Next Article in Journal
Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Genetic Background Roles within a Web-Based Nutritional Intervention: The Food4Me Study
Previous Article in Journal
Role of Purified Anthocyanins in Improving Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Chinese Men and Women with Prediabetes or Early Untreated Diabetes—A Randomized Controlled Trial
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1105;

Inhibition of 5α-Reductase, IL-6 Secretion, and Oxidation Process of Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher Extract as Functional Food and Nutraceuticals Ingredients

Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
School of Cosmetic Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Muang, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
Department of Thai Traditional Medicine, Sirindhorn College of Public Health, Phitsanulok 65130, Thailand
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, Vienna 1090, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [1589 KB, uploaded 24 October 2017]   |  


This study aims to investigate the biological activities related to hair loss of Equisetum debile extracts, including 5α-reductase inhibition, interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion reduction, and anti-oxidation. E. debile extracts were obtained by maceration in various solvents. Crude extract (CE) was obtained by maceration in 95% ethanol. Chlorophyll-free extract (CF) was the CE which of the chlorophyll has been removed by electrocoagulation. Hexane extract (HE), ethyl acetate extract (EA), and ethanolic extract (ET) were fraction extracts obtained from maceration in hexane, ethyl acetate, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The extracts were investigated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase and IL-6 secretion. Total phenolic contents (TPC) were investigated and antioxidant activities were determined by means of 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was determined by the ferric thiocyanate method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts on dermal papilla cells and irritation test by hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay were also investigated. All extracts could inhibit 5α-reductase and decrease IL-6 secretion in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage. The antioxidant activity of E. debile extracts was directly related to their TPC. ET which contained the highest TPC (68.8 ± 6.7 mg GA/g) showed the highest equivalent concentration (EC1) of 289.1 ± 26.4 mM FeSO4/g, TEAC of 156.6 ± 34.6 mM Trolox/g, and 20.0 ± 6.0% DPPH inhibition. However, EA exhibited the highest inhibition against lipid peroxidation (57.2 ± 0.4%). In addition, EA showed no cytotoxicity on dermal papilla cell line and no irritation on chorioallantoic membrane of hen’s eggs. In conclusion, EA was suggested as the most attractive ingredients for functional food and nutraceuticals because of the high inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase, IL-6 secretion, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. View Full-Text
Keywords: Equisetum debile; chorioallantoic membrane assay; 5α-reductase; interleukin-6; lipid peroxidation Equisetum debile; chorioallantoic membrane assay; 5α-reductase; interleukin-6; lipid peroxidation

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chaiyana, W.; Punyoyai, C.; Somwongin, S.; Leelapornpisid, P.; Ingkaninan, K.; Waranuch, N.; Srivilai, J.; Thitipramote, N.; Wisuitiprot, W.; Schuster, R.; Viernstein, H.; Mueller, M. Inhibition of 5α-Reductase, IL-6 Secretion, and Oxidation Process of Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher Extract as Functional Food and Nutraceuticals Ingredients. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1105.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top