (PM10) reached a value 9 times greater than the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization in one day. Thereafter, the PM10, the aerosol optical depth, and the volume particle size distribution analyses exhibited their maximum values for June 2020. We also highlighted the exceptional characteristics of the Saharan air layer in terms of thickness and wind speed for this period. Finally, our results showed that the more the proportion of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μμm (PM2.5) in PM10 increases, the more the influence of sea salt aerosols is significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Estimation)
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Article
The Influence of Large-Scale Environment on the Extremely Active Tropical Cyclone Activity in November 2019 over the Western North Pacific
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040501 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
In November 2019, tropical cyclone (TC) frequency over the western North Pacific reached its record high. In this study, the possible causes and formation mechanisms of that record high TC frequency are investigated by analyzing the effect of large-scale environmental factors. A comparison [...] Read more.
In November 2019, tropical cyclone (TC) frequency over the western North Pacific reached its record high. In this study, the possible causes and formation mechanisms of that record high TC frequency are investigated by analyzing the effect of large-scale environmental factors. A comparison between the extremely active TC years and extremely inactive TC years is performed to show the importance of the large-scale environment. The contributions of several dynamic and thermodynamic environmental factors are examined on the basis of two genesis potential indexes and the box difference index that can measure the relative contributions of large-scale environmental factors to the change in TC genesis frequency. Results indicate that dynamical factors played a more important role in TC genesis in November 2019 than thermodynamic factors. The main contributions were from enhanced low-level vorticity and strong upward motion accompanied by positive anomalies in local sea surface temperature, while the minor contribution was from changes in vertical wind shear. Changes in these large-scale environmental factors are possibly related to sea surface temperature anomalies over the Pacific (e.g., strong Pacific meridional mode). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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Article
The Challenge in the Management of Historic Trees in Urban Environments during Climate Change: The Case of Corso Trieste (Rome, Italy)
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040500 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
This study carries out a quantitative analysis of the impact on microclimate (air temperature and thermal comfort) of a row of 165 historical Pinus pinea L. located in a central neighbourhood of Rome (Italy). The analysis starts from a qualitative general analysis on [...] Read more.
This study carries out a quantitative analysis of the impact on microclimate (air temperature and thermal comfort) of a row of 165 historical Pinus pinea L. located in a central neighbourhood of Rome (Italy). The analysis starts from a qualitative general analysis on the stressful conditions leading to tree decline in the urban environment especially during extreme climate change phenomena. Subsequently, the effects of planting new types of trees are assessed using ENVI-met, a 3D prognostic non-hydrostatic model for the simulation of surface-plant-air interactions. Results, obtained by simulating three different scenarios in which the trees are first removed and then modified, show that a gradual renewal of the existing trees, based on priority criteria of maturity or senescence, vegetative and phytosanitary conditions, efficiency of ecosystem services and safety for citizens, has positive effects on thermal comfort. By integrating current results and scientific literature, the final aim of this work is to provide stakeholders with a strategic and systemic planning methodology, which, based on the innovative integrated use of tree management and modelling tools, may (i) enhance the benefits of greening in a scenario of climate change and (ii) lead to intervention strategies based on complementarity between conservation of existing trees and tree renewal. Full article
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Article
Addressing Missing Environmental Data via a Machine Learning Scheme
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040499 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
An important aspect in environmental sciences is the study of air quality, using statistical methods (environmental statistics) which utilize large datasets of climatic parameters. The air-quality-monitoring networks that operate in urban areas provide data on the most important pollutants, which, via environmental statistics, [...] Read more.
An important aspect in environmental sciences is the study of air quality, using statistical methods (environmental statistics) which utilize large datasets of climatic parameters. The air-quality-monitoring networks that operate in urban areas provide data on the most important pollutants, which, via environmental statistics, can be used for the development of continuous surfaces of pollutants’ concentrations. Generating ambient air-quality maps can help guide policy makers and researchers to formulate measures to minimize the adverse effects. The information needed for a mapping application can be obtained by employing spatial interpolation methods to the available data, for generating estimations of air-quality distributions. This study used point-monitoring data from the network of stations that operates in Athens, Greece. A machine-learning scheme was applied as a method to spatially estimate pollutants’ concentrations, and the results can be effectively used to implement missing values and provide representative data for statistical analyses purposes. Full article
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Article
Effect of Air Temperature Increase on Changes in Thermal Regime of the Oder and Neman Rivers Flowing into the Baltic Sea
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040498 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
The paper presents long-term changes in water temperature in two rivers, Oder and Neman, with catchments showing different climatic conditions (with dominance of marine climate in the case of the Oder and continental climate in the case of the Neman River). A statistically [...] Read more.
The paper presents long-term changes in water temperature in two rivers, Oder and Neman, with catchments showing different climatic conditions (with dominance of marine climate in the case of the Oder and continental climate in the case of the Neman River). A statistically significant increase in mean annual water temperature was recorded for four observation stations, ranging from 0.17 to 0.39 °C dec−1. At the seasonal scale, for the winter half-year, water temperature increase varied from 0.17 to 0.26 °C dec−1, and for the summer half-year from 0.17 to 0.50 °C dec−1. In three cases (Odra-Brzeg, Odra-Słubice, Niemen-Grodno), the recorded changes referred to the scale of changes in air temperature. For the fourth station on Neman (Smalininkai), an increase in water temperature in the river was considerably slower than air temperature increase. It should be associated with the substantial role of local conditions (non-climatic) affecting the thermal regime in that profile. Short-term forecast of changes in water temperature showed its further successive increase, a situation unfavorable for the functioning of these ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Climate on the Water Environment)
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Article
Impact Study of FY-3B MWRI Data Assimilation in WRFDA
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040497 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
In the first attempt to configure the Fengyun-3B satellite’s Microwave Radiation Imager (MWRI) radiance data in the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model’s Data Assimilation system (WRFDA), the impact of MWRI data assimilation on the analysis and forecast of Typhoon Son-Tinh in 2012 was [...] Read more.
In the first attempt to configure the Fengyun-3B satellite’s Microwave Radiation Imager (MWRI) radiance data in the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model’s Data Assimilation system (WRFDA), the impact of MWRI data assimilation on the analysis and forecast of Typhoon Son-Tinh in 2012 was evaluated with WRFDA’s three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data-assimilation scheme. Compared to a benchmark experiment with no MWRI data, assimilating MWRI radiances improved the analyses of typhoon central sea level pressure (CSLP), warm core structure, and wind speed. Moreover, verified with European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis data, significant improvements in model variable forecast, such as geopotential height and specific humidity, were produced. Substantial error reductions in track, CSLP, and maximum-wind-speed forecasts with MWRI assimilation was also obtained from analysis time to 48 h forecast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling)
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Article
PM2.5 Magnetic Properties in Relation to Urban Combustion Sources in Southern West Africa
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040496 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
The physico-chemical characteristics of particulate matter (PM) in African cities remain poorly known due to scarcity of observation networks. Magnetic parameters of PM are robust proxies for the emissions of Fe-bearing particles. This study reports the first magnetic investigation of PM2.5 (PM with [...] Read more.
The physico-chemical characteristics of particulate matter (PM) in African cities remain poorly known due to scarcity of observation networks. Magnetic parameters of PM are robust proxies for the emissions of Fe-bearing particles. This study reports the first magnetic investigation of PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic size below 2.5 μm) in Africa performed on weekly PM2.5 filters collected in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) and Cotonou (Benin) between 2015 and 2017. The magnetic mineralogy is dominated by magnetite-like low coercivity minerals. Mass normalized SIRM are 1.65 × 10−2 A m2 kg−1 and 2.28 × 10−2 A m2 kg−1 for Abidjan and Cotonou respectively. Hard coercivity material (S-ratio = 0.96 and MDF = 33 mT) is observed during the dry dusty season. Wood burning emits less iron oxides by PM2.5 mass when compared to traffic sources. PM2.5 magnetic granulometry has a narrow range regardless of the site or season. The excellent correlation between the site-averaged element carbon concentrations and SIRM suggests that PM2.5 magnetic parameters are linked to primary particulate emission from combustion sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Magnetism Applied to the Study of Atmospheric Aerosols)
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Review
Future Climate Change Impacts on European Viticulture: A Review on Recent Scientific Advances
Atmosphere 2021, 12(4), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12040495 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4316
Abstract
Climate change is a continuous spatiotemporal reality, possibly endangering the viability of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in the future. Europe emerges as an especially responsive area where the grapevine is largely recognised as one of the most important crops, playing a [...] Read more.
Climate change is a continuous spatiotemporal reality, possibly endangering the viability of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in the future. Europe emerges as an especially responsive area where the grapevine is largely recognised as one of the most important crops, playing a key environmental and socio-economic role. The mounting evidence on significant impacts of climate change on viticulture urges the scientific community in investigating the potential evolution of these impacts in the upcoming decades. In this review work, a first attempt for the compilation of selected scientific research on this subject, during a relatively recent time frame (2010–2020), is implemented. For this purpose, a thorough investigation through multiple search queries was conducted and further screened by focusing exclusively on the predicted productivity parameters (phenology timing, product quality and yield) and cultivation area alteration. Main findings on the potential impacts of future climate change are described as changes in grapevine phenological timing, alterations in grape and wine composition, heterogeneous effects on grapevine yield, the expansion into areas that were previously unsuitable for grapevine cultivation and significant geographical displacements in traditional growing areas. These compiled findings may facilitate and delineate the implementation of effective adaptation and mitigation strategies, ultimately potentiating the future sustainability of European viticulture. Full article
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