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Micromachines, Volume 7, Issue 4 (April 2016) – 21 articles

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Open AccessArticle
A Micro Saddle Coil with Switchable Sensitivity for Local High-Resolution Imaging of Luminal Tissue
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040067 - 21 Apr 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
This paper reports on a micro saddle coil for local high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fabricated by embedding a flexible coil pattern into a polydimethyilsiloxane (PDMS) tube. We can change the sensitivity of the micro coil by deforming the shape of the coil [...] Read more.
This paper reports on a micro saddle coil for local high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fabricated by embedding a flexible coil pattern into a polydimethyilsiloxane (PDMS) tube. We can change the sensitivity of the micro coil by deforming the shape of the coil from a saddle-shaped mode to a planar-shaped mode. The inductance, the resistance, and the Q-factor of the coil in the saddle-shaped mode were 2.45 μH, 3.31 Ω, and 39.9, respectively. Those of the planar-shaped mode were 3.07 μH, 3.92 Ω, and 42.9, respectively. In MRI acquired in saddle-shaped mode, a large visible area existed around the coil. Although the sensitive area was considerably reduced in the planar-shaped mode, clear MRI images were obtained. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the saddle-shaped and planar-shaped modes were 194.9 and 505.9, respectively, at voxel size of 2.0 × 2.0 × 2.0 mm3 and 11.7 and 37.4, respectively, at voxel size of 0.5 × 0.5 × 1.0 mm3. The sensitivity of the saddle-shaped and the planar-shaped modes were about 3 times and 10 times higher, respectively, than those of the medical head coil at both voxel sizes. Thus, the micro saddle coil enabled large-area imaging and highly sensitive imaging by switching the shape of the coil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040072 - 20 Apr 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2439
Abstract
Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT) array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from [...] Read more.
Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT) array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1) cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2) electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3) three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices for Point-of-Care Diagnostics)
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Open AccessArticle
Droplet Velocity in an Electrowetting on Dielectric Digital Microfluidic Device
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040071 - 20 Apr 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2967
Abstract
In many electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) based microfluidics devices, droplet actuation speed is a crucial performance-controlling parameter. Our present study aims to characterize and study droplet speed in a typical EWOD device. First, a practical droplet speed measurement method has been methodically demonstrated [...] Read more.
In many electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) based microfluidics devices, droplet actuation speed is a crucial performance-controlling parameter. Our present study aims to characterize and study droplet speed in a typical EWOD device. First, a practical droplet speed measurement method has been methodically demonstrated and some related velocity terms have been introduced. Next, influence of electrode shape on droplet speed has been studied and a new design to enhance droplet speed has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Instead of using square shaped electrodes, rectangular electrodes with smaller widths are used to actuate droplets. Additionally, different schemes of activating electrodes are studied and compared for the same applied voltage. The experiments show that a particular scheme of activating the array of rectangular electrodes enhances the droplet speed up to 100% in comparison to the droplet speed in a conventional device with square shaped electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Droplet Microfluidics: Techniques and Technologies, Volume II)
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Open AccessReview
Mechanically-Tunable Photonic Devices with On-Chip Integrated MEMS/NEMS Actuators
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040069 - 16 Apr 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3764
Abstract
This article reviews mechanically-tunable photonic devices with on-chip integrated MEMS/NEMS actuators. With related reports mostly published within the last decade, this review focuses on the tuning mechanisms of various passive silicon photonic devices, including tunable waveguides, couplers, ring/disk resonators, and photonic crystal cavities, [...] Read more.
This article reviews mechanically-tunable photonic devices with on-chip integrated MEMS/NEMS actuators. With related reports mostly published within the last decade, this review focuses on the tuning mechanisms of various passive silicon photonic devices, including tunable waveguides, couplers, ring/disk resonators, and photonic crystal cavities, and their results are selectively elaborated upon and compared. Applications of the mechanisms are also discussed. Future development of mechanically-tunable photonics is considered and one possible approach is based on plasmonics, which can confine light energy in the nano-scale space. Optomechanics is another innovation, derived from the strong coupling of optical and mechanical degrees of freedom. State-of-the-art studies of mechanically-tunable plasmonics and on-chip optomechanics are also selectively reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Photonic Devices and Systems)
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Open AccessReview
Optofluidic Device Based Microflow Cytometers for Particle/Cell Detection: A Review
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040070 - 15 Apr 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2847
Abstract
Optofluidic devices combining micro-optical and microfluidic components bring a host of new advantages to conventional microfluidic devices. Aspects, such as optical beam shaping, can be integrated on-chip and provide high-sensitivity and built-in optical alignment. Optofluidic microflow cytometers have been demonstrated in applications, such [...] Read more.
Optofluidic devices combining micro-optical and microfluidic components bring a host of new advantages to conventional microfluidic devices. Aspects, such as optical beam shaping, can be integrated on-chip and provide high-sensitivity and built-in optical alignment. Optofluidic microflow cytometers have been demonstrated in applications, such as point-of-care diagnostics, cellular immunophenotyping, rare cell analysis, genomics and analytical chemistry. Flow control, light guiding and collecting, data collection and data analysis are the four main techniques attributed to the performance of the optofluidic microflow cytometer. Each of the four areas is discussed in detail to show the basic principles and recent developments. 3D microfabrication techniques are discussed in their use to make these novel microfluidic devices, and the integration of the whole system takes advantage of the miniaturization of each sub-system. The combination of these different techniques is a spur to the development of microflow cytometers, and results show the performance of many types of microflow cytometers developed recently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optofluidics 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Shape-Selective Assembly of Anisotropic, Deformable Microcomponents Using Bottom-Up Micromanufacturing
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040068 - 14 Apr 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2733
Abstract
A technique for shape-selective directed assembly of anisotropic, deformable, chemically-identical microcomponents onto patterned rigid templates based on shape and size differences is modeled and demonstrated. The assembly method not only controls the selective placement of the components, but also aligns the components with [...] Read more.
A technique for shape-selective directed assembly of anisotropic, deformable, chemically-identical microcomponents onto patterned rigid templates based on shape and size differences is modeled and demonstrated. The assembly method not only controls the selective placement of the components, but also aligns the components with the assembly sites. Unlike the assembly of isotropic (spherical) microcomponents, in which only size differences can be used to discriminate among chemically-identical components to achieve selective placement, differences in both shape and size can enable selectivity in the assembly of anisotropic (non-spherical) microcomponents. The present selective directed assembly is driven by shape-matching to a microfabricated template to provide selectivity, uniform chemical surface functionalization to promote assembly, and megasonic excitation to prevent assembly into poorly shape-matched binding sites. A theoretical framework quantifies the predicted selectivity of this approach and predicts that it will be effective for many material combinations, including hydrogels and bio-compatible polymers. Experiments demonstrate successful directed assembly of cylindrical, hydrogel colloidal microcomponents with 26 μm mean diameter and 50 μm length into silicon templates patterned with hemicylindrical assembly sites. During the assembly, tapered microcomponents with 150 μm length and a nominal diameter of 26 μm that decreases along the components’ lengths were successfully excluded from hemicylindrical assembly sites. These results provide the first demonstration of selective directed assembly of non-spherical microcomponents by this approach. The assembly shows high local yields in agreement with theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building by Self-Assembly)
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Open AccessArticle
Micro-Shaping of Nanopatterned Surfaces by Electron Beam Irradiation
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040066 - 13 Apr 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
We show that planar nanopatterned thin films on standard polycarbonate (PC) compact discs (CD) can be micro-shaped in a non-contact manner via direct e-beam exposure. The shape of the film can be controlled by proper selection of the e-beam parameters. As an example [...] Read more.
We show that planar nanopatterned thin films on standard polycarbonate (PC) compact discs (CD) can be micro-shaped in a non-contact manner via direct e-beam exposure. The shape of the film can be controlled by proper selection of the e-beam parameters. As an example of application, we demonstrate a two-dimensional (2D) array of micro-lenses/reservoirs conformally covered by an Al 2D nanohole array (NHA) film on a PC CD substrate. It is also shown that such a curvilinear Al NHA layer can be easily transferred onto a flexible polymeric support. The presented technique provides a new tool for creating lab-on-CD architectures and developing multifunctional (flexible) non-planar nanostructured films and surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Microsystems)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio 3D Hydrogel Microstructures Using Optically Induced Electrokinetics
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040065 - 12 Apr 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2803
Abstract
We present a rapid hydrogel polymerization and prototyping microfabrication technique using an optically induced electrokinetics (OEK) chip, which is based on a non-UV hydrogel curing principle. Using this technique, micro-scale high-aspect-ratio three-dimensional polymer features with different geometric sizes can be fabricated within 1–10 [...] Read more.
We present a rapid hydrogel polymerization and prototyping microfabrication technique using an optically induced electrokinetics (OEK) chip, which is based on a non-UV hydrogel curing principle. Using this technique, micro-scale high-aspect-ratio three-dimensional polymer features with different geometric sizes can be fabricated within 1–10 min by projecting pre-defined visible light image patterns onto the OEK chip. This method eliminates the need for traditional photolithography masks used for patterning and fabricating polymer microstructures and simplifies the fabrication processes. This technique uses cross-link hydrogels, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-diacrylate (PEGDA), as fabrication materials. We demonstrated that hydrogel micropillar arrays rapidly fabricated using this technique can be used as molds to create micron-scale cavities in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) substrates. Furthermore, hollow, circular tubes with controllable wall thicknesses and high-aspect ratios can also be fabricated. These results show the potential of this technique to become a rapid prototyping technology for producing microfluidic devices. In addition, we show that rapid prototyping of three-dimensional suspended polymer structures is possible without any sacrificial etching process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano-Chip Electrokinetics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Force Measurements During Rapid Palatal Expansion in Sus scrofa
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040064 - 12 Apr 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2467
Abstract
Rapid palatal expansion is an orthodontic procedure widely used to correct the maxillary arch. However, its outcome is significantly influenced by factors that show a high degree of variability amongst patients. The traditional treatment methodology is based on an intuitive and heuristic treatment [...] Read more.
Rapid palatal expansion is an orthodontic procedure widely used to correct the maxillary arch. However, its outcome is significantly influenced by factors that show a high degree of variability amongst patients. The traditional treatment methodology is based on an intuitive and heuristic treatment approach because the forces applied in the three dimensions are indeterminate. To enable optimal and individualized treatment, it is essential to measure the three-dimensional (3D) forces and displacements created by the expander. This paper proposes a method for performing these 3D measurements using a single embedded strain sensor, combining experimental measurements of strain in the palatal expander with 3D finite element analysis (FEA). The method is demonstrated using the maxillary jaw from a freshly euthanized pig (Sus scrofa) and a hyrax-design rapid palatal expander (RPE) appliance with integrated strain gage. The strain gage measurements are recorded using a computer interface, following which the expansion forces and extent of expansion are estimated by FEA. A total activation of 2.0 mm results in peak total force of about 100 N—almost entirely along the direction of expansion. The results also indicate that more than 85% of the input activation is immediately transferred to the palate and/or teeth. These studies demonstrate a method for assessing and individualizing expansion magnitudes and forces during orthopedic expansion of the maxilla. This provides the basis for further development of smart orthodontic appliances that provide real-time readouts of forces and movements, which will allow personalized, optimal treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implantable Microsystems)
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Open AccessArticle
A One-Square-Millimeter Compact Hollow Structure for Microfluidic Pumping on an All-Glass Chip
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040063 - 09 Apr 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
A micro surface tension pump is a new type of low-cost, built-in, all-glass, microfluidic pump on a glass microchip fabricated by one-step glass etching. However, geometric minimization and optimization for practical use are challenging. Here, we report a one-square-millimeter, built-in, all-glass pump controlled [...] Read more.
A micro surface tension pump is a new type of low-cost, built-in, all-glass, microfluidic pump on a glass microchip fabricated by one-step glass etching. However, geometric minimization and optimization for practical use are challenging. Here, we report a one-square-millimeter, built-in, all-glass pump controlled by two-way digital gas pressure. The pump consists simply of two joint chambers and a piston between two gas control channels. It does not require pre-perfusion for initialization, and can immediately begin to run when a liquid enters its inlet channel. It is also more reliable than conventional micro pumps for practical use due to its ability to restart after the formation of a blocking bubble, which can serve as a valuable troubleshooting procedure. Its volumetric pump output was 0.5–0.7 nL·s−1 under a pump head pressure of 300 Pa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glass Micromachining)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Optofluidic Fabry-Pérot Micro-Cavities Comprising Curved Surfaces for Homogeneous Liquid Refractometry—Design, Simulation, and Experimental Performance Assessment
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040062 - 07 Apr 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
In the scope of miniaturized optical sensors for liquid refractometry, this work details the design, numerical simulation, and experimental characterization of a Fabry-Pérot resonator consisting of two deeply-etched silicon cylindrical mirrors with a micro-tube in between holding the liquid analyte under study. The [...] Read more.
In the scope of miniaturized optical sensors for liquid refractometry, this work details the design, numerical simulation, and experimental characterization of a Fabry-Pérot resonator consisting of two deeply-etched silicon cylindrical mirrors with a micro-tube in between holding the liquid analyte under study. The curved surfaces of the tube and the cylindrical mirrors provide three-dimensional light confinement and enable achieving stability for the cavity illuminated by a Gaussian beam input. The resonant optofluidic cavity attains a high-quality factor (Q)—over 2800—which is necessary for a sensitive refractometer, not only by providing a sharp interference spectrum peak that enables accurate tracing of the peak wavelengths shifts, but also by providing steep side peaks, which enables detection of refractive index changes by power level variations when operating at a fixed wavelength. The latter method can achieve refractometry without the need for spectroscopy tools, provided certain criteria explained in the details are met. By experimentally measuring mixtures of acetone-toluene with different ratios, refractive index variations of 0.0005 < Δn < 0.0022 could be detected, with sensitivity as high as 5500 μW/RIU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optofluidics 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Minimally Intrusive Optical Micro-Strain Sensing in Bulk Elastomer Using Embedded Fabry-Pérot Etalon
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040061 - 06 Apr 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2844
Abstract
A variety of strain sensors have been developed to measure internal deformations of elastomeric structures. Strain sensors measuring extremely small mechanical strain, however, have not yet been reported due mainly to the inherently intrusive integration of the sensor with the test structure. In [...] Read more.
A variety of strain sensors have been developed to measure internal deformations of elastomeric structures. Strain sensors measuring extremely small mechanical strain, however, have not yet been reported due mainly to the inherently intrusive integration of the sensor with the test structure. In this work, we report the development of a minimally intrusive, highly sensitive mechanical strain transducer realized by monolithically embedding a Fabry-Pérot (FP) etalon into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) block test structure. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the FP resonance condition to the thickness of the spacer layer between the two reflectors, the limit of detection in the mechanical deformation can be as low as ~110 nm with a 632.8 nm laser used as the probing light. The compatibility of PDMS with additive fabrication turned out to be the most crucial enabling factor in the realization of the FP etalon-based strain transducer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Photonic Devices and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Polymer Magnetic Composite Core Based Microcoils and Microtransformers for Very High Frequency Power Applications
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040060 - 05 Apr 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2767 | Correction
Abstract
We present a rapid prototyping and a cost effective fabrication process on batch fabricated wafer-level micro inductive components with polymer magnetic composite (PMC) cores. The new PMC cores provide a possibility to bridge the gap between the non-magnetic and magnetic core inductive devices [...] Read more.
We present a rapid prototyping and a cost effective fabrication process on batch fabricated wafer-level micro inductive components with polymer magnetic composite (PMC) cores. The new PMC cores provide a possibility to bridge the gap between the non-magnetic and magnetic core inductive devices in terms of both the operating frequency and electrical performance. An optimized fabrication process of molding, casting, and demolding which uses teflon for the molding tool is presented. High permeability NiFeZn powder was mixed with Araldite epoxy to form high resistive PMC cores. Cylindrical PMC cores having a footprint of 0.79 mm 2 were fabricated with varying percentage of the magnetic powder on FR4 substrates. The core influence on the electrical performance of the inductive elements is discussed. Inductor chips having a solenoidal coil as well as transformer chips with primary and secondary coils wound around each other have been fabricated and evaluated. A core with 65% powder equipped with a solenoid made out of 25 µm thick insulated Au wire having 30 turns, yielded a constant inductance value of 2 µH up to the frequency of 50 MHz and a peak quality factor of 13. A 1:1 transformer with similar PMC core and solenoidal coils having 10 turns yielded a maximum efficiency of 84% and a coupling factor of 96%. In order to protect the solenoids and to increase the mechanical robustness and handling of the chips, a novel process was developed to encapsulate the components with an epoxy based magnetic composite. The effect on the electrical performance through the magnetic composite encapsulation is reported as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic MEMS)
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Open AccessArticle
Holographic Fabrication of Designed Functional Defect Lines in Photonic Crystal Lattice Using a Spatial Light Modulator
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040059 - 01 Apr 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4360
Abstract
We report the holographic fabrication of designed defect lines in photonic crystal lattices through phase engineering using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The diffracted beams from the SLM not only carry the defect’s content but also the defect related phase-shifting information. The phase-shifting [...] Read more.
We report the holographic fabrication of designed defect lines in photonic crystal lattices through phase engineering using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The diffracted beams from the SLM not only carry the defect’s content but also the defect related phase-shifting information. The phase-shifting induced lattice shifting in photonic lattices around the defects in three-beam interference is less than the one produced by five-beam interference due to the alternating shifting in lattice in three beam interference. By designing the defect line at a 45 degree orientation and using three-beam interference, the defect orientation can be aligned with the background photonic lattice, and the shifting is only in one side of the defect line, in agreement with the theory. Finally, a new design for the integration of functional defect lines in a background phase pattern reduces the relative phase shift of the defect and utilizes the different diffraction efficiency between the defect line and background phase pattern. We demonstrate that the desired and functional defect lattice can be registered into the background lattice through the direct imaging of designed phase patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Photonic Devices and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Miniaturized Rotary Actuators Using Shape Memory Alloy for Insect-Type MEMS Microrobot
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040058 - 31 Mar 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3146
Abstract
Although several types of locomotive microrobots have been developed, most of them have difficulty locomoting on uneven surfaces. Thus, we have been focused on microrobots that can locomote using step patterns. We are studying insect-type microrobot systems. The locomotion of the microrobot is [...] Read more.
Although several types of locomotive microrobots have been developed, most of them have difficulty locomoting on uneven surfaces. Thus, we have been focused on microrobots that can locomote using step patterns. We are studying insect-type microrobot systems. The locomotion of the microrobot is generated by rotational movements of the shape memory alloy-type rotary actuator. In addition, we have constructed artificial neural networks by using analog integrated circuit (IC) technology. The artificial neural networks can output the driving waveform without using software programs. The shape memory alloy-type rotary actuator and the artificial neural networks are constructed with silicon wafers; they can be integrated by using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology. As a result, the MEMS microrobot system can locomote using step patterns. The insect-type MEMS microrobot system is 0.079 g in weight and less than 5.0 mm in size, and its locomotion speed is 2 mm/min. The locomotion speed is slow because the heat of the shape memory alloy conducts to the mechanical parts of the MEMS microrobot. In this paper, we discuss a new rotary actuator compared with the previous model and show the continuous rotation of the proposed rotary actuator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Robotics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Resonant Varifocal Micromirror with Piezoresistive Focus Sensor
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040057 - 30 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
This paper reports a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonant varifocal mirror integrated with piezoresistive focus sensor. The varifocal mirror is driven electrostatically at a resonant frequency of a mirror plate to obtain the wide scanning range of a focal length. A piezoresistor is used [...] Read more.
This paper reports a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonant varifocal mirror integrated with piezoresistive focus sensor. The varifocal mirror is driven electrostatically at a resonant frequency of a mirror plate to obtain the wide scanning range of a focal length. A piezoresistor is used to monitor the focal length of the varifocal mirror. The device is made of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and a glass wafer. A mirror plate and a counter electrode are fabricated by a top silicon layer of the SOI wafer and on the glass wafer, respectively. The piezoresistor is fabricated by ion implantation on a supporting beam of the mirror plate. The stress variation of the beam, which is detected by the piezoresistor, correspond the focal length of the varifocal mirror. The focus length varies from −41 to 35 mm at the resonant frequency of 9.5 kHz. The focal length of the varifocal mirror is monitored by the piezoresistor in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Photonic Devices and Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Magnetophoretic Sorting of Single Cell-Containing Microdroplets
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040056 - 30 Mar 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3087
Abstract
Droplet microfluidics is a promising tool for single-cell analysis since single cell can be comparted inside a tiny volume. However, droplet encapsulation of single cells still remains a challenging issue due to the low ratio of droplets containing single cells. Here, we introduce [...] Read more.
Droplet microfluidics is a promising tool for single-cell analysis since single cell can be comparted inside a tiny volume. However, droplet encapsulation of single cells still remains a challenging issue due to the low ratio of droplets containing single cells. Here, we introduce a simple and robust single cell sorting platform based on a magnetophoretic method using monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and droplet microfluidics with >94% purity. There is an approximately equal amount of MNPs in the same-sized droplet, which has the same magnetic force under the magnetic field. However, the droplets containing single cells have a reduced number of MNPs, as much as the volume of the cell inside the droplet, resulting in a low magnetic force. Based on this simple principle, this platform enables the separation of single cell-encapsulated droplets from the droplets with no cells. Additionally, this device uses only a permanent magnet without any complex additional apparatus; hence, this new platform can be integrated into a single cell analysis system considering its effectiveness and convenience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microfluidic Devices for Cell Handling and Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
An Analytical Model for CMUTs with Square Multilayer Membranes Using the Ritz Method
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040055 - 29 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) multilayer membrane plays an important role in the performance metrics including the transmitting efficiency and the receiving sensitivity. However, there are few studies of the multilayer membranes. Some analytical models simplify the multilayer membrane as monolayer, which results [...] Read more.
Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) multilayer membrane plays an important role in the performance metrics including the transmitting efficiency and the receiving sensitivity. However, there are few studies of the multilayer membranes. Some analytical models simplify the multilayer membrane as monolayer, which results in inaccuracies. This paper presents a new analytical model for CMUTs with multilayer membranes, which can rapidly and accurately predict static deflection and response frequency of the multilayer membrane under external pressures. The derivation is based on the Ritz method and Hamilton’s principle. The mathematical relationships between the external pressure, static deflection, and response frequency are obtained. Relevant residual stress compensation method is derived. The model has been verified for three-layer and double-layer CMUT membranes by comparing its results with finite element method (FEM) simulations, experimental data, and other monolayer models that treat CMUTs as monolayer plates/membranes. For three-layer CMUT membranes, the relative errors are ranging from 0.71%–3.51% for the static deflection profiles, and 0.35%–4.96% for the response frequencies, respectively. For the double-layer CMUT membrane, the relative error with residual stress compensation is 4.14% for the central deflection, and −1.17% for the response frequencies, respectively. This proposed analytical model can serve as a reliable reference and an accurate tool for CMUT design and optimization. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Surface Tension Directed Fluidic Self-Assembly of Semiconductor Chips across Length Scales and Material Boundaries
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040054 - 28 Mar 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3084
Abstract
This publication provides an overview and discusses some challenges of surface tension directed fluidic self-assembly of semiconductor chips which are transported in a liquid medium. The discussion is limited to surface tension directed self-assembly where the capture, alignment, and electrical connection process is [...] Read more.
This publication provides an overview and discusses some challenges of surface tension directed fluidic self-assembly of semiconductor chips which are transported in a liquid medium. The discussion is limited to surface tension directed self-assembly where the capture, alignment, and electrical connection process is driven by the surface free energy of molten solder bumps where the authors have made a contribution. The general context is to develop a massively parallel and scalable assembly process to overcome some of the limitations of current robotic pick and place and serial wire bonding concepts. The following parts will be discussed: (2) Single-step assembly of LED arrays containing a repetition of a single component type; (3) Multi-step assembly of more than one component type adding a sequence and geometrical shape confinement to the basic concept to build more complex structures; demonstrators contain (3.1) self-packaging surface mount devices, and (3.2) multi-chip assemblies with unique angular orientation. Subsequently, measures are discussed (4) to enable the assembly of microscopic chips (10 μm–1 mm); a different transport method is introduced; demonstrators include the assembly of photovoltaic modules containing microscopic silicon tiles. Finally, (5) the extension to enable large area assembly is presented; a first reel-to-reel assembly machine is realized; the machine is applied to the field of solid state lighting and the emerging field of stretchable electronics which requires the assembly and electrical connection of semiconductor devices over exceedingly large area substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building by Self-Assembly)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Analytical Model to Estimate the Voltage Value and Position of the Pull-In Limit of a MEMS Cantilever
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040053 - 24 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2229
Abstract
In this study, a new analytical model is developed for an electrostatic Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) cantilever actuator to establish a relation between the displacement of its tip and the applied voltage. The proposed model defines the micro-cantilever as a rigid beam supported by [...] Read more.
In this study, a new analytical model is developed for an electrostatic Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) cantilever actuator to establish a relation between the displacement of its tip and the applied voltage. The proposed model defines the micro-cantilever as a rigid beam supported by a hinge at the fixed-end with a spring point force balancing the structure. The approach of the model is based on calculation of the electrostatic pressure centroid on the cantilever beam to localize the equivalent electrostatic point load. Principle outcome of the model is just one formula valid for all displacements ranging from the initial to the pull-in limit position. Our model also shows that the pull-in limit position of a cantilever is approximately 44% of the initial gap. This result agrees well with both simulation results and experimental measurements reported previously. The formula has been validated by comparing the results with former empirical studies. For displacements close to the pull-in limit, the percentage errors of the formula are within 1% when compared with real measurements carried out by previous studies. The formula also gives close results (less than 4%) when compared to simulation outcomes obtained by finite element analysis. In addition, the proposed formula measures up to numerical solutions obtained from several distributed models which demand recursive solutions in structural and electrostatic domains. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Challenges in the Use of Compact Disc-Based Centrifugal Microfluidics for Healthcare Diagnostics at the Extreme Point of Care
Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7040052 - 24 Mar 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3539
Abstract
Since its inception, Compact Disc (CD)-based centrifugal microfluidic technology has drawn a great deal of interest within research communities due to its potential use in biomedical applications. The technology has been referred to by different names, including compact-disc microfluidics, lab-on-a-disk, lab-on-a-CD and bio-disk. [...] Read more.
Since its inception, Compact Disc (CD)-based centrifugal microfluidic technology has drawn a great deal of interest within research communities due to its potential use in biomedical applications. The technology has been referred to by different names, including compact-disc microfluidics, lab-on-a-disk, lab-on-a-CD and bio-disk. This paper critically reviews the state-of-the-art in CD-based centrifugal microfluidics devices and attempts to identify the challenges that, if solved, would enable their use in the extreme point of care. Sample actuation, manufacturing, reagent storage and implementation, target multiplexing, bio-particle detection, required hardware and system disposal, and sustainability are the topics of focus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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