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Cells, Volume 13, Issue 11 (June-1 2024) – 110 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cells (ISSN 2073-4409) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal which provides an advanced forum for studies related to cell biology, molecular biology and biophysics. It publishes reviews, research articles, communications and technical notes. Our aim is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. The Spanish Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (SEBBM), Nordic Autophagy Society (NAS), Spanish Society of Hematology and Hemotherapy (SEHH) and Society for Regenerative Medicine (Russian Federation) (RPO) are affiliated with Cells and their members receive discounts on the article processing charges.
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18 pages, 1645 KiB  
Review
Prospects and Potential for Chimerism Analysis after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
by Saori Miura, Koki Ueda, Keiji Minakawa, Kenneth E. Nollet and Kazuhiko Ikeda
Cells 2024, 13(11), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110993 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Chimerism analysis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation serves to confirm engraftment, indicate relapse of hematologic malignancy, and attribute graft failure to either immune rejection or poor graft function. Short tandem repeat PCR (STR-PCR) is the prevailing method, followed by quantitative real-time PCR [...] Read more.
Chimerism analysis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation serves to confirm engraftment, indicate relapse of hematologic malignancy, and attribute graft failure to either immune rejection or poor graft function. Short tandem repeat PCR (STR-PCR) is the prevailing method, followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), with detection limits of 1–5% and 0.1%, respectively. Chimerism assays using digital PCR or next-generation sequencing, both of which are more sensitive than STR-PCR, are increasingly used. Stable mixed chimerism is usually not associated with poor outcomes in non-malignant diseases, but recipient chimerism may foretell relapse of hematologic malignancies, so higher detection sensitivity may be beneficial in such cases. Thus, the need for and the type of intervention, e.g., immunosuppression regimen, donor lymphocyte infusion, and/or salvage second transplantation, should be guided by donor chimerism in the context of the feature and/or residual malignant cells of the disease to be treated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Allogeneic Cell Therapy)
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22 pages, 31078 KiB  
Article
Establishment of Canine Oral Mucosal Melanoma Cell Lines and Their Xenogeneic Animal Models
by Shumin Li, Zichen Liu, Jinbao Lv, Di Lv, Huanming Xu, Hao Shi, Gang Liu, Degui Lin and Yipeng Jin
Cells 2024, 13(11), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110992 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Canine oral melanoma is the most prevalent malignant tumor in dogs and has a poor prognosis due to its high aggressiveness and high metastasis and recurrence rates. More research is needed into its treatment and to understand its pathogenic factors. In this study, [...] Read more.
Canine oral melanoma is the most prevalent malignant tumor in dogs and has a poor prognosis due to its high aggressiveness and high metastasis and recurrence rates. More research is needed into its treatment and to understand its pathogenic factors. In this study, we isolated a canine oral mucosal melanoma (COMM) cell line designated as COMM6605, which has now been stably passaged for more than 100 generations, with a successful monoclonal assay and a cell multiplication time of 22.2 h. G-banded karyotype analysis of the COMM6605 cell line revealed an abnormal chromosome count ranging from 45 to 74, with the identification of a double-armed chromosome as the characteristic marker chromosome of this cell line. The oral intralingual and dorsal subcutaneous implantation models of BALB/c-nu mice were successfully established; Melan-A (MLANA), S100 beta protein (S100β), PNL2, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) were stably expressed positively in the canine oral tumor sections, tumor cell lines, and tumor sections of tumor-bearing mice. Sublines COMM6605-Luc-EGFP and COMM6605-Cherry were established through lentiviral transfection, with COMM6605-Luc-EGFP co-expressing firefly luciferase (Luc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and COMM6605-Cherry expressing the Cherry fluorescent protein gene. The COMM6605-Luc-EGFP fluorescent cell subline was injected via the tail vein and caused lung and lymph node metastasis, as detected by mouse live imaging, which can be used as an animal model to simulate the latter steps of hematogenous spread during tumor metastasis. The canine oral melanoma cell line COMM6605 and two sublines isolated and characterized in this study can offer a valuable model for studying mucosal melanoma. Full article
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23 pages, 799 KiB  
Review
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps: A Crucial Factor in Post-Surgical Abdominal Adhesion Formation
by Yuqing Lu, Julia Elrod, Martin Herrmann, Jasmin Knopf and Michael Boettcher
Cells 2024, 13(11), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110991 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Post-surgical abdominal adhesions, although poorly understood, are highly prevalent. The molecular processes underlying their formation remain elusive. This review aims to assess the relationship between neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and the generation of postoperative peritoneal adhesions and to discuss methods for mitigating peritoneal [...] Read more.
Post-surgical abdominal adhesions, although poorly understood, are highly prevalent. The molecular processes underlying their formation remain elusive. This review aims to assess the relationship between neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and the generation of postoperative peritoneal adhesions and to discuss methods for mitigating peritoneal adhesions. A keyword or medical subject heading (MeSH) search for all original articles and reviews was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. It included studies assessing peritoneal adhesion reformation after abdominal surgery from 2003 to 2023. After assessing for eligibility, the selected articles were evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist for qualitative research. The search yielded 127 full-text articles for assessment of eligibility, of which 7 studies met our criteria and were subjected to a detailed quality review using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. The selected studies offer a comprehensive analysis of adhesion pathogenesis with a special focus on the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the development of peritoneal adhesions. Current interventional strategies are examined, including the use of mechanical barriers, advances in regenerative medicine, and targeted molecular therapies. In particular, this review emphasizes the potential of NET-targeted interventions as promising strategies to mitigate postoperative adhesion development. Evidence suggests that in addition to their role in innate defense against infections and autoimmune diseases, NETs also play a crucial role in the formation of peritoneal adhesions after surgery. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target NETs are emerging as significant considerations for researchers. Continued research is vital to fully elucidate the relationship between NETs and post-surgical adhesion formation to develop effective treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formation, Aggregation, Persistence, and Maturation of NETs)
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30 pages, 2551 KiB  
Systematic Review
Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Temporomandibular Joint Repair: A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies
by Yuanyuan Jiang, Jiajun Shi, Wenjun Di, Kristeen Ye Wen Teo and Wei Seong Toh
Cells 2024, 13(11), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110990 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a heterogeneous group of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, and associated structures. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising therapy for TMJ repair. This systematic review aims to consolidate findings from [...] Read more.
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a heterogeneous group of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, and associated structures. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising therapy for TMJ repair. This systematic review aims to consolidate findings from the preclinical animal studies evaluating MSC-based therapies, including MSCs, their secretome, and extracellular vesicles (EVs), for the treatment of TMJ cartilage/osteochondral defects and osteoarthritis (OA). Following the PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant studies. A total of 23 studies involving 125 mice, 149 rats, 470 rabbits, and 74 goats were identified. Compliance with the ARRIVE guidelines was evaluated for quality assessment, while the SYRCLE risk of bias tool was used to assess the risk of bias for the studies. Generally, MSC-based therapies demonstrated efficacy in TMJ repair across animal models of TMJ defects and OA. In most studies, animals treated with MSCs, their derived secretome, or EVs displayed improved morphological, histological, molecular, and behavioral pain outcomes, coupled with positive effects on cellular proliferation, migration, and matrix synthesis, as well as immunomodulation. However, unclear risk in bias and incomplete reporting highlight the need for standardized outcome measurements and reporting in future investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering and Regeneration)
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17 pages, 7054 KiB  
Article
WISP-1 Regulates Cardiac Fibrosis by Promoting Cardiac Fibroblasts’ Activation and Collagen Processing
by Ze Li, Helen Williams, Molly L. Jackson, Jason L. Johnson and Sarah J. George
Cells 2024, 13(11), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110989 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Hypertension induces cardiac fibrotic remodelling characterised by the phenotypic switching of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and collagen deposition. We tested the hypothesis that Wnt1-inducible signalling pathway protein-1 (WISP-1) promotes CFs’ phenotypic switch, type I collagen synthesis, and in vivo fibrotic remodelling. The treatment of [...] Read more.
Hypertension induces cardiac fibrotic remodelling characterised by the phenotypic switching of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and collagen deposition. We tested the hypothesis that Wnt1-inducible signalling pathway protein-1 (WISP-1) promotes CFs’ phenotypic switch, type I collagen synthesis, and in vivo fibrotic remodelling. The treatment of human CFs (HCFs, n = 16) with WISP-1 (500 ng/mL) induced a phenotypic switch (α-smooth muscle actin-positive) and type I procollagen cleavage to an intermediate form of collagen (pC-collagen) in conditioned media after 24h, facilitating collagen maturation. WISP-1-induced collagen processing was mediated by Akt phosphorylation via integrin β1, and disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 2 (ADAMTS-2). WISP-1 wild-type (WISP-1+/+) mice and WISP-1 knockout (WISP-1−/−) mice (n = 5–7) were subcutaneously infused with angiotensin II (AngII, 1000 ng/kg/min) for 28 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed the deletion of WISP-1 attenuated type I collagen deposition in the coronary artery perivascular area compared to WISP-1+/+ mice after a 28-day AngII infusion, and therefore, the deletion of WISP-1 attenuated AngII-induced cardiac fibrosis in vivo. Collectively, our findings demonstrated WISP-1 is a critical mediator in cardiac fibrotic remodelling, by promoting CFs’ activation via the integrin β1-Akt signalling pathway, and induced collagen processing and maturation via ADAMTS-2. Thereby, the modulation of WISP-1 levels could provide potential therapeutic targets in clinical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tissues and Organs)
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18 pages, 6898 KiB  
Article
Mecp2 Deficiency in Peripheral Sensory Neuron Improves Cognitive Function by Enhancing Hippocampal Dendritic Spine Densities in Mice
by Yuting Feng, Jingge Wang, Jun Liu, Yinwei Zhou, Ying Jiang, Wenhui Zhou, Feng Wu, Xingjun Liu and Lin Luo
Cells 2024, 13(11), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110988 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2) is an epigenetic modulator and numerous studies have explored its impact on the central nervous system manifestations. However, little attention has been given to its potential contributions to the peripheral nervous system (PNS). To investigate the regulation [...] Read more.
Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2) is an epigenetic modulator and numerous studies have explored its impact on the central nervous system manifestations. However, little attention has been given to its potential contributions to the peripheral nervous system (PNS). To investigate the regulation of Mecp2 in the PNS on specific central regions, we generated Mecp2fl/flAdvillincre mice with the sensory-neuron-specific deletion of the Mecp2 gene and found the mutant mice had a heightened sensitivity to temperature, which, however, did not affect the sense of motion, social behaviors, and anxiety-like behavior. Notably, in comparison to Mecp2fl/fl mice, Mecp2fl/flAdvillincre mice exhibited improved learning and memory abilities. The levels of hippocampal synaptophysin and PSD95 proteins were higher in Mecp2fl/flAdvillincre mice than in Mecp2fl/fl mice. Golgi staining revealed a significant increase in total spine density, and dendritic arborization in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons of Mecp2fl/flAdvillincre mice compared to Mecp2fl/fl mice. In addition, the activation of the BDNF-TrkB-CREB1 pathway was observed in the hippocampus and spinal cord of Mecp2fl/flAdvillincre mice. Intriguingly, the hippocampal BDNF/CREB1 signaling pathway in mutant mice was initiated within 5 days after birth. Our findings suggest a potential therapeutic strategy targeting the BDNF-TrkB-CREB1 signaling pathway and peripheral somasensory neurons to treat learning and cognitive deficits associated with Mecp2 disorders. Full article
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13 pages, 2610 KiB  
Article
Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate Combined with Ultra-Purified Alginate Bioresorbable Gel Enhances Intervertebral Disc Repair in a Canine Model: A Preclinical Proof-of-Concept Study
by Daisuke Ukeba, Yoko Ishikawa, Katsuhisa Yamada, Takashi Ohnishi, Hiroyuki Tachi, Khin Khin Tha, Norimasa Iwasaki and Hideki Sudo
Cells 2024, 13(11), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110987 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Although discectomy is commonly performed for lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation, the capacity for tissue repair after surgery is limited, resulting in residual lower back pain, recurrence of IVD herniation, and progression of IVD degeneration. Cell-based therapies, as one-step procedures, are desirable for [...] Read more.
Although discectomy is commonly performed for lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation, the capacity for tissue repair after surgery is limited, resulting in residual lower back pain, recurrence of IVD herniation, and progression of IVD degeneration. Cell-based therapies, as one-step procedures, are desirable for enhancing IVD repair. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of a combination of newly developed ultra-purified alginate (UPAL) gel and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) implantation for IVD repair after discectomy. Prior to an in vivo study, the cell concentration abilities of three commercially available preparation kits for creating the BMAC were compared by measuring the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells harvested from the bone marrow of rabbits. Subsequently, canine-derived BMAC was tested in a canine model using a kit which had the highest concentration rate. At 24 weeks after implantation, we evaluated the changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals as well as histological degeneration grade and immunohistochemical analysis results for type II and type I collagen-positive cells in the treated IVDs. In all quantitative evaluations, such as MRI and histological and immunohistochemical analyses of IVD degeneration, BMAC-UPAL implantation significantly suppressed the progression of IVD degeneration compared to discectomy and UPAL alone. This preclinical proof-of-concept study demonstrated the potential efficacy of BMAC-UPAL gel as a therapeutic strategy for implementation after discectomy, which was superior to UPAL and discectomy alone in terms of tissue repair and regenerative potential. Full article
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27 pages, 3818 KiB  
Article
Ileal Crohn’s Disease Exhibits Reduced Activity of Phospholipase C-β3-Dependent Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
by Tomoaki Ando, Ikuo Takazawa, Zachary T. Spencer, Ryoji Ito, Yoshiaki Tomimori, Zbigniew Mikulski, Kenji Matsumoto, Tohru Ishitani, Lee A. Denson, Yu Kawakami, Yuko Kawakami, Jiro Kitaura, Yashi Ahmed and Toshiaki Kawakami
Cells 2024, 13(11), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110986 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Crohn’s disease is a chronic, debilitating, inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we report a critical role of phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) in intestinal homeostasis. In PLC-β3-deficient mice, exposure to oral dextran sodium sulfate induced lethality and severe inflammation in the small intestine. The lethality was [...] Read more.
Crohn’s disease is a chronic, debilitating, inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we report a critical role of phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) in intestinal homeostasis. In PLC-β3-deficient mice, exposure to oral dextran sodium sulfate induced lethality and severe inflammation in the small intestine. The lethality was due to PLC-β3 deficiency in multiple non-hematopoietic cell types. PLC-β3 deficiency resulted in reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which is essential for homeostasis and the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium. PLC-β3 regulated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) at transcriptional, epigenetic, and, potentially, protein–protein interaction levels. PLC-β3-deficient IECs were unable to respond to stimulation by R-spondin 1, an enhancer of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Reduced expression of PLC-β3 and its signature genes was found in biopsies of patients with ileal Crohn’s disease. PLC-β regulation of Wnt signaling was evolutionally conserved in Drosophila. Our data indicate that a reduction in PLC-β3-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of ileal Crohn’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Inflammation: The Cause of all Diseases 2.0)
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20 pages, 10584 KiB  
Article
Increasing GSH-Px Activity and Activating Wnt Pathway Promote Fine Wool Growth in FGF5-Edited Sheep
by Xue-Ling Xu, Su-Jun Wu, Shi-Yu Qi, Ming-Ming Chen, Zhi-Mei Liu, Rui Zhang, Yue Zhao, Shun-Qi Liu, Wen-Di Zhou, Jin-Long Zhang, Xiao-Sheng Zhang, Shou-Long Deng, Kun Yu, Yan Li and Zheng-Xing Lian
Cells 2024, 13(11), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110985 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) plays key roles in promoting the transition from the anagen to catagen during the hair follicle cycle. The sheep serves as an excellent model for studying hair growth and is frequently utilized in various research processes [...] Read more.
Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) plays key roles in promoting the transition from the anagen to catagen during the hair follicle cycle. The sheep serves as an excellent model for studying hair growth and is frequently utilized in various research processes related to human skin diseases. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate four FGF5-edited Dorper sheep and only low levels of FGF5 were detected in the edited sheep. The density of fine wool in GE sheep was markedly increased, and the proportion of fine wool with a diameter of 14.4–20.0 μm was significantly higher. The proliferation signal in the skin of gene-edited (GE) sheep was stronger than in wild-type (WT) sheep. FGF5 editing decreased cortisol concentration in the skin, further activated the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and regulated the expression of Wnt signaling pathways containing Wnt agonists (Rspondins, Rspos) and antagonists (Notum) in hair regeneration. We suggest that FGF5 not only mediates the activation of antioxidant pathways by cortisol, which constitutes a highly coordinated microenvironment in hair follicle cells, but also influences key signals of the Wnt pathway to regulate secondary hair follicle (SHF) development. Overall, our findings here demonstrate that FGF5 plays a significant role in regulating SHF growth in sheep and potentially serves as a molecular marker of fine wool growth in sheep breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Signalings in Hair Regeneration)
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26 pages, 5445 KiB  
Article
Myocardin-Related Transcription Factor Mediates Epithelial Fibrogenesis in Polycystic Kidney Disease
by Zsuzsanna Lichner, Mei Ding, Tarang Khare, Qinghong Dan, Raquel Benitez, Mercédesz Praszner, Xuewen Song, Rola Saleeb, Boris Hinz, York Pei, Katalin Szászi and András Kapus
Cells 2024, 13(11), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110984 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by extensive cyst formation and progressive fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby the loss/loss-of-function of Polycystin 1 or 2 (PC1/2) provokes fibrosis are largely unknown. The small GTPase RhoA has been recently implicated in cystogenesis, and [...] Read more.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by extensive cyst formation and progressive fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby the loss/loss-of-function of Polycystin 1 or 2 (PC1/2) provokes fibrosis are largely unknown. The small GTPase RhoA has been recently implicated in cystogenesis, and we identified the RhoA/cytoskeleton/myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) pathway as an emerging mediator of epithelium-induced fibrogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that MRTF is activated by PC1/2 loss and plays a critical role in the fibrogenic reprogramming of the epithelium. The loss of PC1 or PC2, induced by siRNA in vitro, activated RhoA and caused cytoskeletal remodeling and robust nuclear MRTF translocation and overexpression. These phenomena were also manifested in PKD1 (RC/RC) and PKD2 (WS25/−) mice, with MRTF translocation and overexpression occurring predominantly in dilated tubules and the cyst-lining epithelium, respectively. In epithelial cells, a large cohort of PC1/PC2 downregulation-induced genes was MRTF-dependent, including cytoskeletal, integrin-related, and matricellular/fibrogenic proteins. Epithelial MRTF was necessary for the paracrine priming of the fibroblast–myofibroblast transition. Thus, MRTF acts as a prime inducer of epithelial fibrogenesis in PKD. We propose that RhoA is a common upstream inducer of both histological hallmarks of PKD: cystogenesis and fibrosis. Full article
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20 pages, 3637 KiB  
Article
Deletion of the Murine Ortholog of the Human 9p21.3 Locus Leads to Insulin Resistance and Obesity in Hypercholesterolemic Mice
by Sanna Kettunen, Tuisku Suoranta, Sadegh Beikverdi, Minja Heikkilä, Anna Slita, Iida Räty, Elias Ylä-Herttuala, Katariina Öörni, Anna-Kaisa Ruotsalainen and Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Cells 2024, 13(11), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110983 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The 9p21.3 genomic locus is a hot spot for disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and its strongest associations are with coronary artery disease (CAD). The disease-associated SNPs are located within the sequence of a long noncoding RNA ANRIL, which potentially contributes to atherogenesis by [...] Read more.
The 9p21.3 genomic locus is a hot spot for disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and its strongest associations are with coronary artery disease (CAD). The disease-associated SNPs are located within the sequence of a long noncoding RNA ANRIL, which potentially contributes to atherogenesis by regulating vascular cell stress and proliferation, but also affects pancreatic β-cell proliferation. Altered expression of a neighboring gene, CDKN2B, has been also recognized to correlate with obesity and hepatic steatosis in people carrying the risk SNPs. In the present study, we investigated the impact of 9p21.3 on obesity accompanied by hyperlipidemia in mice carrying a deletion of the murine ortholog for the 9p21.3 (Chr4Δ70/Δ70) risk locus in hyperlipidemic Ldlr−/−ApoB100/100 background. The Chr4Δ70/Δ70 mice showed decreased mRNA expression of insulin receptors in white adipose tissue already at a young age, which developed into insulin resistance and obesity by aging. In addition, the Sirt1-Ppargc1a-Ucp2 pathway was downregulated together with the expression of Cdkn2b, specifically in the white adipose tissue in Chr4Δ70/Δ70 mice. These results suggest that the 9p21.3 locus, ANRIL lncRNA, and their murine orthologues may regulate the key energy metabolism pathways in a white adipose tissue-specific manner in the presence of hypercholesterolemia, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs: Multiple Players in Human Diseases)
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20 pages, 7416 KiB  
Article
Tigilanol Tiglate-Induced Changes in Secretome Profiles Alter C-Met Phosphorylation and Cell Surface Protein Expression in H357 Head and Neck Cancer Cells
by Frank Dickson Antwi, Tufaha Awad, Meghan Larin, Kate Heesom, Phil Lewis, Paul Reddell, Zaruhi Poghosyan, Sharon Dewitt, Ryan Moseley and Vera Knäuper
Cells 2024, 13(11), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110982 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Tigilanol tiglate (TT, also known as EBC-46) is a novel, plant-derived diterpene ester possessing anticancer and wound-healing properties. Here, we show that TT-evoked PKC-dependent S985 phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase MET leads to subsequent degradation of tyrosine phosphorylated p-Y1003 and p-Y [...] Read more.
Tigilanol tiglate (TT, also known as EBC-46) is a novel, plant-derived diterpene ester possessing anticancer and wound-healing properties. Here, we show that TT-evoked PKC-dependent S985 phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase MET leads to subsequent degradation of tyrosine phosphorylated p-Y1003 and p-Y1234/5 MET species. PKC inhibition with BIM-1 blocked S985 phosphorylation of MET and led to MET cell surface accumulation. Treatment with metalloproteinase inhibitors prevented MET-ECD release into cell culture media, which was also blocked by PKC inhibitors. Furthermore, unbiased secretome analysis, performed using TMT-technology, identified additional targets of TT-dependent release of cell surface proteins from H357 head and neck cancer cells. We confirm that the MET co-signalling receptor syndecan-1 was cleaved from the cell surface in response to TT treatment. This was accompanied by rapid cleavage of the cellular junction adhesion protein Nectin-1 and the nerve growth factor receptor NGFRp75/TNFR16. These findings, that TT is a novel negative regulator of protumorigenic c-MET and NGFRp75/TNFR16 signalling, as well as regulating Nectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, further contribute to our understanding of the mode of action and efficacy of TT in the treatment of solid tumours. Full article
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18 pages, 3890 KiB  
Article
Conditional Knockout of Neurexins Alters the Contribution of Calcium Channel Subtypes to Presynaptic Ca2+ Influx
by Johannes Brockhaus, Iris Kahl, Mohiuddin Ahmad, Daniele Repetto, Carsten Reissner and Markus Missler
Cells 2024, 13(11), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110981 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Presynaptic Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) is a key signal for synaptic vesicle release. Synaptic neurexins can partially determine the strength of transmission by regulating VGCCs. However, it is unknown whether neurexins modulate Ca2+ influx via all VGCC [...] Read more.
Presynaptic Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) is a key signal for synaptic vesicle release. Synaptic neurexins can partially determine the strength of transmission by regulating VGCCs. However, it is unknown whether neurexins modulate Ca2+ influx via all VGCC subtypes similarly. Here, we performed live cell imaging of synaptic boutons from primary hippocampal neurons with a Ca2+ indicator. We used the expression of inactive and active Cre recombinase to compare control to conditional knockout neurons lacking either all or selected neurexin variants. We found that reduced total presynaptic Ca2+ transients caused by the deletion of all neurexins were primarily due to the reduced contribution of P/Q-type VGCCs. The deletion of neurexin1α alone also reduced the total presynaptic Ca2+ influx but increased Ca2+ influx via N-type VGCCs. Moreover, we tested whether the decrease in Ca2+ influx induced by activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1-receptor) is modulated by neurexins. Unlike earlier observations emphasizing a role for β-neurexins, we found that the decrease in presynaptic Ca2+ transients induced by CB1-receptor activation depended more strongly on the presence of α-neurexins in hippocampal neurons. Together, our results suggest that neurexins have unique roles in the modulation of presynaptic Ca2+ influx through VGCC subtypes and that different neurexin variants may affect specific VGCCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diving Deep into Synaptic Transmission)
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21 pages, 5287 KiB  
Review
MATR3’s Role beyond the Nuclear Matrix: From Gene Regulation to Its Implications in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Diseases
by Jhune Rizsan Santos and Jeehye Park
Cells 2024, 13(11), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110980 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Matrin-3 (MATR3) was initially discovered as a component of the nuclear matrix about thirty years ago. Since then, accumulating studies have provided evidence that MATR3 not only plays a structural role in the nucleus, but that it is also an active protein involved [...] Read more.
Matrin-3 (MATR3) was initially discovered as a component of the nuclear matrix about thirty years ago. Since then, accumulating studies have provided evidence that MATR3 not only plays a structural role in the nucleus, but that it is also an active protein involved in regulating gene expression at multiple levels, including chromatin organization, DNA transcription, RNA metabolism, and protein translation in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Furthermore, MATR3 may play a critical role in various cellular processes, including DNA damage response, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In addition to the revelation of its biological role, recent studies have reported MATR3’s involvement in the context of various diseases, including neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases, as well as cancer. Moreover, sequencing studies of patients revealed a handful of disease-associated mutations in MATR3 linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which further elevated the gene’s importance as a topic of study. In this review, we synthesize the current knowledge regarding the diverse functions of MATR3 in DNA- and RNA-related processes, as well as its involvement in various diseases, with a particular emphasis on ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Pathology)
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17 pages, 5174 KiB  
Article
Chlormequat Chloride Inhibits TM3 Leydig Cell Growth via Ferroptosis-Initiated Inflammation
by Xiaoxia Wang, Chenping Kang, Wanqian Guo, Haoran Zhang, Qianqian Xiao and Weidong Hao
Cells 2024, 13(11), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110979 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Ferroptosis hallmarked by lipid peroxidation and iron homeostasis imbalance is involved in the occurrence and development of various diseases. The plant growth regulator chlormequat chloride (CCC) can contribute to the causality and exacerbation of reproductive disorders. However, the mechanism by which CCC may [...] Read more.
Ferroptosis hallmarked by lipid peroxidation and iron homeostasis imbalance is involved in the occurrence and development of various diseases. The plant growth regulator chlormequat chloride (CCC) can contribute to the causality and exacerbation of reproductive disorders. However, the mechanism by which CCC may cause Leydig cell attenuation remains poorly understood. In this study, TM3 Leydig cells were used to investigate the inhibitory effect of CCC on cell growth and its possible mechanism. The results showed that CCC caused apoptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis and necroinflammation in TM3 cells. By comparing the effects of ferroptosis inhibitor Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) and pan-Caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK (ZVF) on lipid peroxidation and Caspase-mediated regulated cell death (RCD), we found that Fer-1 was better at rescuing the growth of TM3 cells than ZVF. Although ZVF reduced mitochondrial ROS level and inhibited the activation of Caspase3 and Caspase1, it could not significantly ameliorate lipid peroxidation and the levels of IL-1β and HMGB1 like Fer-1. Therefore, ferroptosis might be a key non apoptotic RCD mode responsible for CCC-driven inflammation, leading to weakened viability and proliferation of TM3 cells. In addition, overexpression of ferritin light chain (FTL) promoted the resistance of TM3 cells to CCC-induced ferroptosis-mediated inflammation and to some extent improved the inhibition of viability and proliferation. Altogether, ferroptosis-initiated inflammation might play a key role in CCC-impaired TM3 cell growth. Full article
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16 pages, 2746 KiB  
Article
Regulator of Lipid Metabolism NHR-49 Mediates Pathogen Avoidance through Precise Control of Neuronal Activity
by Saebom Kwon, Kyu-Sang Park and Kyoung-hye Yoon
Cells 2024, 13(11), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110978 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Precise control of neuronal activity is crucial for the proper functioning of neurons. How lipid homeostasis contributes to neuronal activity and how much of it is regulated by cells autonomously is unclear. In this study, we discovered that absence of the lipid regulator [...] Read more.
Precise control of neuronal activity is crucial for the proper functioning of neurons. How lipid homeostasis contributes to neuronal activity and how much of it is regulated by cells autonomously is unclear. In this study, we discovered that absence of the lipid regulator nhr-49, a functional ortholog of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in Caenorhabditis elegans, resulted in defective pathogen avoidance behavior against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14). Functional NHR-49 was required in the neurons, and more specifically, in a set of oxygen-sensing body cavity neurons, URX, AQR, and PQR. We found that lowering the neuronal activity of the body cavity neurons improved avoidance in nhr-49 mutants. Calcium imaging in URX neurons showed that nhr-49 mutants displayed longer-lasting calcium transients in response to an O2 upshift, suggesting that excess neuronal activity leads to avoidance defects. Cell-specific rescue of NHR-49 in the body cavity neurons was sufficient to improve pathogen avoidance, as well as URX neuron calcium kinetics. Supplementation with oleic acid also improved avoidance behavior and URX calcium kinetics, suggesting that the defective calcium response in the neuron is due to lipid dysfunction. These findings highlight the role of cell-autonomous lipid regulation in neuronal physiology and immune behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Research on Neuroscience in C. elegans)
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20 pages, 785 KiB  
Review
Emerging Treatments Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment for Advanced Chondrosarcoma
by Vincenzo Ingangi, Annarosaria De Chiara, Gerardo Ferrara, Michele Gallo, Antonio Catapano, Flavio Fazioli, Gioconda Di Carluccio, Elisa Peranzoni, Ilaria Marigo, Maria Vincenza Carriero and Michele Minopoli
Cells 2024, 13(11), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110977 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Chondrosarcoma (ChS), a malignant cartilage-producing tumor, is the second most frequently diagnosed osseous sarcoma after osteosarcoma. It represents a very heterogeneous group of malignant chemo- and radiation-resistant neoplasms, accounting for approximately 20% of all bone sarcomas. The majority of ChS patients have a [...] Read more.
Chondrosarcoma (ChS), a malignant cartilage-producing tumor, is the second most frequently diagnosed osseous sarcoma after osteosarcoma. It represents a very heterogeneous group of malignant chemo- and radiation-resistant neoplasms, accounting for approximately 20% of all bone sarcomas. The majority of ChS patients have a good prognosis after a complete surgical resection, as these tumors grow slowly and rarely metastasize. Conversely, patients with inoperable disease, due to the tumor location, size, or metastases, represent a great clinical challenge. Despite several genetic and epigenetic alterations that have been described in distinct ChS subtypes, very few therapeutic options are currently available for ChS patients. Therefore, new prognostic factors for tumor progression as well as new treatment options have to be explored, especially for patients with unresectable or metastatic disease. Recent studies have shown that a correlation between immune infiltrate composition, tumor aggressiveness, and survival does exist in ChS patients. In addition, the intra-tumor microvessel density has been proven to be associated with aggressive clinical behavior and a high metastatic potential in ChS. This review will provide an insight into the ChS microenvironment, since immunotherapy and antiangiogenic agents are emerging as interesting therapeutic options for ChS patients. Full article
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14 pages, 1855 KiB  
Article
Mitochondrial Role on Cellular Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Senescence during Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis
by Andrea Dalmao-Fernández, Tamara Hermida-Gómez, Uxia Nogueira-Recalde, Ignacio Rego-Pérez, Francisco J. Blanco-Garcia and Mercedes Fernández-Moreno
Cells 2024, 13(11), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110976 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Authors have demonstrated that apoptosis activation is a pathway related to cartilage degradation characteristics of the OA process. Autophagy is an adaptive response to protect cells from various environmental changes, and defects in autophagy are linked to cell death. In this sense, decreased [...] Read more.
Authors have demonstrated that apoptosis activation is a pathway related to cartilage degradation characteristics of the OA process. Autophagy is an adaptive response to protect cells from various environmental changes, and defects in autophagy are linked to cell death. In this sense, decreased autophagy of chondrocytes has been observed in OA articular cartilage. The aim of this work was to study the role of OA mitochondria in apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence, using OA and Normal (N) transmitochondrial cybrids. Results: OA cybrids incubated with menadione showed a higher percentage of late apoptosis and necrosis than N cybrids. Stimulation of cybrids with staurosporine and IL-1β showed that OA cybrids were more susceptible to undergoing apoptosis than N cybrids. An analysis of the antioxidant response using menadione on gene expression revealed a lower expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 and superoxide dismutase 2 in OA than N cybrids. Activation of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 was reduced in OA compared to N cybrids. However, the percentage of senescent cells was higher in OA than N cybrids. Conclusion: This work suggests that mitochondria from OA patients could be involved in the apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence of chondrocytes described in OA cartilage. Full article
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24 pages, 2337 KiB  
Article
Specific Cell Targeting by Toxoplasma gondii Displaying Functional Single-Chain Variable Fragment as a Novel Strategy; A Proof of Principle
by Muna Aljieli, Clément Rivière, Louis Lantier, Nathalie Moiré, Zineb Lakhrif, Anne-France Boussemart, Thomas Cnudde, Laurie Lajoie, Nicolas Aubrey, Elhadi M. Ahmed, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson, Anne Di-Tommaso and Marie-Noëlle Mévélec
Cells 2024, 13(11), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110975 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii holds significant therapeutic potential; however, its nonspecific invasiveness results in off-target effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether T. gondii specificity can be improved by surface display of scFv directed against dendritic cells’ endocytic receptor, DEC205, and immune [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii holds significant therapeutic potential; however, its nonspecific invasiveness results in off-target effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether T. gondii specificity can be improved by surface display of scFv directed against dendritic cells’ endocytic receptor, DEC205, and immune checkpoint PD-L1. Anti-DEC205 scFv was anchored to the T. gondii surface either directly via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) or by fusion with the SAG1 protein. Both constructs were successfully expressed, but the binding results suggested that the anti-DEC-SAG1 scFv had more reliable functionality towards recombinant DEC protein and DEC205-expressing MutuDC cells. Two anti-PD-L1 scFv constructs were developed that differed in the localization of the HA tag. Both constructs were adequately expressed, but the localization of the HA tag determined the functionality by binding to PD-L1 protein. Co-incubation of T. gondii displaying anti-PD-L1 scFv with tumor cells expressing/displaying different levels of PD-L1 showed strong binding depending on the level of available biomarker. Neutralization assays confirmed that binding was due to the specific interaction between anti-PD-L1 scFv and its ligand. A mixed-cell assay showed that T. gondii expressing anti-PD-L1 scFv predominately targets the PD-L1-positive cells, with negligible off-target binding. The recombinant RH-PD-L1-C strain showed increased killing ability on PD-L1+ tumor cell lines compared to the parental strain. Moreover, a co-culture assay of target tumor cells and effector CD8+ T cells showed that our model could inhibit PD1/PD-L1 interaction and potentiate T-cell immune response. These findings highlight surface display of antibody fragments as a promising strategy of targeting replicative T. gondii strains while minimizing nonspecific binding. Full article
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27 pages, 1273 KiB  
Review
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia: A Clinical Review
by Katherine A. Despotes, Maimoona A. Zariwala, Stephanie D. Davis and Thomas W. Ferkol
Cells 2024, 13(11), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110974 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous, motile ciliopathy, characterized by neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections, subfertility, and laterality defects. Diagnosis relies on a combination of tests for confirmation, including nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurements, high-speed [...] Read more.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous, motile ciliopathy, characterized by neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections, subfertility, and laterality defects. Diagnosis relies on a combination of tests for confirmation, including nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurements, high-speed videomicroscopy analysis (HSVMA), immunofluorescent staining, axonemal ultrastructure analysis via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and genetic testing. Notably, there is no single gold standard confirmatory or exclusionary test. Currently, 54 causative genes involved in cilia assembly, structure, and function have been linked to PCD; this rare disease has a spectrum of clinical manifestations and emerging genotype–phenotype relationships. In this review, we provide an overview of the structure and function of motile cilia, the emerging genetics and pathophysiology of this rare disease, as well as clinical features associated with motile ciliopathies, novel diagnostic tools, and updates on genotype–phenotype relationships in PCD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cilia in Health and Diseases)
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20 pages, 3698 KiB  
Article
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Regulates TGFβ-Mediated Suppression of Tumor Formation and Metastasis in Melanoma
by Julien Boudreault, Lucie Canaff, Mostafa Ghozlan, Ni Wang, Vito Guarnieri, Antonio Stefano Salcuni, Alfredo Scillitani, David Goltzman, Suhad Ali and Jean-Jacques Lebrun
Cells 2024, 13(11), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110973 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Over the past few decades, the worldwide incidence of cutaneous melanoma, a malignant neoplasm arising from melanocytes, has been increasing markedly, leading to the highest rate of skin cancer-related deaths. While localized tumors are easily removed by excision surgery, late-stage metastatic melanomas are [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, the worldwide incidence of cutaneous melanoma, a malignant neoplasm arising from melanocytes, has been increasing markedly, leading to the highest rate of skin cancer-related deaths. While localized tumors are easily removed by excision surgery, late-stage metastatic melanomas are refractory to treatment and exhibit a poor prognosis. Consequently, unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis is crucial for developing novel targeted therapies. We found that the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene product Menin is required for the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway to induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis in vitro and prevent tumorigenesis in vivo in preclinical xenograft models of melanoma. We further identified point mutations in two MEN1 family members affected by melanoma that led to proteasomal degradation of the MEN1 gene product and to a loss of TGFβ signaling. Interestingly, blocking the proteasome degradation pathway using an FDA-approved drug and RNAi targeting could efficiently restore MEN1 expression and TGFβ transcriptional responses. Together, these results provide new potential therapeutic strategies and patient stratification for the treatment of cutaneous melanoma. Full article
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17 pages, 26759 KiB  
Article
A Novel CRISPR-Cas9 Strategy to Target DYSTROPHIN Mutations Downstream of Exon 44 in Patient-Specific DMD iPSCs
by Neha R. Dhoke, Hyunkee Kim, Karim Azzag, Sarah B. Crist, James Kiley and Rita C. R. Perlingeiro
Cells 2024, 13(11), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110972 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Mutations in the DMD gene cause fatal Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). An attractive therapeutic approach is autologous cell transplantation utilizing myogenic progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Given that a significant number of DMD mutations occur between exons 45 and 55, [...] Read more.
Mutations in the DMD gene cause fatal Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). An attractive therapeutic approach is autologous cell transplantation utilizing myogenic progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Given that a significant number of DMD mutations occur between exons 45 and 55, we developed a gene knock-in approach to correct any mutations downstream of exon 44. We applied this approach to two DMD patient-specific iPSC lines carrying mutations in exons 45 and 51 and confirmed mini-DYSTROPHIN (mini-DYS) protein expression in corrected myotubes by western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Transplantation of gene-edited DMD iPSC-derived myogenic progenitors into NSG/mdx4Cv mice produced donor-derived myofibers, as shown by the dual expression of human DYSTROPHIN and LAMIN A/C. These findings further provide proof-of-concept for the use of programmable nucleases for the development of autologous iPSC-based therapy for muscular dystrophies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Breakthroughs in Stem Cell Research)
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29 pages, 5621 KiB  
Article
Hypoxia Increases the Efficiencies of Cellular Reprogramming and Oncogenic Transformation in Human Blood Cell Subpopulations In Vitro and In Vivo
by Adrián Moratilla, Diana Martín, Marta Cadenas-Martín, Martha Stokking, Maria Angustias Quesada, Francisco Arnalich and Maria P. De Miguel
Cells 2024, 13(11), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110971 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 227
Abstract
Patients with chronic hypoxia show a higher tumor incidence; however, no primary common cause has been recognized. Given the similarities between cellular reprogramming and oncogenic transformation, we directly compared these processes in human cells subjected to hypoxia. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts were employed as [...] Read more.
Patients with chronic hypoxia show a higher tumor incidence; however, no primary common cause has been recognized. Given the similarities between cellular reprogramming and oncogenic transformation, we directly compared these processes in human cells subjected to hypoxia. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts were employed as controls to compare transfection and reprogramming efficiency; human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were employed as controls in human cells. Easily obtainable human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were chosen to establish a standard protocol to compare cell reprogramming (into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)) and oncogenic focus formation efficiency. Cell reprogramming was achieved for all three cell types, generating actual pluripotent cells capable for differentiating into the three germ layers. The efficiencies of the cell reprogramming and oncogenic transformation were similar. Hypoxia slightly increased the reprogramming efficiency in all the cell types but with no statistical significance for PBMCs. Various PBMC types can respond to hypoxia differently; lymphocytes and monocytes were, therefore, reprogrammed separately, finding a significant difference between normoxia and hypoxia in monocytes in vitro. These differences were then searched for in vivo. The iPSCs and oncogenic foci were generated from healthy volunteers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although higher iPSC generation efficiency in the patients with COPD was found for lymphocytes, this increase was not statistically significant for oncogenic foci. Remarkably, a higher statistically significant efficiency in COPD monocytes was demonstrated for both processes, suggesting that physiological hypoxia exerts an effect on cell reprogramming and oncogenic transformation in vivo in at least some cell types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in 'Tissues and Organs')
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16 pages, 856 KiB  
Article
Associations of Plasma Glutamatergic Metabolites with Alpha Desynchronization during Cognitive Interference and Working Memory Tasks in Asymptomatic Alzheimer’s Disease
by Vincent Sonny Leong, Jiaquan Yu, Katherine Castor, Abdulhakim Al-Ezzi, Xianghong Arakaki and Alfred Nji Fonteh
Cells 2024, 13(11), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110970 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have suggested compensatory brain overactivation in cognitively healthy (CH) older adults with pathological beta-amyloid(Aβ42)/tau ratios during working memory and interference processing. However, the association between glutamatergic metabolites and brain activation proxied by EEG signals has not been thoroughly [...] Read more.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have suggested compensatory brain overactivation in cognitively healthy (CH) older adults with pathological beta-amyloid(Aβ42)/tau ratios during working memory and interference processing. However, the association between glutamatergic metabolites and brain activation proxied by EEG signals has not been thoroughly investigated. We aim to determine the involvement of these metabolites in EEG signaling. We focused on CH older adults classified under (1) normal CSF Aβ42/tau ratios (CH-NATs) and (2) pathological Aβ42/tau ratios (CH-PATs). We measured plasma glutamine, glutamate, pyroglutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid concentrations using tandem mass spectrometry and conducted a correlational analysis with alpha frequency event-related desynchronization (ERD). Under the N-back working memory paradigm, CH-NATs presented negative correlations (r = ~−0.74–−0.96, p = 0.0001–0.0414) between pyroglutamate and alpha ERD but positive correlations (r = ~0.82–0.95, p = 0.0003–0.0119) between glutamine and alpha ERD. Under Stroop interference testing, CH-NATs generated negative correlations between glutamine and left temporal alpha ERD (r = −0.96, p = 0.037 and r = −0.97, p = 0.027). Our study demonstrated that glutamine and pyroglutamate levels were associated with EEG activity only in CH-NATs. These results suggest cognitively healthy adults with amyloid/tau pathology experience subtle metabolic dysfunction that may influence EEG signaling during cognitive challenge. A longitudinal follow-up study with a larger sample size is needed to validate these pilot studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glutamatergic Transmission in Brain Development and Disease)
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13 pages, 3532 KiB  
Article
Assessing Different Histological Preparations for Reconstruction of Astrocyte Tridimensional Structure
by Sara Barsanti, João Filipe Viana, Alexandra Veiga, João Luís Machado, Daniela Sofia Abreu, José Duarte Dias, Susana Monteiro, Nuno A. Silva, Luísa Pinto and João Filipe Oliveira
Cells 2024, 13(11), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110969 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Astrocytes are ubiquitous in the brain and spinal cord and display a complex morphology important for the local interactions with neighboring cells, resulting in the modulation of circuit function. Thus, studies focusing on astrocyte physiology in the healthy and diseased brain generally present [...] Read more.
Astrocytes are ubiquitous in the brain and spinal cord and display a complex morphology important for the local interactions with neighboring cells, resulting in the modulation of circuit function. Thus, studies focusing on astrocyte physiology in the healthy and diseased brain generally present analyses of astrocytic structure. The labeling method used to visualize the astrocytic structure defines the morphological level to observe and may vary depending on the anatomical sub-regions. The method choice may significantly affect our understanding of their structural diversity. The main goal of this work was to identify a straightforward and efficient protocol for labeling and reconstructing a detailed astrocytic structure to apply and validate in different brain tissue preparations across laboratories. For that, we explored different tissue processing protocols before GFAP labeling to determine the most effective method for reconstructing astrocytic backbones in the mouse hippocampus. Our results show that the reconstruction of astrocytic structure in vibratome sections labeled by free-floating immunofluorescence protocol provides a more practical method to achieve a higher level of detail and arbor complexity in astrocyte backbone reconstruction. Free-floating immunofluorescence labeling is the most reliable method for obtaining better antibody penetration and more detailed astrocyte structure. Finally, we also show that introducing an antigen retrieval step appears useful for visualizing more complete structural details. Full article
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16 pages, 6036 KiB  
Article
Interleukin-8/CXCR1 Signaling Contributes to the Progression of Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Resulting in Malignant Pleural Effusion
by Yi-Ming Chang, Wen-Yen Huang, Shih-Hsien Yang, Chia-Ing Jan, Shin Nieh, Yaoh-Shiang Lin, Su-Feng Chen and Yu-Chun Lin
Cells 2024, 13(11), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110968 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PADC) treatment limited efficacy in preventing tumor progression, often resulting in malignant pleural effusion (MPE). MPE is filled with various mediators, especially interleukin-8 (IL-8). However, the role of IL-8 and its signaling mechanism within the fluid microenvironment (FME) implicated in tumor [...] Read more.
Pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PADC) treatment limited efficacy in preventing tumor progression, often resulting in malignant pleural effusion (MPE). MPE is filled with various mediators, especially interleukin-8 (IL-8). However, the role of IL-8 and its signaling mechanism within the fluid microenvironment (FME) implicated in tumor progression warrants further investigation. Primary cultured cells from samples of patients with MPE from PADC, along with a commonly utilized lung cancer cell line, were employed to examine the role of IL-8 and its receptor, CXCR1, through comparative analysis. Our study primarily assessed migration and invasion capabilities, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. Additionally, IL-8 levels in MPE fluid versus serum, along with immunohistochemical expression of IL-8/CXCR1 signaling in tumor tissue and cell blocks were analyzed. IL-8/CXCR1 overexpression enhanced EMT and CSC properties. Furthermore, the immunocytochemical examination of 17 cell blocks from patients with PADC and MPE corroborated the significant correlation between upregulated IL-8 and CXCR1 expression and the co-expression of IL-8 and CXCR1 in MPE with distant metastasis. In summary, the IL-8/ CXCR1 axis in FME is pivotal to tumor promotion via paracrine and autocrine signaling. Our study provides a therapeutic avenue for improving the prognosis of PADC patients with MPE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Immune Microenvironment for Effective Therapy II)
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21 pages, 925 KiB  
Review
From Environment to Gene Expression: Epigenetic Methylations and One-Carbon Metabolism in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
by Marina Hernan-Godoy and Caroline Rouaux
Cells 2024, 13(11), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110967 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 253
Abstract
The etiology of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is complex and considered multifactorial. The majority of ALS cases are sporadic, but familial cases also exist. Estimates of heritability range from 8% to 61%, indicating that additional factors beyond genetics likely contribute [...] Read more.
The etiology of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is complex and considered multifactorial. The majority of ALS cases are sporadic, but familial cases also exist. Estimates of heritability range from 8% to 61%, indicating that additional factors beyond genetics likely contribute to ALS. Numerous environmental factors are considered, which may add up and synergize throughout an individual’s lifetime building its unique exposome. One level of integration between genetic and environmental factors is epigenetics, which results in alterations in gene expression without modification of the genome sequence. Methylation reactions, targeting DNA or histones, represent a large proportion of epigenetic regulations and strongly depend on the availability of methyl donors provided by the ubiquitous one-carbon (1C) metabolism. Thus, understanding the interplay between exposome, 1C metabolism, and epigenetic modifications will likely contribute to elucidating the mechanisms underlying altered gene expression related to ALS and to developing targeted therapeutic interventions. Here, we review evidence for 1C metabolism alterations and epigenetic methylation dysregulations in ALS, with a focus on the impairments reported in neural tissues, and discuss these environmentally driven mechanisms as the consequences of cumulative exposome or late environmental hits, but also as the possible result of early developmental defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Pathomechanisms of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS))
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23 pages, 3055 KiB  
Review
Photobiomodulation Therapy on Brain: Pioneering an Innovative Approach to Revolutionize Cognitive Dynamics
by Tahsin Nairuz, Sangwoo-Cho and Jong-Ha Lee
Cells 2024, 13(11), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110966 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy on the brain employs red to near-infrared (NIR) light to treat various neurological and psychological disorders. The mechanism involves the activation of cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby enhancing ATP synthesis. Additionally, light absorption by ion channels [...] Read more.
Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy on the brain employs red to near-infrared (NIR) light to treat various neurological and psychological disorders. The mechanism involves the activation of cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby enhancing ATP synthesis. Additionally, light absorption by ion channels triggers the release of calcium ions, instigating the activation of transcription factors and subsequent gene expression. This cascade of events not only augments neuronal metabolic capacity but also orchestrates anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic responses, fostering neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. It shows promise for treating conditions like dementia, stroke, brain trauma, Parkinson’s disease, and depression, even enhancing cognitive functions in healthy individuals and eliciting growing interest within the medical community. However, delivering sufficient light to the brain through transcranial approaches poses a significant challenge due to its limited penetration into tissue, prompting an exploration of alternative delivery methods such as intracranial and intranasal approaches. This comprehensive review aims to explore the mechanisms through which PBM exerts its effects on the brain and provide a summary of notable preclinical investigations and clinical trials conducted on various brain disorders, highlighting PBM’s potential as a therapeutic modality capable of effectively impeding disease progression within the organism—a task often elusive with conventional pharmacological interventions. Full article
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22 pages, 4961 KiB  
Article
Modulation of Redox and Inflammatory Signaling in Human Skin Cells Using Phytocannabinoids Applied after UVA Irradiation: In Vitro Studies
by Adam Wroński, Iwona Jarocka-Karpowicz, Arkadiusz Surażyński, Agnieszka Gęgotek, Neven Zarkovic and Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
Cells 2024, 13(11), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110965 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 204
Abstract
UVA exposure disturbs the metabolism of skin cells, often inducing oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, there is a need for bioactive compounds that limit such consequences without causing undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to analyse in vitro the effects [...] Read more.
UVA exposure disturbs the metabolism of skin cells, often inducing oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, there is a need for bioactive compounds that limit such consequences without causing undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to analyse in vitro the effects of the phytocannabinoids cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidiol (CBD), which differ in terms of biological effects. Furthermore, the combined use of both compounds (CBG+CBD) has been analysed in order to increase their effectiveness in human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes protection against UVA-induced alternation. The results obtained indicate that the effects of CBG and CBD on the redox balance might indeed be enhanced when both phytocannabinoids are applied concurrently. Those effects include a reduction in NOX activity, ROS levels, and a modification of thioredoxin-dependent antioxidant systems. The reduction in the UVA-induced lipid peroxidation and protein modification has been confirmed through lower levels of 4-HNE-protein adducts and protein carbonyl groups as well as through the recovery of collagen expression. Modification of antioxidant signalling (Nrf2/HO-1) through the administration of CBG+CBD has been proven to be associated with reduced proinflammatory signalling (NFκB/TNFα). Differential metabolic responses of keratinocytes and fibroblasts to the effects of the UVA and phytocannabinoids have indicated possible beneficial protective and regenerative effects of the phytocannabinoids, suggesting their possible application for the purpose of limiting the harmful impact of the UVA on skin cells. Full article
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23 pages, 7113 KiB  
Article
Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells in Skin Basal Cell Carcinomas and Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Global Th1 Preponderance with Th17 Enrichment—A Cross-Sectional Study
by Daniela Cunha, Marco Neves, Daniela Silva, Ana Rita Silvestre, Paula Borralho Nunes, Fernando Arrobas, Julie C. Ribot, Fernando Ferreira, Luís F. Moita, Luís Soares-de-Almeida, João Maia Silva, Paulo Filipe and João Ferreira
Cells 2024, 13(11), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110964 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are high-incidence, non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). The success of immune-targeted therapies in advanced NMSCs led us to anticipate that NMSCs harbored significant populations of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes with potential anti-tumor activity. The main aim of [...] Read more.
Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are high-incidence, non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). The success of immune-targeted therapies in advanced NMSCs led us to anticipate that NMSCs harbored significant populations of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes with potential anti-tumor activity. The main aim of this study was to characterize T cells infiltrating NMSCs. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were used to assess, respectively, the proportions and densities of T cell subpopulations in BCCs (n = 118), SCCs (n = 33), and normal skin (NS, n = 30). CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cell subsets, namely, Th1, Th2, Th17, Th9, and regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD8+ and CD4+ memory T cells, and γδ T cells were compared between NMSCs and NS samples. Remarkably, both BCCs and SCCs featured a significantly higher Th1/Th2 ratio (~four-fold) and an enrichment for Th17 cells. NMSCs also showed a significant enrichment for IFN-γ-producing CD8+T cells, and a depletion of γδ T cells. Using immunohistochemistry, NMSCs featured denser T cell infiltrates (CD4+, CD8+, and Tregs) than NS. Overall, these data favor a Th1-predominant response in BCCs and SCCs, providing support for immune-based treatments in NMSCs. Th17-mediated inflammation may play a role in the progression of NMSCs and thus become a potential therapeutic target in NMSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Inflammatory Tumor Immune Microenvironment)
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