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Sustainability, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Towards Regenerated and Productive Vacant Areas through Urban Horticulture: Lessons from Bologna, Italy
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121347
Received: 2 September 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3210 | PDF Full-text (5320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, urban agriculture has been asserting its relevance as part of a vibrant and diverse food system due to its small scale, its focus on nutrition, its contribution to food security, its employment opportunities, and its role in community building and [...] Read more.
In recent years, urban agriculture has been asserting its relevance as part of a vibrant and diverse food system due to its small scale, its focus on nutrition, its contribution to food security, its employment opportunities, and its role in community building and social mobility. Urban agriculture may also be a tool to re-appropriate a range of abandoned or unused irregular spaces within the city, including flowerbeds, roundabouts, terraces, balconies and rooftops. Consistently, all spaces that present a lack of identity may be converted to urban agriculture areas and, more specifically, to urban horticulture as a way to strengthen resilience and sustainability. The goal of this paper is to analyse current practices in the requalification of vacant areas as urban gardens with the aim of building communities and improving landscapes and life quality. To do so, the city of Bologna (Italy) was used as a case study. Four types of vacant areas were identified as places for implementing urban gardens: flowerbeds along streets and squares, balconies and rooftops, abandoned buildings and abandoned neighbourhoods. Six case studies representing this variety of vacant areas were identified and evaluated by collecting primary data (i.e., field work, participant observations and interviews) and performing a SWOT analysis. For most cases, urban horticulture improved the image and quality of the areas as well as bringing numerous social benefits in terms of life quality, food access and social interaction among participants. Strong differences in some aspects were found between top-down and bottom-up initiatives, being the later preferable for the engagement of citizens. Policy-making might focus on participatory and transparent planning, long-term actions, food safety and economic development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land and Food Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
Neighborhood Built Environments Affecting Social Capital and Social Sustainability in Seoul, Korea
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121346
Received: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2687 | PDF Full-text (2230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigates the theoretical causal relationships among neighborhood built environments, social capital and social sustainability using structural equation modeling (SEM), through a case study in Seoul, Korea. The dataset consisted of responses from a questionnaire survey completed by 500 respondents. Neighborhood built [...] Read more.
This study investigates the theoretical causal relationships among neighborhood built environments, social capital and social sustainability using structural equation modeling (SEM), through a case study in Seoul, Korea. The dataset consisted of responses from a questionnaire survey completed by 500 respondents. Neighborhood built environments were also objectively measured by GIS analysis, using a 250-m buffer based on the home addresses of the respondents. A total of four latent variables of the neighborhood physical environments were used in the model: perceived neighborhood environment, characteristics of the residential area, land use diversity and accessibility to parks and sport facilities. Respondents’ demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were also considered in the model. The results of the analysis indicate that there is a statistically significant causal relationship among neighborhood physical environment, social capital and social sustainability. The results also suggest that neighborhood-level spatial and non-spatial factors can influence the formation of social capital that affects social sustainability. Moreover, this result indicates the possibility that urban spatial planning can play a critical role in social issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Study of the Provincial Ecological Footprints and Domestic Embodied Footprints Traded among China’s 30 Provinces
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121345
Received: 28 August 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1372 | PDF Full-text (5772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rapid development in China has led to imbalances and inequities of ecological resources among the provinces and regions. In this study, an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model was used to analyze the imbalances, inequities and pressures of the ecological footprints (EF) of [...] Read more.
Rapid development in China has led to imbalances and inequities of ecological resources among the provinces and regions. In this study, an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model was used to analyze the imbalances, inequities and pressures of the ecological footprints (EF) of China’s 30 provinces in 2007. In addition, by decomposing the total product consumption coefficients, we calculated the net embodied EF of the flows among the provinces by the total amount, land type and sector. The results showed that most provinces presented EF deficits. Significant differences were observed between the ecological pressure in consumption (EPC) and ecological pressure in production (EPP) for each province because of the net embodied EF trade; the EPCs of Shanghai (15.16), Beijing (7.81) and Tianjin (7.81) were the largest and presented descending EPPs, whereas the EPCs of Heilongjiang (0.98), Hebei (0.98), Xinjiang (0.98) and Guangxi (0.98) were under the threshold value (1) and presented ascending EPPs. The carbon footprint in the secondary sector was the main embodied EF of the flows among the provinces responsible for inequities. Finally, based on the various conditions of the provinces in different geographical regions, we have provided suggestions for regionally balanced development that can maintain the EPP and EPC values under the threshold for each province. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Status in Composts and Changes in Radioactive Cesium Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121332
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1563 | PDF Full-text (2221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the forests in the Fukushima area were highly contaminated with radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs). Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies for remediation of the contaminated forests. We assessed changes [...] Read more.
Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the forests in the Fukushima area were highly contaminated with radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs). Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies for remediation of the contaminated forests. We assessed changes in radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) contamination and nutrient status in composts derived from wood chip, bamboo leaf and bamboo powder using rice bran and wheat meal as sub-materials. Changes in soil properties and Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) growth were also investigated due the application of composts and initial materials at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kg·m−2 input levels. Mixing of sub-materials significantly reduced the concentration of radioactive Cs and improved compost quality. The effectiveness of three composts on soil quality improvement varied depending on their types and rates of applications. Amendments of bamboo leaf composts at 10 kg·m−2 resulted in the significantly highest soil inorganic N, available P and exchangeable K contents. Amendments of final composts also enhanced Komatsuna growth. Furthermore, radioactive Cs contaminations of the Komatsuna plants grown in these composts were below 0.1 Bq·kg−1. This study may help to remediate the forests contaminated with radiocesium in the Fukushima area while improving the soil organic matter content to enhance soil sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Nuclear Power)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Legitimacy on a Proactive Green Orientation and Green Performance: A Study Based on Transitional Economy Scenarios in China
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121344
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 1520 | PDF Full-text (1996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With environmental pollution, climate change and resource scarcity being serious global issues, green entrepreneurship is increasingly seen as an approach to simultaneously address economic performance, environmental impact and social responsibility. As green entrepreneurship needs to consider both venture performance and social responsibility, it [...] Read more.
With environmental pollution, climate change and resource scarcity being serious global issues, green entrepreneurship is increasingly seen as an approach to simultaneously address economic performance, environmental impact and social responsibility. As green entrepreneurship needs to consider both venture performance and social responsibility, it will be subject to legitimacy constraints at the system level. Whether these legitimacy constraints are favorable to green enterprise is not yet clear from current research. Especially for transition economies, the problem of whether proactive green enterprises facing legitimacy constraints under institutional uncertainty can achieve green performance requires further study. Thus, a theoretical model to determine the relationship between green proactiveness orientation (GPO), green performance, legitimacy, and transitional economics was proposed. Based on the data from 235 new Chinese green firms, the empirical results suggest that green startups launch with a green proactiveness orientation, which enables them to acquire a green performance advantage over their competitors. Improvements in green performance is also shown to be driven by the pressure from institutional legitimacy. Better green performance can be easily achieved if green startups have a higher level of legitimacy. However, against the background of transitional economies, the increase in institutional uncertainty will damage the promotion of political legitimacy and make the enterprises that are subject to political legitimacy constraints lose their green performance. Currently, political legitimacy is no longer an impetus. However, the increase in institutional uncertainty will strengthen the promotion of commercial legitimacy and cause green-oriented startups to pursue more commercial interests. Thus, to a certain extent, it will lead to market uncertainty. The conclusion of this study not only provides guidance for startups in different industries to develop green actions under the pressure of institutional constraints but also warns governments to improve policies and regulations quickly under different situations of institutional uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Application of Green Production)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumer-Oriented Policy towards Diffusion of Electric Vehicles: City-Level Evidence from China
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121343
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1166 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Public policy is crucial for the diffusion of green innovation, and debates exist about the effects of different policies. This paper explores appropriate types of policy instruments by explaining the quick rise in sales of electric vehicles (EVs) in China. Based on a [...] Read more.
Public policy is crucial for the diffusion of green innovation, and debates exist about the effects of different policies. This paper explores appropriate types of policy instruments by explaining the quick rise in sales of electric vehicles (EVs) in China. Based on a three-year longitudinal dataset across 88 cities, the study shows that consumer-oriented policies are able to significantly promote EV diffusion. Consumer-oriented policies target consumers to facilitate their usage of cars and lower the lifecycle cost, and typical examples include electricity charging and traffic management. This paper contributes to the literature of clean technology policy in two ways. Firstly, it reveals and empirically tests the importance of consumer-oriented policy instruments for the deployment of green innovation. Secondly, it is one of very few scholarly works offering a detailed review of city-level policies in China’s EV industry, which will be useful for scholars who are also interested in similar topics. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Wave Energy Exploitation System Integrated in the Coastal Structure of a Mediterranean Port
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121342
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2063 | PDF Full-text (8350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A feasibility study for installing Wave Energy Converters (WECs) in a Mediterranean port is presented here. The final aim is to evaluate the possibility of building a green touristic infrastructure in a site having ordinary wave energy. In particular, the site of interest [...] Read more.
A feasibility study for installing Wave Energy Converters (WECs) in a Mediterranean port is presented here. The final aim is to evaluate the possibility of building a green touristic infrastructure in a site having ordinary wave energy. In particular, the site of interest is Giardini Naxos, which is located in the northern Ionian coast of the island of Sicily (Italy). A preliminary estimation of the available energy has been carried out. The chosen type of WEC device is the Oscillating Water Column (OWC) system, which is found here to allow for good integration with the vertical breakwater needed for the extension of the existing port. Its feasibility is evaluated from the structural and economic point of view. Towards this aim, the system is tested in the laboratory for estimating the reflection coefficients and the pressures on the structure, which allow us to carry out the optimization of the OWC breakwater. Furthermore, the air turbine noise is estimated and an attenuation chamber is designed to reduce such noise to within acceptable levels. The economic feasibility study allows for an evaluation of the recuperation period of the investment, which is slightly less than the service life of the WEC device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Energy Converters)
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Open AccessArticle
How to Deliver Open Sustainable Innovation: An Integrated Approach for a Sustainable Marketable Product
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121341
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1733 | PDF Full-text (1469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The adoption of open innovation and peer production, powered by 3D printing technology, is transforming traditional manufacturing methods towards a “third industrial revolution”. The purpose of this research is to provide empirical evidence for an integrated approach, based on collaborative product [...] Read more.
The adoption of open innovation and peer production, powered by 3D printing technology, is transforming traditional manufacturing methods towards a “third industrial revolution”. The purpose of this research is to provide empirical evidence for an integrated approach, based on collaborative product development and peer production, combined with 3D printing, to deliver more sustainable, yet competitive, marketable products. In particular, this experimental study is conducted in the context of mobile forensics, an emerging market where limited expensive products exist and alternative solutions are needed. The technical viability and economic feasibility of the prototype developed in this research validate the proposed integrated approach, which could be a game-changer in the field of mobile forensics, as well as in other sectors. The sustainability improvements with this approach are a reduction of the total cost, thereby making it affordable for lower income users, and a decrease in energy consumption and pollutant emissions. The validated integrated approach offers start-up opportunities to develop and deliver more sustainable, marketable products, towards the paradigm of Open Sustainable Innovation. While the device developed and tested in this research has similar features to existing products, the methodology, implementation, and motivation are original. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Peri-Urban Food Production and Its Relation to Urban Resilience
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121340
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2029 | PDF Full-text (1781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food production on the urban–rural fringe is under pressure due to competing land uses. We discuss the potential to improve resilience for urban–rural regions by enhancing food production as part of multifunctional land use. Through studies of peri-urban land in the regions of [...] Read more.
Food production on the urban–rural fringe is under pressure due to competing land uses. We discuss the potential to improve resilience for urban–rural regions by enhancing food production as part of multifunctional land use. Through studies of peri-urban land in the regions of Gothenburg (Sweden), Copenhagen (Denmark) and Gent (Belgium), recent developments are analysed. Arable farming has been declining since 2000 in all three areas due to urban expansion and recreational land use changes. In city plans, networks of protected areas and green spaces and their importance for human wellbeing have been acknowledged. Policies for farmland preservation in peri-urban settings exist, but strategies for local food production are not expressed in present planning documents. Among the diversity of peri-urban agricultural activities, peri-urban food production is a developing issue. However, the competing forms of land use and the continuing high dependence of urban food on global food systems and related resource flows reduces peri-urban food production and improvements in urban food security. The positive effects of local food production need to be supported by governance aiming to improve the urban–rural relationship. The paper discusses the resilience potential of connecting urban–rural regions and re-coupling agriculture to regional food production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land and Food Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
Laboratory Tests in the Development of WaveCat
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121339
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1427 | PDF Full-text (3037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
WaveCat, a novel overtopping Wave Energy Converter, was tested with the aim of determining its performance under different sea states, establishing a starting point for optimisation of the device, numerical model validation and proof-of-concept for the control systems. The tests were carried out [...] Read more.
WaveCat, a novel overtopping Wave Energy Converter, was tested with the aim of determining its performance under different sea states, establishing a starting point for optimisation of the device, numerical model validation and proof-of-concept for the control systems. The tests were carried out at a 1:30 scale in the Ocean Basin of the COAST Laboratory at University of Plymouth. A state-of-the-art control system was implemented, and overtopping rates and device motions were recorded alongside the wave field. It was observed that power generation is dependent on both the wave height and period, with smaller periods tending to produce greater overtopping rates, and therefore greater power generation, for the same wave height. Due to time constraints in the laboratory, only one configuration of draft/freeboard was tested; with this configuration, overtopping occurred under significant wave heights of 0.083 m or more, corresponding to 2.5 m or more in prototype values. These experimental results form the basis for future development and optimisation of WaveCat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Energy Converters)
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Open AccessReview
Sustainability of Off-Grid Photovoltaic Systems for Rural Electrification in Developing Countries: A Review
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121326
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1864 | PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review on rural electrification programs and projects based on off-grid Photovoltaic (PV) systems, including Solar Pico Systems (SPS) and Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Developing Countries (DCs) was conducted. The goal was to highlight the main multidimensional drawbacks that may constrain the [...] Read more.
A review on rural electrification programs and projects based on off-grid Photovoltaic (PV) systems, including Solar Pico Systems (SPS) and Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Developing Countries (DCs) was conducted. The goal was to highlight the main multidimensional drawbacks that may constrain the sustainability of these systems. Four dimensions of sustainability (institutional, economic, environmental and socio-cultural) were considered in this review. It was found that institutional flaws (such as the scarcity of durability/stability and enforcement of formal institutions, weak regulations or standards, incomplete decentralization/participation and the lack of institutional adaptability) seriously compromise the sustainability of rural electrification efforts in DCs. While the lack of an effective focalized subsidy scheme (e.g., cross-tariff scheme) for the electricity tariffs of the poor population often made projects economically unsustainable, the scarcity of environmental awareness, regulations or incentives has often turned presumably clean energy technologies into environmentally unsustainable projects. Progress regarding social acceptance, accuracy and cultural justice is urgently needed for ensuring the socio-cultural sustainability of rural electrification efforts in DCs. This review may help stakeholders to identify and (based on prior experiences) address the most severe drawbacks affecting the sustainability of rural electrification efforts in DCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Ecology and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Coordinated Development between Urban Tourism Economy and Transport in the Pearl River Delta, China
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121338
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1578 | PDF Full-text (1455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By selecting the panel data from 2005 to 2014 of 9 cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China, this paper respectively establishes the evaluation index system of tourism economy and transport. It also applies a synthetic evaluation model and coupling coordination [...] Read more.
By selecting the panel data from 2005 to 2014 of 9 cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China, this paper respectively establishes the evaluation index system of tourism economy and transport. It also applies a synthetic evaluation model and coupling coordination model to estimate comprehensive indices of tourism economy and transport system and their coordinated relationships. The results show that: (1) during 2005–2014, the synthetic indices of tourism economy generally presented constantly upward tendency and the synthetic indices of transport represented wave-like raising trend in the PRD region; (2) during 2005–2014, the 9 cities in the PRD region gradually tended to have coordinated development between tourism economy and transport, and the central area of the PRD region developed faster than the flanks; (3) the correlations between the tourism economy and transport of the cities with abundant tourism resources, developed economy, and advanced transport facilities were more remarkable, and the coordination degrees were higher. Besides, macro-policies, mega-events, and locations also impacted on coordinated development between the tourism economy and transport in the PRD region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Leveraging Small-Scale Sport Events: Challenges of Organising, Delivering and Managing Sustainable Outcomes in Rural Communities, the Case of Gorski kotar, Croatia
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121337
Received: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1751 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sports and events play an important role in local identity building and creating a sense of community that encourages participation and increases social capital. Rural communities are specific areas with special needs and can face challenges and restraints when it comes to event [...] Read more.
Sports and events play an important role in local identity building and creating a sense of community that encourages participation and increases social capital. Rural communities are specific areas with special needs and can face challenges and restraints when it comes to event organisation. The purpose of this paper is to identify organisational challenges and analyse the potential to achieving long-term sustainable social and economic outcomes linked to small-scale sports events in rural communities. Organisational challenges of rural communities in terms of organising sport events are examined and discussed using the framework of event leveraging developed by O’Brien and Chalip. This methodology is applied and discussed to a case study focusing on small-scale winter sport events in rural Croatia. Semi-structured interviews with local organisers were conducted in order to collect data on the overall event organisation and management, local coordination, role of community stakeholders and challenges facing strategic planning, with the intent to identify objectives for future events. Results were discussed independently and in the context of the leverage framework, with reflection on its applicability to rural communities as the event organisers. Recommendations are provided based on critical insight from the literature and are oriented on how to streamline the process of organising, delivering and managing of events in remote rural communities. Finally, the idea of inter-community organisation is proposed to ensure long-term social and economic benefits and to address the existing issues of overlapping of stakeholder categories, mixed objectives, distrust among stakeholders and inefficiently used local resources. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
A Novel Method for Fast Configuration of Energy Storage Capacity in Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Wind Energy Systems
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121336
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, a novel method is proposed and applied to quickly calculate the capacity of energy storage for stand-alone and grid-connected wind energy systems, according to the discrete Fourier transform theory. Based on practical wind resource data and power data, which are [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel method is proposed and applied to quickly calculate the capacity of energy storage for stand-alone and grid-connected wind energy systems, according to the discrete Fourier transform theory. Based on practical wind resource data and power data, which are derived from the American Wind Energy Technology Center and HOMER software separately, the energy storage capacity of a stand-alone wind energy system is investigated and calculated. Moreover, by applying the practical wind power data from a wind farm in Fujian Province, the energy storage capacity for a grid-connected wind system is discussed in this paper. This method can also be applied to determine the storage capacity of a stand-alone solar energy system with practical photovoltaic power data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Aluminum Resource Supply Structure and Guarantee Degree in China Based on Sustainable Perspective
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121335
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1495 | PDF Full-text (2189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aluminum is a strategic mineral resource, and China’s aluminum production and consumption is fairly large. However, its supply guarantee is uncertain because of a high dependency on external raw materials. This uncertainty may expand, so finding a way to reduce the uncertainty of [...] Read more.
Aluminum is a strategic mineral resource, and China’s aluminum production and consumption is fairly large. However, its supply guarantee is uncertain because of a high dependency on external raw materials. This uncertainty may expand, so finding a way to reduce the uncertainty of aluminum resource supply is especially important. This paper applies the SFA method to analyze the aluminum flows in mainland China from 1996 to 2014, and establishes a supply structure model to measure its supply guarantee degree. The results claim that: (1) China’s aluminum production can satisfy demand and even create a surplus; (2) Domestic self-productive primary and secondary aluminum increased at an annual rate of 12% and 24%; (3) The proportion of self-productive secondary aluminum in the supply structure increased from 7.7% in 1996 to 12.8% in 2014, while that of primary aluminum decreased from 79.6% to 42.8%; (4) The total supply guarantee degree decreased from 87.3% to 55.6% in this period. These results provide a feasible way to solve this plight: the proportion of secondary aluminum in the supply structure should be enhanced, and an efficient aluminum resource recycling system needs to be established as soon as possible to ensure its sustainable supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Rangeland Decision-Making and Coping with Drought
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121334
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 20 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2125 | PDF Full-text (736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grazinglands support the livelihoods of millions of people around the world, as well as supply critical ecosystem services. Communities reliant on rain-fed rangelands are potentially the most vulnerable to increasing climate variability given their dependence on highly climate-sensitive resources. Droughts, which are gradual [...] Read more.
Grazinglands support the livelihoods of millions of people around the world, as well as supply critical ecosystem services. Communities reliant on rain-fed rangelands are potentially the most vulnerable to increasing climate variability given their dependence on highly climate-sensitive resources. Droughts, which are gradual natural hazards, pose substantial and recurrent economic and ecological stresses to these systems. This study examined management decision-making based on survey responses of 479 California ranchers to: (1) identify the types of drought strategies in-place across California’s rangelands and the operation variables driving strategy selection; and (2) examine how individual drought adaptation is enhanced by decision-making factors. Four types of in-place drought strategies were identified and ordered along a gradient of increasing intensity (number) of practices used. Significant background variables driving strategy selection were operation experience with drought, type of livestock operation, grazing system, and land ownership types. Information resource networks, goal setting for sustainable natural resources, and management capacity all acted to enhance individual drought adaptation—defined here by active drought planning and the number of both reactive and proactive drought practices used. Overall, analyses revealed that flexibility in management is a key component of adapting to and coping with drought. Climate policy planning should take into account the diversity of strategies that have been developed by ranchers for multiple generations and within the context of their unique operations, as well as support these working landscapes via a range of adaptation and mitigation options to reduce vulnerability across all types of operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessReview
Application of Floating Photovoltaic Energy Generation Systems in South Korea
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121333
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1757 | PDF Full-text (8420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to mitigate air pollution problems caused mainly by the excessive emission of carbon dioxide, in 2012, the South Korean government decided to introduce a renewable portfolio standards (RPS) program that requires electricity providers to gradually increase their production of renewable energy. [...] Read more.
In order to mitigate air pollution problems caused mainly by the excessive emission of carbon dioxide, in 2012, the South Korean government decided to introduce a renewable portfolio standards (RPS) program that requires electricity providers to gradually increase their production of renewable energy. In order to meet the government’s target through this RPS program, electricity providers in Korea have looked to various types of new and renewable energy resources, such as biomass, wind, and solar. Recently, floating photovoltaic (PV) systems have attracted increased interest in Korea as a desirable renewable energy alternative. This paper provides a discussion of recent research into floating PV systems and the installation of floating PV power plants in Korea from 2009 to 2014. To date, thirteen floating PV power plants have been installed in Korea, and several plans are underway by many different organizations, including government-funded companies, to install more floating PV power plants with various generation capacities. These building trends are expected to continue due to the Korean government’s RPS program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle
A Stochastic Programming Approach with Improved Multi-Criteria Scenario-Based Solution Method for Sustainable Reverse Logistics Design of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121331
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2098 | PDF Full-text (2504 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today, the increased public concern about sustainable development and more stringent environmental regulations have become important driving forces for value recovery from end-of-life and end-of use products through reverse logistics. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains both valuable components that need to [...] Read more.
Today, the increased public concern about sustainable development and more stringent environmental regulations have become important driving forces for value recovery from end-of-life and end-of use products through reverse logistics. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains both valuable components that need to be recycled and hazardous substances that have to be properly treated or disposed of, so the design of a reverse logistics system for sustainable treatment of WEEE is of paramount importance. This paper presents a stochastic mixed integer programming model for designing and planning a generic multi-source, multi-echelon, capacitated, and sustainable reverse logistics network for WEEE management under uncertainty. The model takes into account both economic efficiency and environmental impacts in decision-making, and the environmental impacts are evaluated in terms of carbon emissions. A multi-criteria two-stage scenario-based solution method is employed and further developed in this study for generating the optimal solution for the stochastic optimization problem. The proposed model and solution method are validated through a numerical experiment and sensitivity analyses presented later in this paper, and an analysis of the results is also given to provide a deep managerial insight into the application of the proposed stochastic optimization model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Sorghum Crop through Exogenous Application of Natural Growth-Promoting Substances under a Changing Climate
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121330
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
High temperature during May to July is a major hurdle for production of sorghum as fodder in Pakistan, ultimately resulting in a deficit with respect to the demand of meat and milk for increasing population. A field study was conducted to investigate the [...] Read more.
High temperature during May to July is a major hurdle for production of sorghum as fodder in Pakistan, ultimately resulting in a deficit with respect to the demand of meat and milk for increasing population. A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of exogenous application of natural plant growth-promoting substances on forage yield and quality of sorghum. Seed priming and foliar application (alone or in combination) with 1% sorghum water extract (SWE), 3% moringa leaf extract (MLE) and water were applied. Two foliar applications, the first at one month after sowing and the second at 45 days after sowing were carried out. Untreated seeds were used as control. The results indicated that priming and foliar spray performed best in combination as compared to priming or foliar application alone. All MLE applications (priming plus foliar application, priming alone, foliar spray alone) enhanced growth parameters and chlorophyll contents, which ultimately improved forage yield and total dry matter production of sorghum plants. An increase in crude protein and total ash and decrease in crude fiber was also recorded in plants treated with MLE. The results of this study revealed that exogenous application of MLE at 3% concentration (priming plus foliar application, priming alone, foliar spray alone) significantly enhanced the yield through improvement in sorghum growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle
Geomechanical Studies on Granite Intrusions in Alxa Area for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121329
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1287 | PDF Full-text (8425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Geological storage is an important concept for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal, and detailed studies are required to protect the environment from contamination by radionuclides. This paper presents a series of geomechanical studies on the site selection for HLW disposal in the Alxa [...] Read more.
Geological storage is an important concept for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal, and detailed studies are required to protect the environment from contamination by radionuclides. This paper presents a series of geomechanical studies on the site selection for HLW disposal in the Alxa area of China. Surface investigation in the field and RQD analyses on the drill cores are carried out to evaluate the rock mass quality. Laboratory uniaxial and triaxial compressive tests on the samples prepared from the drill cores are conducted to estimate the strength properties of the host rock. It is found that the NRG sub-area has massive granite intrusions, and NRG01 cored granite samples show the best rock quality and higher peak strength under various confinements (0–30 MPa). NRG01 granite samples are applied for more detailed laboratory studies considering the effects of strain rate and temperature. It is observed that the increasing strain rate from 1.0 × 10−5–0.6 × 10−2·s−1 can lead to a limited increase on peak strength, but a much more violent failure under uniaxial compressive tests on the NRG01 granite samples, and the temperature increasing from 20 °C–200 °C may result in a slight increase of UCS, as well as more ductile post-peak behavior in the triaxial compressive tests. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of Frost Resistant Pavement Structure Based on Road Weather Stations (RWSs) Data
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121328
Received: 7 June 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1022 | PDF Full-text (2336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Frost is a decisive factor influencing pavement performance in cold countries. In the EU, millions of euros are spent annually on winter maintenance. About one-third of the maintenance budget is allocated to rehabilitation due to the negative impact of frost. The negative effect [...] Read more.
Frost is a decisive factor influencing pavement performance in cold countries. In the EU, millions of euros are spent annually on winter maintenance. About one-third of the maintenance budget is allocated to rehabilitation due to the negative impact of frost. The negative effect of frost is restricted by using non-frost-susceptible materials within the frost zone and regulating water accumulation. However, experience shows that the thickness of constructed pavement structure is often inadequate and that frost penetrates into the subgrade of frost-susceptible materials. The aim of this paper is to introduce the thickness calculation approach of the frost resistant pavement structure using road weather station (RWS) data. The subgrade susceptibility to frost and the number of equivalent single axle loads (ESALs) are considered as factors too. The calculated thickness of the frost resistant pavement structure is corrected according to the specific local conditions. After performing a statistical analysis of 2012–2014 data pertaining to 26 RWSs, Lithuania was divided into four regions according to the maximum frost depths, where the maximum values depending on RWS location varied from 110.4 cm to 179.1 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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Open AccessArticle
The Spatiotemporal Variation of Drought in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region (BTHMR) Based on the Modified TVDI
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121327
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1478 | PDF Full-text (5407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes a modified vegetation-dependent temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) model for analyzing regional drought disasters in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region (BTHMR) of China. First, MODIS monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land surface temperature (LST) data and land use/cover data (Land cover [...] Read more.
This study proposes a modified vegetation-dependent temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) model for analyzing regional drought disasters in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region (BTHMR) of China. First, MODIS monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land surface temperature (LST) data and land use/cover data (Land cover type2) were pre-processed as a consistent big dataset. The land use/cover data were modified and integrated into six primary types. Then, these land types were used as the base data layer to calculate the TVDI by parameterizing the relationship between the MODIS NDVI and LST data. By emphasizing different types of land uses, this study was able to compare and analyze the differences of the TVDI indices between the entire study area (no consideration of the land types) and the six classified land uses. The soil moisture data were used to validate the modified TVDI values based on different land uses, which confirmed that the modified model more effectively reflected drought conditions. Finally, the aforementioned model was used to analyze the temporal and spatial variation of drought experienced by vegetation cover from 2000 to 2014. The results of the modified model were validated with the synchronized soil moisture and precipitation data. The case study clearly demonstrated that the modified TVDI model, which is based on different vegetation indexes, could better reflect the drought conditions of the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Ecosystems and Society in the Context of Big and New Data)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Farmers’ Willingness to Participate in Wetland Restoration: Evidence from China
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121325
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1205 | PDF Full-text (507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Poyang Lake wetland has been at the center of discussion in China’s wetland restoration initiative because of the extent of its ecosystem degradation. The purpose of this paper is to model farmers’ willingness to participate in wetland restoration and analyze factors that [...] Read more.
The Poyang Lake wetland has been at the center of discussion in China’s wetland restoration initiative because of the extent of its ecosystem degradation. The purpose of this paper is to model farmers’ willingness to participate in wetland restoration and analyze factors that will affect farmers’ participation decisions. A household survey was conducted among 300 randomly selected farm-households in the Poyang Lake area, Jiangxi Province. A binary probit regression model is applied to investigate the impacts of farmer demographics, farm characteristics, and farmers’ perceptions of wetland and wetland restoration policies on willingness to participate in wetland restoration. Results show that farmers’ education level, household migrant members, number of dependents, household net income, farm type, and distance to urban areas have significant effects on farmers’ participation in wetland restoration. Farmers’ perceptions about the ecological values and benefits of wetlands and their knowledge about wetland restoration policies do not appear to significantly influence farmers’ willingness to participate. A gap is identified between awareness of the importance of wetland restoration and willingness to take actions to restore wetlands. Farm-households tend to weigh personal needs and economic conditions when making participation decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Ground Water Modelling for the Restoration of Carex Communities on a Sandy River Terrace
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121324
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1234 | PDF Full-text (3208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Management for sustainable river valleys requires balancing their natural values against the need for agricultural and recreational development on surrounding lands. The Southern Całowanie Peatland near the city of Warsaw sits on a sandy terrace and has well preserved Carex and Molinia stands [...] Read more.
Management for sustainable river valleys requires balancing their natural values against the need for agricultural and recreational development on surrounding lands. The Southern Całowanie Peatland near the city of Warsaw sits on a sandy terrace and has well preserved Carex and Molinia stands existing in part of the area, especially where water tables are less than 1.5 m below the surface. The existing drainage network in this southern part has been poorly maintained and could be reestablished to help raise water levels for restoration of the peatland. Modflow was used to look at influence of drainage channel water levels on the overall water table height in the area. By raising water levels in the drainage system by 0.5 m it was found that 29% of the area would become suitable for increasing Carex and Molinia communities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Land Development for Industrial and Commercial Use: A Case Study of Beijing
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121323
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1469 | PDF Full-text (7562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Since the 20th century, urbanization has been the main characteristic of global land development. If we can reveal and understand the characteristics and underlying mechanisms of urban development, we can then identify a sustainable development pattern for cities. In this paper, we primarily [...] Read more.
Since the 20th century, urbanization has been the main characteristic of global land development. If we can reveal and understand the characteristics and underlying mechanisms of urban development, we can then identify a sustainable development pattern for cities. In this paper, we primarily focus on the determinants of two main types of land use in urban development, industrial and commercial, in an empirical study of Beijing. We use a spatial data analysis method to seek and model major determinants of industrial and commercial land growth in the period of 2000–2010 in Beijing. A spatial logistic regression model is used to explore the impact of spatial independent variables on these two types of land use. The study shows that: (1) newly-added industrial land during 2000–2010 received significant contributions from the number of local enterprises engaged in services in 2010, the use of land for agriculture and construction in the neighborhood in 2000 and planning orders; (2) factors contributing to land transferred for commercial use included the number of enterprises, construction land in the neighborhood and accessibility improvement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Variations in the Use of Resources for Food: Land, Nitrogen Fertilizer and Food Nexus
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121322
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1859 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Future dietary changes will increase the global demand for agricultural resources per person. Food production requires several resources which are interrelated: land, water, nutrients and energy. Other studies have calculated the per capita requirements of only one resource (nitrogen or land). In this [...] Read more.
Future dietary changes will increase the global demand for agricultural resources per person. Food production requires several resources which are interrelated: land, water, nutrients and energy. Other studies have calculated the per capita requirements of only one resource (nitrogen or land). In this paper, we combine several parameters (diets, production systems and nitrogen-land trade-off) in one analysis in order to provide a more integrated assessment of the impacts of the use of agricultural resources for food. We estimated the trade-off between the per capita use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer and crop land. With our methodology, we are able to identify separately the impacts of the type of diet and of the type of production system. We use national level data of five countries as examples of global extremes: from extensive to highly intensive systems, and from very basic diets to very affluent diets. The present differences in diets and production systems result in large differences in the per capita use of resources which ranges from 3 to 30 kg of nitrogen fertilizer use per person, and from 1800 to 4500 m2 of arable land use per person. As the results show, in 2050, the average per capita availability of crop land will not be enough to produce food for affluent diets with present production systems. Our results are useful to assess future requirements of nitrogen fertilizer for the limited land available on the planet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food-Energy-Water Nexus: Towards New Thinking and Action)
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Open AccessArticle
Wave Climate Resource Analysis Based on a Revised Gamma Spectrum for Wave Energy Conversion Technology
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121321
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1688 | PDF Full-text (1587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to correctly predict and evaluate the response of wave energy converters (WECs), an accurate representation of wave climate resource is crucial. This paper gives an overview of wave resource modeling techniques and applies a methodology to estimate the naturally available and [...] Read more.
In order to correctly predict and evaluate the response of wave energy converters (WECs), an accurate representation of wave climate resource is crucial. This paper gives an overview of wave resource modeling techniques and applies a methodology to estimate the naturally available and technically recoverable resource in a given deployment site. The methodology was initially developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which uses a modified gamma spectrum to interpret sea state hindcast parameter data produced by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) WaveWatch III. This gamma spectrum is dependent on the calibration of two variables relating to the spectral width parameter and spectral peakedness parameter. In this study, this methodology was revised by the authors to increase its accuracy in formulating wavelength. The revised methodology shows how to assess a given geographic area’s wave resource based on its wave power density and total annual wave energy flux. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Energy Converters)
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Sustainable Development of Abandoned Mine Areas Using Renewable Energy Systems: A Case Study of the Photovoltaic Potential Assessment at the Tailings Dam of Abandoned Sangdong Mine, Korea
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121320
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1318 | PDF Full-text (8442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As mineral resources are depleted, most mines are typically abandoned and left unattended, resulting in serious social problems that impede sustainable development of these areas. The mining industry has recently introduced the use of renewable energy systems to solve the problems. This study [...] Read more.
As mineral resources are depleted, most mines are typically abandoned and left unattended, resulting in serious social problems that impede sustainable development of these areas. The mining industry has recently introduced the use of renewable energy systems to solve the problems. This study assessed the photovoltaic (PV) potential of an abandoned mine tailings dam at the Sangdong mine in South Korea. A regional shading analysis and field investigations indicated that the usable area for installing the PV system was 44,220 m2. The design capacity of the system was 3 MW considering the space available for the PV array. Power generation was simulated by inputting data about the hourly weather, system design, and a site assessment into System Advisor Model software. Simulation results indicated that 3509 MWh of electricity could be generated annually. Moreover, economic feasibility analysis, assuming a 20 year project period, confirmed that the net present value of the PV systems would be $1,903,000 USD. Therefore, installing a 3 MW PV system on the mine tailings dam at the Sangdong mine is feasible and could provide an efficient option for sustainable development of the abandoned mine land. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing Bus Passenger Complaint Service through Big Data Analysis: Systematized Analysis for Improved Public Sector Management
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121319
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 20 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2062 | PDF Full-text (2180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the advances in industry and commerce, passengers have become more accepting of environmental sustainability issues; thus, more people now choose to travel by bus. Government administration constitutes an important part of bus transportation services as the government gives the right-of-way to transportation [...] Read more.
With the advances in industry and commerce, passengers have become more accepting of environmental sustainability issues; thus, more people now choose to travel by bus. Government administration constitutes an important part of bus transportation services as the government gives the right-of-way to transportation companies allowing them to provide services. When these services are of poor quality, passengers may lodge complaints. The increase in consumer awareness and developments in wireless communication technologies have made it possible for passengers to easily and immediately submit complaints about transportation companies to government institutions, which has brought drastic changes to the supply–demand chain comprised of the public sector, transportation companies, and passengers. This study proposed the use of big data analysis technology including systematized case assignment and data visualization to improve management processes in the public sector and optimize customer complaint services. Taichung City, Taiwan, was selected as the research area. There, the customer complaint management process in public sector was improved, effectively solving such issues as station-skipping, allowing the public sector to fully grasp the service level of transportation companies, improving the sustainability of bus operations, and supporting the sustainable development of the public sector–transportation company–passenger supply chain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Feasibility of Using Produced Water from Oil and Natural Gas Production to Address Water Scarcity in California’s Central Valley
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121318
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1603 | PDF Full-text (3900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current California drought has reduced freshwater availability, creating tensions between water users across the state. Although over 518 million m3 of water were produced during fossil fuel production in California in 2014, the majority was disposed into Class II injection wells. [...] Read more.
The current California drought has reduced freshwater availability, creating tensions between water users across the state. Although over 518 million m 3 of water were produced during fossil fuel production in California in 2014, the majority was disposed into Class II injection wells. There have been few attempts to assess the feasibility of using produced water for beneficial purposes, due in part to the difficulties of accessing, synthesizing and analyzing data regarding produced water quality and quantity. This study addresses this gap and provides a techno-economic assessment of upgrading produced water from California’s oil and natural gas activities and moving it to adjacent water-stressed regions. Results indicate that the four population centers facing the greatest water shortage risk are located in the Central Valley within a 161 km (100 mile) radius of 230 million m 3 of total treatable produced water. This volume can supply up to one million people-years worth of potable water. The cost of desalinating and transporting this water source is comparable in magnitude to some agricultural and local public water supplies and is substantially lower than bottled water. Thus, utilizing reverse osmosis to treat produced water might be a feasible solution to help relieve water scarcity in some drought-stricken regions of California. Full article
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