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A Comparison of the Effects of Oral Glutamine Dipeptide, Glutamine, and Alanine on Blood Amino Acid Availability in Rats Submitted to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia

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Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná State 87020-900, Brazil
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Department of Pharmacy, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná State 87020-900, Brazil
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4520-4530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6104520
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 16 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
We compared the effects of oral administration of high-dose or low-dose glutamine dipeptide (GDP), alanine (ALA), glutamine (GLN), and ALA + GLN on the blood availability of amino acids in rats submitted to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). Insulin detemir (1 U/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to produce IIH; this was followed by oral administration of GDP, GLN + ALA, GLN, or ALA. We observed higher blood levels of GLN, 30 min after oral administration of high-dose GDP (1000 mg/kg) than after administration of ALA (381 mg/kg) + GLN (619 mg/kg), GLN (619 mg/kg), or ALA (381 mg/kg). However, we did not observe the same differences after oral administration of low-dose GDP (100 mg/kg) compared with ALA (38.1 mg/kg) + GLN (61.9 mg/kg), GLN (61.9 mg/kg), or ALA (38.1 mg/kg). We also observed less liver catabolism of GDP compared to ALA and GLN. In conclusion, high-dose GDP promoted higher blood levels of GLN than oral ALA + GLN, GLN, or ALA. Moreover, the lower levels of liver catabolism of GDP, compared to ALA or GLN, contributed to the superior performance of high-dose GDP in terms of blood availability of GLN. View Full-Text
Keywords: glutaminedipeptide; aminoacidemia; glutamine; alanine; hypoglycemia; liver glutaminedipeptide; aminoacidemia; glutamine; alanine; hypoglycemia; liver
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Minguetti-Câmara, V.C.; Marques, A.D.C.R.; Schiavon, F.P.M.; Vilela, V.R.; Bruschi, M.L.; Bazotte, R.B. A Comparison of the Effects of Oral Glutamine Dipeptide, Glutamine, and Alanine on Blood Amino Acid Availability in Rats Submitted to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4520-4530.

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