Ground Water Modelling for the Restoration of Carex Communities on a Sandy River Terrace
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Research Area
2.2. Geological Setting
2.3. Channel Network
2.4. Ground Water Model
2.5. Model Calibration
2.6. Model Validation and Exploitation
3. Results and Discussion
- Channel water level clearly exerts an influence on ground water table with a typical pattern; that is, the highest drawdown takes place close to channels, and the maximum elevation of the water table is present in the middle of the area. We try to describe that influence as conductivity-dependent, because its large values for existing sandy soils may cause high exchange between canals and ground water horizons, undoubtedly contributing to the preservation of the natural values of a flooding terrace.
- Depth to water table was analysed according to the adopted criteria, which describe sandy soil wetness due to effective capillary rise. According to that criteria, maximum allowable depth to water table may not be higher than 0.45 m, the mean depth should be equal to 0.40 m, and the minimum reaching 0.5 m. The assumed threshold values of ground water table (0.3 to 0.45 m below land surface) were achieved on maximum 29% of the area if the channel water levels were increased by 0.5 m in the second analysed scenario. The first scenario (which reflected the actual status of the system) guarantees proper water levels only on 16% of the area. We wish to stress that the restoration target was achieved when ground water table position was between the adopted extremes. This was indeed an assumption. First of all, the criteria seem to be relative, and we also claim that the prescribed water level range is directly assumed as a permanent feature of well-preserved habitats (and their plant species composition), and may be used for scenario comparisons in hydrologic and water management analyses. The appropriateness of the applied threshold values results from their extensive use over the area of Poland and firm relation to crucial soil properties.
- Hydrologic conditions on sandy terrace favorable for dominating Carex species and widespread Molinia meadows were possible in the middle of the area. As shown by the modelling results, they were not achieved in close-to-channel zones, which would require other hydrologic remediation.
- Adaptive channel water management is no doubt an option for the maintenance of habitats on sandy deposits of flat river valleys. More detailed scenario studies are indispensable for the decision making on the extent of restoration area.
Conflicts of Interest
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Brandyk, A.; Majewski, G.; Kiczko, A.; Boczoń, A.; Wróbel, M.; Porretta-Tomaszewska, P. Ground Water Modelling for the Restoration of Carex Communities on a Sandy River Terrace. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1324. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121324
Brandyk A, Majewski G, Kiczko A, Boczoń A, Wróbel M, Porretta-Tomaszewska P. Ground Water Modelling for the Restoration of Carex Communities on a Sandy River Terrace. Sustainability. 2016; 8(12):1324. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121324Chicago/Turabian Style
Brandyk, Andrzej, Grzegorz Majewski, Adam Kiczko, Andrzej Boczoń, Michał Wróbel, and Paola Porretta-Tomaszewska. 2016. "Ground Water Modelling for the Restoration of Carex Communities on a Sandy River Terrace" Sustainability 8, no. 12: 1324. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121324